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It has long been assumed that Minhay had been settled during nomadic tribes during the Ice Ages, part of the general migrations that eventually peopled Siberia, the Americas, and Ainushir. Traditional accounts claim that three ethnic groups, the Golahats, the Peshpegs, and the Minhast came to Minhay at around the same time, but eventually the Minhast eventually dominated the island. During the mid 1950's, foreign archaeologists from the West were finally allowed to enter Minhay, and their preliminary excavations came up with puzzling results. The closest relatives of the Minhast are believed to be the Ainu of neighboring Kar-put-ya-Moshir (Sakhalin), Hokkay and Honesh-Pet (formerly known as Honshu before the partition of the Japanese Empire by the Kingdom of Koguryeo and the Ainu Federation). But the Ainu, or their putative ancestors, the Jōmon, are known to have occupied the region as early 14,500 BCE. The earliest artifacts found in Minhay that could be definitively attributed to the Minhast are flint arrows and iron swords dated as recent as 300 CE. Golahat and Peshpeg artifacts are far rarer, but the earliest of those artifacts date to circa 130 CE. This indicates that the Minhast, Golahats, and Peshpegs came much later, several millenia after the great Paleosiberian migrations that led to the peopling of northeast Siberia and the Americas.

So it was a groundbreaking discovery, and shock to many, when in the late 70's the Kūtan excavations in south-central Minhay uncovered artifacts from an unknown civilization that dated around 1500 BCE. These artifacts included bronze tools and weapons, glazed pottery, lifelike statues and figurines, and the remnants of large stone buildings suggestive of palaces or temples. Moreover, the remnants of several parchment scrolls written in an unknown script and language were found. Less than a decade later, in March 12, 1985, several scrolls, in the same script as the ones found in Kūtan, were discovered in an inconspicuous cave in Mt. Irraħma. Unlike the scrolls discovered in Kūtan, the ones found in Mt. Irraħma were dated as late as the 1700's. These scrolls were written in the same language as Kūtan , but also included transcripts in the Minhast script, along with a dictionary and grammar, providing the Rosetta Stone to the Corrádi language[1].

The texts mentioned a city called Vórina which lay 50km south of the capital, Aškuan. In fact, the author had written precise directions where to find the lost city. Archaeologists went to where the purported Vórina was located, in an extensive hardwood forest that reached the edge of Minhay's southern coast. A few days before the archaeologists arrived, lidar imagery was taken of the area and revealed several large mounds underneath the canopy. Excavations began, and soon a treasure trove of artifacts were unearthed. Pillars and the remnants of buildings were found bearing a script very similar to the Irraħma scrolls engraved into the stone. Another surprise: in the lower strata were sedimentary deposits clearly indicating the city at one time was on the coastline. It was in this same strata that there were indications that a major earthquake had struck the area, and a thin layer of what could only be marine sediment - which could have been deposited there by a tsunami. And one more disturbing discovery. Flint arrowheads and signs of fire damage abound in this layer. The flint arrowheads were the hattīya, bearing the same design used by the Horse Speakers of the Central Plateau.

The scrolls reveal that the Corrádi language is unrelated to any northeastern Asian language. Possible relationships with Austronesian and other southeast Asian languages have been conclusively ruled out. Other hypotheses have been presented, but none have succeeded in establishing a relationship with other language families. Therefore, Corrádi has been classified as a language isolate.


Even before the discovery of the Irraħma Manuscripts, various Corrádi words survived as toponyms in Ín Duári and Peshpeg. In certain cases, it is unknown whether some of the names were originally Corrádi, or if they were adopted from Ín Duári or Peshpeg into the Corrádi language. After the Wolf Speaker invasions, these toponyms were absorbed into their dialect , with some alteration to fit the dialect's phonology, replaced with a calque or translation of the Ín Duári or Peshpeg variant, or an outright replacement based on the topographical features of the location.[2]

Corrádi Place Names
Corradi Meaning Ín Duári Peshpeg Minhast (Wolf Speaker Dialect)
Kanzorél Fresh Water Gaenðyl Kenzor Kuznur
Azator Orchard Azdor Ezdür Qayqarayumbāt ("A Great Stand of Trees")
Aeredon Overlook Aerðyn Erdün Siħyanki ("Advantageous view from a higher elevation for the purpose of attack")
Nemkil Corner Naengileð Kotash ("Meeting Place") Xunnaš ("Rough Ground")
Ketra Split Girédra Ketra Qirāt
Karhō Crossroads Karhon Oyür ("Ridgeline") Qarħaq ("Sinew, thread")
Nargoi Rivers Bend Nergoïs Nargoy Narrūy
Verhális West Wind Verhális Okyur ("Windy") Uqqūr
Anthō/Aenthō Fortress Aeyaţin Ansha Nināha
Kalrō Skull Gaelron Kolrün Qarrū
Íkava Narrow River Íkava Yikve Zeydek ("Little River")



The orthography the Mount Irraħma author used was a modified version of the Minhast Širkattarnaft, an abugida ultimately derived from the Baybayin script of the principal Philippine kingdoms, the Rajahnate of Kirmai, and the Sultunate of Daligan. The author invented special characters and diacritics to indicate sounds not represented in the original Širkattarnaft, accompanied with a full description in the Minhast Stone Speaker dialect on their pronunciation and usage. Thus, an accurate representation of Corrádi phonology can be confidently reconstructed.[3]

Early work on the Corrádi language after its discovery saw the creation of two competing Romanization systems by Edward Johnson and Eric Weiss, two rivals from the University of Kentucky and Howard University, respectively. Johnson's system was influenced by his training as a Latinist, whereas Weiss adopted the Americanist system, a common system used for Minhast and other Paleosiberian languages, the majority of Native American languages, the Afroasiatic languages, and others. The two systems eventually led to confusion as later linguists used one system versus the other or sometimes even both. To solve this problem, a third, compromise orthography was developed by Joshua Leonard of Yale University. This third system combined both systems, each often serving as a subsystem assigned to a given word class, e.g. to represent the phoneme /k/, the grapheme <c> was used for WH-words while <k> was utilized for place names. Other times the choice on whether to use <c> or <k> would be dictated on the basis of which group's dictionary was the first to document a given word, and if that determination could not be made, a simple coin toss would determine which grapheme would be used. [4]. A comparison of each system is summarized in the following table:



Corrádi Consonantal Inventory
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Laryngeal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative Non-Sibilant v θ h
Sibiliant s z
Approximants w j
Trill r
Lateral l






Type Form
Polar - Active iiosi
Polar - Stative ilia
Who cuen cora
What/Which cueìn
When cuensa
Why cuenat
How cuelni
Where cuerin
How many/how much cuen talmi


Quantifiers in Corrádi take two forms, a substantive form, and an attributive form. As substantives, they syntactically behave like nouns, capable of assuming agent, patient, and oblique roles. However, they fall under the class of invariable nouns and take no case or number marking. The attributive form is etymologically derived from the construct case, although some irregularities, principally in the vowel preceding the -n component of the construct affix, appear (e.g. contorin vs. expected *contoron). An intrusive -d- appears in corodin "both".

Quantifier Substantive Attributive
All ae aeian
Most aeira aeiran
Some gaentor gaentorin
Many bel belin
Both coron corodin
Few oroz orozin


Determiners perform several functions in Corrádi. Before NPs, they mark the subject argument of a copula before its complement. The principal determiner is im, although another particle zan, appears in rare occurrences. There is no apparent difference between the particles, though some scholars speculate that zan may be an archaism.

Yel avía im reni tohar.
/jɛl a'vija ɪm 'rɛni 'tohar/
yel aví-a im reni tohar
NEG be.NEG-1S DET woman bad

I am not an evil woman.

They nominalize clauses when placed immediately before the verb in the embedded clause:

Ancaza im ieronz im reni im valak.
/an'kaza ɪm jɛ'ronza ɪm 'rɛni ɪm valak/
ancaz-a im iero-nz im reni im valak
know-1S DET steal-3S.PST DET woman DET money

I know the woman who stole the money.

They are used before proper nouns:

Gorsenanz im Marvan, kortél.
gorsen-anza im Marvan kortél
hit-1S.PST DET PN because

I hit Marvan for that reason.


Corrádi shows a three-way distinction in its demonstrative pronouns, namely a proximal, medio-distal, and distal opposition.

  Proximal Medio-distal Distal
  Sg Pl Sg Pl Sg Pl
Direct don doien zari vana
Construct doion terien varis varien
Oblique doies tesa vas


Nouns are for the most part divided into two categories, based on whether the stem ends in a consonant or vowel. This affects the form of their case endings, as well as adjectives, which must agree with the case and number of their noun head.

Case and Number

Corrádi nouns fall under two classes, declinable and indeclinable. Declinable nouns form the majority of nouns. Indeclinable nouns tend to be mass and abstract nouns.

Among the declinable class, three basic noun cases and two numbers are observed. Number manifests a singular-plural distinction, although there is also a separate system for singulative forms for collective nouns marked with the suffixes -ina (for consonant-final nouns), and -iena (for vowel-final nouns), take plural marking. Irregular paradigms, which appear to derive from a gender-based system, do appear; nouns that follow these paradigms are unpredictable and their forms must be memorized.

The following table illustrates the regular case-number paradigm:

  Consonant-Final Stems Vowel-Final Stems
  Sg Pl Sg Pl
Direct -∅ -ien -∅ -n
Construct -ion -n
Oblique -ios -ies -s

The declension of the consonant-final noun reihar "wall", and the vowel-final noun andra "sword", is illustrated below:

  Consonant-Final Vowel-Final
  Sg Pl Sg Pl
Direct reihar reiharien andra andran
Construct reiharion andran
Oblique reiharios reiharies andras

The direct case is used for nouns in both agent and patient roles. The construct case principally marks the possessum of a possessive noun phrase, although certain prepositions that can be etymologically traced to body part and location nouns also require the construct case. The oblique case appears in nouns preceded by prepositions, although the oblique case also marks subjects of a closed set of verbs indicating cognition, emotion, and perception.

Indeclinable nouns make a number distinction only. Number marking can be either a singular-plural distinction, as in caris "idea", or a singulative-collective one, as in rena "grain".

  Consonant-Final Vowel-Final
Default caris (sg) rena (collective)
Marked carisa (pl) renaia (singulative)

A final class of nouns are invariable, i.e. they take neither case nor number marking. These nouns make a small percentage of the total noun inventory, and are usually restricted to abstract nouns, as in the following examples:

  • baris "timelessness.
  • eren "rationalism, logic"
  • birion "friendship"


Personal Pronouns

The personal pronouns are unmarked for gender and case, but do mark number with the prefix ai- accompanied with stem changes in all paradigms except the first person:

Person Sg Pl
1st na aina
2nd ron aire
3rd hedi aidi

Indefinite Pronouns

The indefinite pronouns mark for polarity, with positive forms null-marked, and negative forms marked with the affixes -ava-/-aví, which is derived from the same etymological source as the negative verb aví. Two cases are realised, direct and oblique, the latter consistently marked with the suffix -si.

  Direct Oblique
both; each mili mílesi
other/another atra atrasi
everyone oran orasi
someone nevra nevrasi
no one nevrataví nevratavasí
everything taila tailasi
something vórida vorídasi
nothing voridaví voridavasí




Motion Verbs

Corrádi utilize verb framing to indicate directionality. Directionality is embedded within the semantics of the verb. For example the verb narin means "to go to/towards, to approach", whereas andrin means "to return":

Narina ron Érovin, levá temi Roìdon
narin-a ron érovin levá temi Roìdon 2S place_name.DIR find.CONJ there Roìdon.

Go down to Érovin, and you will find Roìdon there.
Andrina ron Érovin, alanti terzien ni rom zidrá.
andrin-a ron Érovin, alan-ti terz-ien ni rom zidrá.
return.from.TRS-IMP 2S place_name.DIR finish-PST business-CSTR CONN 2S.GEN CAUS

(Now) Return from Érovin, for you (will have?) finished your business.

Depending on the semantics of a motion verb, the argument structure of its clause may manifest either as transitive, or intransitive:

1) Transitive Marking

Maza ron aina!
maz-a ron aina
come-TRS-IMP 2S 1P

You come to us!

2) Intransitive Marking

Maia tirena ron!
mai-a tiren-a ron
come-IMP 2S

Come quickly!

Many motion verbs demonstrate a shared etymology, such as maza and maia, from an underlying ma- in the previous examples. However, arguments that the -z- and -i- segments denote the transitivity of the verb is not supported by the data, as several counterexamples occur, and segments other than a z/i opposition are also found in the Irraħma author's writings. Counter examples include the verbs ioris "to approach" and iosin "to walk away", containing a shared underlying root io-, and submorphemes -ris and -sin respectively, with no known shared etymology.


Present/Imperative: -a Past: -nz- Future: auxiliary mar + null-marked 3S verb

Present Tense

  Indicative Imperative Conjunctive
Person[5] Sg Pl Sg Pl Sg Pl
1st dora dorasi, doras[6] dark dorá
2nd dor ron dor aire dora dori dorí
3rd dor[7], dor aia, dor neida[8] dori dark
3rd Indefinite/Formal[9] dor nani dor naní dorá naní

Past Perfective Tense

  Indicative Imperative Conjunctive
Person[10] Sg Pl Sg Pl Sg Pl
1st doranza, doranz [11] doranzi, doranz dark doranzata
2nd doranza ron doranz aire doranza, doranz doranzi doranzí
3rd doranz aia, doranza neida[12] doranzi dark
3rd Indefinite/Formal[13] doranza nani doranza naní

Past Imperfective Tense

The past imperfective tense, based on the perfective, is formed by appending the clitic -ata or one of its other allomorphs to the last term of the verb phrase:

  Indicative Imperative Conjunctive
Person[14] Sg Pl Sg Pl Sg Pl
1st doranzata doranziata, doranzata dark doranzata[15]
2nd doranza ronta doranz aireta doranzata doranzita doranzita
3rd doranz aita, doranza neidata doranzita dark
3rd Indefinite/Formal[16] doranza nánita doranza naníta



Case Role Preposition
Dative mara
Benefactive corí
Adversive doran
Allative muoira
Ablative ria
Commitative senuai
Locative anri


  • yel "no, not"


Constituent order

Corradi is a VSO language, although the position of the verb can vary, yielding SVO and SOV orders. The relative position of the subject to the object is stricter: the object may precede the subject only if topicalized by the particle na. Possessums precede their possessor, whilst adjectives follow their noun heads.

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Doranz Amzig Míoren danta konzi Regumon Perda mos
dor-anz-a amzig míoren danta ko-nz-i regum-on perda mos.
flee-PST-1P after destroy-PST-3PL people-CNSTR spear city

We fled to Amzig from Miyoren after the People of the Spear sacked the city.

"Yel nevratavi intuora, cintra ae”. Nothing is forever, all things end.


  1. ^ The anonymous author explicitly stated in the introduction of both the dictionary and the grammar that it was his intention to "...perfectly preserve [my people's] language, that it shall not be destroyed by the Minhast barbarians, nor forgotten by the generations."
  2. ^ The Corrádi language had long since disappeared by the time the Wolf Speakers had entered the Kilmay Ri, so all borrowings were through Ín Duári or Peshpeg sources.
  3. ^ This is unlike the extinct Vadi language, which contains numerous spelling irregularities and/or mistakes observed in the litigants' correspondence. For more information, see Vadi Orthography.
  4. ^ Virtually all Corrádists were unhappy with this compromise, which Leonard himself knew would be the result. His response to critics: "A good compromise is when both parties are dissatisfied."
  5. ^ With the exception of the 3rd Formal form, pro-drop occurs frequently regardless of whether the verb form receives person marking or not. In fact it is obligatory when an embedded clause is coreferential with the subject of the prior clause. Pivot is S/A.
  6. ^ Second form used if followed by noun with initial i/e.
  7. ^ Null marking preferred if recoverable from context.
  8. ^ Second form seems to be preferred when aia occurs in the same or preceding clause.
  9. ^ When used to refer to an indefinite subject, nani may be dropped. As a deferential form, however, its use is obligatory.
  10. ^ With the exception of the 3rd Formal form, pro-drop occurs frequently regardless of whether the verb form receives person marking or not. In fact it is obligatory when an embedded clause is coreferential with the subject of the prior clause. Pivot is S/A.
  11. ^ Second form used if followed by noun with initial vowel.
  12. ^ Second form seems to be preferred when aia occurs in the same or preceding clause.
  13. ^ When used to refer to an indefinite subject, nani may be dropped. As a deferential form, however, its use is obligatory.
  14. ^ With the exception of the 3rd Formal form, pro-drop occurs frequently regardless of whether the verb form receives person marking or not. In fact it is obligatory when an embedded clause is coreferential with the subject of the prior clause. Pivot is S/A.
  15. ^ Notice that both the past perfective and past imperfective forms are the same for the first person conjunctive forms.
  16. ^ When used to refer to an indefinite subject, nani may be dropped. As a deferential form, however, its use is obligatory.