- 1 Introduction
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Orthography
- 4 Prosody
- 5 Derivation
- 6 Verbs
- 7 Nouns
- 8 Pronouns
Auscarish is a language spoken in Auscaria, and it is the main language of Auscaria. It is the native language of approximately 1,8 million people. It is also spoken and taught in schools as a second language in Miufia.
|Plosive||p b||t d||c||k g|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||χ||x||h|
|Sound||i:||ɯ||ʒ||k, c||l, ɫ||m||n||o||ø||p||r|
- 1* The letter q is pronounced kk between two vowels. Otherwise, it's the same as k.
- 2* While it is not considered to be a letter, ' is used in Auscarish and it is a glottal stop sound.
Stress is not important in Auscarish. It varies from dialect to dialect.
Nouns can derive from verbs. For -lo verbs, the suffix -ći is added. For -le verbs, the suffix -fi is added. If the verb is irregular, both form are correct. For example:
- ille (to see, -le verb) - ilfi (vision)
- hëlo (to be correct, -lo verb) - hëći (correct, correctness)
- varele (to have a war, irregular, -le verb) - varefi or vorfi (war)
Nouns can also derive from adjectives. The suffix -(i)ge is an equivalent to -ness or -ity in English. For example:
- azat (free) - azatige (freedom)
- viri (equal) - virige (equality)
Some verbs are derived from nouns. For example:
- lasyam (goal) - lasyamlo (to reach a goal, -lo verb)
- paogë (report) - paoglo (to report, irregular, -lo verb)
There is no rule for forming verbs from nouns.
Adverbs are usually formed by doubling the adjective. For example:
- lav (good) - lavlav (well)
- sovu (bad) - sovusovu (in a bad manner)
You can also derive adverbs from verbs with the suffix -(e)red/-(i)rid to mean "by doing" and to express two things are done at the same time. For example:
- yedlo (to eat) - yedered (by eating) - yedirid (without eating)
An example sentence would be: (Eś) yedirid utedigan. - They protested by not eating
There are two verb types in Auscarish: -le verbs and -lo verbs.
The Auscarish language has 3 tenses: present, perfect and future.
|Tense||-le verb beginning with a cons.||-lo verb beginning with a cons.||-le word beginning with a vow.||-lo verb beginning with a vow.|
|Tense||verb ending in a consonant||verb ending in a vowel|
(With x being the conjugation according to the subject.)
The past continuous tense can be formed by: the verb ele in the perfect tense + the verb without -le/lo
- -le is removed
- The suffix/prefix is added.
Conjugation according to the subject:
IMPORTANT: In both verb types, the prefixes of the future/perfect tenses vary according to the first letter of the verb. Also, if the verb's last letter before -le/-lo is a vowel, then the buffer consonant (-j-) is added before conjugating in the present tense.
|ille (to see)||Present tense pos.||Present tense neg.||Perfect tense pos.||Perfect tense neg.||Future tense pos.||Future tense neg.|
- -lo is removed
- The suffix/prefix is added
Conjugation according to the subject:
|abaklo (to translate)||Present tense pos.||Present tense neg.||Perfect tense pos.||Perfect tense neg.||Future tense pos.||Future tense neg.|
The most common irregular verb is ele (to be):
|ele (to be)||Present tense pos.||Present tense neg.||Perfect tense pos.||Perfect tense neg.||Future tense pos.||Future tense neg.|
The imperative voice is formed by using the suffix -o. Irregular verbs that undergo a root change can be conjugated in both ways. For example:
- lomle (to go) - lomo! (go!)
- matle (to wait, irregular verb, conj. as mattle) - mato/matto! (wait!)
For third person singular/plural:
- Andrea lomo! (Shall/let Andrea go)
- Eś matto! (Shall/let them wait)
For first person singular/plural:
- Ti lomo! (Let's go!)
- En so! (Let me do!)
For negatives, "mu" is used:
- Mu lomo (Don't go!)
- Mu matto (Don't wait!)
The word zim is used before the main verb and the suffix -(j)ol used after the verb root to indicate a conditional state that will cause something else to happen. Irregular verbs except ele (to be) are conjugated the same as regular verbs. Ele is conjugated normally. F
- Daqen zim karkalol qte tegüle. (The bomb would explode if you touch it.)
For negative sentences, "mu" is used:
- Zim mu evol defim qte waqam evët? (Wouldn't there be gods if there were no humans?)
Add ni ... before a conjugated (3rd person) verb. Examples:
- ille (to see) - ila (he/she/it sees) - ni ila (is seen)
- benkle (to speak) - benka (he/she/it speaks) - ni benka (is spoken)
Zuwattaynasep conjugations express wish, ability and necessity.
|conjugation||-le verbs||-lo verbs||example (-le)||example (-lo)|
|Hasadupep (to be able to)||-wir-||-wor-||antele (to work) - antewirle (to be able to work)||qlo (to say) - qworlo (to be able to say)|
|Miradupep (want)||-(e)r-||-(u)r-||antele (to work) - anterle (to want to work)||qlo (to say) - qurlo (to want to say)|
|Vajidupep (necessity)||-(a)glal-||-(e)klel-||antele (to work) - anteglalle (have to work)||qeklello (have to say)|
In Auscarish, nouns have no gender.
For adjectives and nouns
Adjectives become nouns and nouns change their meanings.
|the one which is x||-(t)eh||Nawö okuteh. (I like the red one.)|
|the one which is from x||-hake||Awskarhakem popa of Awskar. (Auscarians live in Auscaria)|
|the one which is in/on/at x||-gef||Kexatgef e cor nak sunawgef e qolnak. (The one in the exercise is difficult but the one in the exam is easy.)|
|the one with x (in it)||-get||Ehövatget e bag lav köt 'ekalatget. (The one with coffee in it is better than the one with chocolate in it.)|
|the one which is to x||-tog||Ürec'an Vayejtog jü! (We will miss the one to the Vayej!)|
|the one which is owned by multiple x's||-samsa||Adaysamsa e bag lav köt essateh. (The one which the candidates own is better than the other.)|
|the one which is owned by x||-sam||Adaysam e bag lav köt essateh. (The one which the candidate owns is better than the other.)|
|...aq||iw (if the next letter is 'w', then it is ne)|
|...u/ü/j||ma (if the next letter is 'a', then it is um)|
|...ći/fi||lo (lo + vowel = l' ...)|
|...s||su (if the next letter is u, then it is ep)|
If the word is in more than one class, the article of one which comes before on the list is used. These articles come after adjectives and before nouns. For example:
i racam - a car tesi - blue tesi i racam - a blue car (not i tesi racam)