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Urheimat: Lõis's Afghanistan



Proto-Camalic had the following phonemes:

  • a i u ā ī ū ai au ia ua
  • p b t d ts k g m n ŋ s θ~ʂ z ð~ʐ ɬ l r w y h
  • contrastive stød


Proto-Camalic was most likely SOV, and had prefix and suffix conjugations.



Proto-Camalic had three grammatical genders:

  • animate
  • inanimate
  • caland

The caland gender was made up of nouns that resulted from nominalized participles and adjectives and consisted of both animate nouns (e.g. names of professions) and inanimate nouns. Abstract nouns were usually caland.

There were also three grammatical cases: agentive/instrumental, patientive and genitive. The agentive case was marked with the particle *la~li (believed to be cognate with Semitic *li- "to" and Indo-European *-(t/dʰ)lom ~ *-(t/dʰ)lis). In L-Arabic that evolved into a prefix a- ~ al-. The genitive case was marked with the particle *i. In Central Camalic (e.g. An Bhlaoighne and L-Arabic), influenced by Indo-European and Semitic languages, the case particles are preposed while in Peripheral Camalic (e.g. Padmanābha), the particles evolved into suffixes in a more typically Eurasian nom-acc system.

Proto-Camalic also had an extensive array of derivational affixes.

The definite article in Proto-Camalic was *sa.


Proto-Camalic didn't have adjectives as a distinct part of speech. Most adjectives in other Camalic languages derive from verbs in Proto-Camalic though some are derived from nouns (e.g. nisba/Hoffmann's).


Some kind of stress-induced ablaut/lengthening?