Auscarish

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Introduction

Auscarish is a language spoken in Auscaria, and it is the main language of Auscaria. It is the native language of approximately 1,8 million people. It is also spoken and taught in schools as a second language in Miufia.

Phonology

Consonant inventory

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Labio-velar Lateral Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d c k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ χ x h
Approximant j w l
Trill r

Vowel Inventory

  Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i y ɯ u
Close-mid e ø o
Open ä

Orthography


Letter Aa Bb Cc Ćć Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Xx Ii
Sound a b ts d e f g h χ i
Letter İî Ëë Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Öö Pp Rr
Sound i: ɯ ʒ k, c l, ɫ m n o ø p r
Letter Ss Śś Tt Uu Üü Vv Yy Zz Ʒʒ Qq Ww
Sound s ʃ t u y v j z 1* w


  • 1* The letter q is pronounced kk between two vowels. Otherwise, it's the same as k.
  • 2* While it is not considered to be a letter, ' is used in Auscarish and it is a glottal stop sound.

Prosody

Stress

Stress is not important in Auscarish. It varies from dialect to dialect.

Derivation

Nouns

Nouns can derive from verbs. For -lo verbs, the suffix -ći is added. For -le verbs, the suffix -fi is added. If the verb is irregular, both form are correct. For example:

  • ille (to see, -le verb) - ilfi (vision)
  • hëlo (to be correct, -lo verb) - hëći (correct, correctness)
  • varele (to have a war, irregular, -le verb) - varefi or vorfi (war)

Nouns can also derive from adjectives. The suffix -(i)ge is an equivalent to -ness or -ity in English. For example:

  • azat (free) - azatige (freedom)
  • viri (equal) - virige (equality)

Verbs

Some verbs are derived from nouns. For example:

  • lasyam (goal) - lasyamlo (to reach a goal, -lo verb)
  • paogë (report) - paoglo (to report, irregular, -lo verb)

There is no rule for forming verbs from nouns.

Adverbs

Adverbs are usually formed by doubling the adjective. For example:

  • lav (good) - lavlav (well)
  • sovu (bad) - sovusovu (in a bad manner)

You can also derive adverbs from verbs with the suffix -(e)red/-(i)rid to mean "by doing" and to express two things are done at the same time. For example:

  • yedlo (to eat) - yedered (by eating) - yedirid (without eating)

An example sentence would be: (Eś) yedirid utedigan. - They protested by not eating

Verbs

There are two verb types in Auscarish: -le verbs and -lo verbs.

Time agreement

The Auscarish language has 3 tenses: present, perfect and future.

Tense -le verb beginning with a cons. -lo verb beginning with a cons. -le word beginning with a vow. -lo verb beginning with a vow.
Perfect lx yx xt
Future gx nx xz xr
Tense verb ending in a consonant verb ending in a vowel
Present x jx

(With x being the conjugation according to the subject.)

The past continuous tense can be formed by: the verb ele in the perfect tense + the verb without -le/lo

-le verbs

Form:

  • -le is removed
  • The suffix/prefix is added.

Conjugation according to the subject:

Positive Negative
ö of
e em
a at
ü üz
i in
u ëm

IMPORTANT: In both verb types, the prefixes of the future/perfect tenses vary according to the first letter of the verb. Also, if the verb's last letter before -le/-lo is a vowel, then the buffer consonant (-j-) is added before conjugating in the present tense.

Example conjugation:

ille (to see) Present tense pos. Present tense neg. Perfect tense pos. Perfect tense neg. Future tense pos. Future tense neg.
En (I) il-ö il-of ö-ʒ-il of-ʒ-il ö-z-il of-z-il
Es (You) il-e il-em e-ʒ-il em-ʒ-il e-z-il em-z-il
E (He/She/It) il-a il-at a-ʒ-il at-ʒ-il a-z-il at-z-il
Ti (We) il-ü il-üz ü-ʒ-il üz-ʒ-il ü-z-il üz-z-il
Li (You) il-i il-in i-ʒ-il in-ʒ-il i-z-il in-z-il
Eś (They) il-u il-ëm u-ʒ-il ëm-ʒ-il u-z-il ëm-z-il

-lo verbs

Form:

  • -lo is removed
  • The suffix/prefix is added

Conjugation according to the subject:

Positive Negative
ö on
e em
a an
ü ün
i ën
u ët

Example conjugation:

abaklo (to translate) Present tense pos. Present tense neg. Perfect tense pos. Perfect tense neg. Future tense pos. Future tense neg.
En (I) abak-ö abak-on ö-t-abak on-t-abak ö-r-abak on-r-abak
Es (You) abak-e abak-em e-t-abak em-t-abak e-r-abak em-r-abak
E (He/She/It) abak-a abak-an a-t-abak an-t-abak a-r-abak an-r-abak
Ti (We) abak-ü abak-üz ü-t-abak üz-t-abak ü-r-abak üz-r-abak
Li (You) abak-i abak-ën i-t-abak ën-t-abak i-r-abak ën-r-abak
Eś (They) abak-u abak-ët u-t-abak ët-t-abak u-r-abak ët-r-abak

Irregular verbs

The most common irregular verb is ele (to be):

ele (to be) Present tense pos. Present tense neg. Perfect tense pos. Perfect tense neg. Future tense pos. Future tense neg.
En (I) im ik pim pik zim zik
Es (You) in ive pin pive zin zive
E (He/She/It) e em pe pem ze zem
Ti (We) te ato pute pato zato
Li (You) xe exe puxe pexe zi zexe
Eś (They) aq aqe paq paqe zu zaqe

Moods

Imperative

The imperative voice is formed by using the suffix -o. Irregular verbs that undergo a root change can be conjugated in both ways. For example:

  • lomle (to go) - lomo! (go!)
  • matle (to wait, irregular verb, conj. as mattle) - mato/matto! (wait!)

For third person singular/plural:

  • Andrea lomo! (Shall/let Andrea go)
  • Eś matto! (Shall/let them wait)

For first person singular/plural:

  • Ti lomo! (Let's go!)
  • En so! (Let me do!)

For negatives, "mu" is used:

  • Mu lomo (Don't go!)
  • Mu matto (Don't wait!)

Conditional

The word zim is used before the main verb and the suffix -(j)ol used after the verb root to indicate a conditional state that will cause something else to happen. Irregular verbs except ele (to be) are conjugated the same as regular verbs. Ele is conjugated normally. F

  • Daqen zim karkalol qte tegüle. (The bomb would explode if you touch it.)

For negative sentences, "mu" is used:

  • Zim mu evol defim qte waqam evët? (Wouldn't there be gods if there were no humans?)

Passive voice

Add ni ... before a conjugated (3rd person) verb. Examples:

  • ille (to see) - ila (he/she/it sees) - ni ila (is seen)
  • benkle (to speak) - benka (he/she/it speaks) - ni benka (is spoken)

Zuwattaynasep conjugation

Zuwattaynasep conjugations express wish, ability and necessity.

conjugation -le verbs -lo verbs example (-le) example (-lo)
Hasadupep (to be able to) -wir- -wor- antele (to work) - antewirle (to be able to work) qlo (to say) - qworlo (to be able to say)
Miradupep (want) -(e)r- -(u)r- antele (to work) - anterle (to want to work) qlo (to say) - qurlo (to want to say)
Vajidupep (necessity) -(a)glal- -(e)klel- antele (to work) - anteglalle (have to work) qeklello (have to say)

Nouns

In Auscarish, nouns have no gender.

Nominalization

For adjectives and nouns

Adjectives become nouns and nouns change their meanings.

meaning suffix example
the one which is x -(t)eh Nawö okuteh. (I like the red one.)
the one which is from x -hake Awskarhakem popa of Awskar. (Auscarians live in Auscaria)
the one which is in/on/at x -gef Kexatgef e cor nak sunawgef e qolnak. (The one in the exercise is difficult but the one in the exam is easy.)
the one with x (in it) -get Ehövatget e bag lav köt 'ekalatget. (The one with coffee in it is better than the one with chocolate in it.)
the one which is to x -tog Ürec'an Vayejtog jü! (We will miss the one to the Vayej!)
the one which is owned by multiple x's -samsa Adaysamsa e bag lav köt essateh. (The one which the candidates own is better than the other.)
the one which is owned by x -sam Adaysam e bag lav köt essateh. (The one which the candidate owns is better than the other.)

Indefinite articles

word class article
...aq iw (if the next letter is 'w', then it is ne)
...a on
...u/ü/j ma (if the next letter is 'a', then it is um)
...ći/fi lo (lo + vowel = l' ...)
i... ok
...s su (if the next letter is u, then it is ep)
other i

If the word is in more than one class, the article of one which comes before on the list is used. These articles come after adjectives and before nouns. For example:

i racam - a car tesi - blue tesi i racam - a blue car (not i tesi racam)

Pronouns