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Distribution of languages on Dogger: the red area is monolingually Dogrish.

Dogrish (Dogrish: Dågrisk; Frisian: Doggersk; Dutch: Doggerlands) is a constructed language created for the purpose of being used in a constructed alternative world where, amongst other relatively minor additions, an island approximately the size of the Benelux exists on the location of the "real world" Dogger Bank.

Within the confines of the constructed universe, Dogrish is one of four languages spoken on the island of Dogger and its much smaller satellite islands, in addition to Dogric Frisian, English and Dutch. It is the most widely spoken language on the island and the official language of the national government, with minority language rights reserved for regional and local government use.


Dogrish is a North Germanic language belonging to the Insular Nordic sub-branch. As such it is most closely related to Icelandic, Faroese and extinct Norn. Most notable similarities include the preserved case system and the continued usage of the letters ð and þ to represent the voiced and voiceless dentale frictative respectively.

Varieties of Dogrish

Standard Dogrish

There are two officially recognised standard varieties of Dogrish: Formal Dogrish (Dogrish: Formaldågrisk) covers the Central Dogrish dialects around Greywater Lake, Redwater Lake and the Reddow Valley, whilst Valley Dogrish (Dogrish: Dalarnerdågrisk) covers the Valley Dogrish dialects of Twoway, the Giants' Fields, the Two Dales, the Riding of Northern Cliffland and the municipality of Westland.

In practice, the usage of these standard varieties in generally limited to the written word and supraregional interactions, as everyday interactions mostly take place in the local dialect.

Uniquely amongst Germanic languages, Formal Dogrish has preserved six grammatical cases, whereas Valley Dogrish has preserved five.[1] However, it should be noted that of all grammatical aspects of Dogrish, both the number of preserved cases as well as the specific cases being preserved vary considerably between dialects and localities, with some local varieties preserving only the nominative and the genitive in the declension of nouns.

Other differences include the pronunciation of final -ð: whereas Central Dogrish generally realises the final -ð as a voiced alveolar lateral approximant [l], Valley Dogrish realises it as a voiced dental frictative [ð]; and the år-ór merger: whereas Central Dogrish generally realises both å and ó as [o:], Valley Dogrish differentiates between [o:] and [ou̯].


Friso-Dogrish is the variety of Dogrish spoken in the southeast of Dogger, most notably in the Lochsteads, Idunna's Dunes, the Feurth Valley and the Ridings of Leyland and Southern Cliffland. It is the third most spoken variety of Dogrish and is written using Formal Dogrish.

Friso-Dogrish is characterised for using only four cases: the nominative, the genitive, the dative and the accusative. Whilst Friso-Dogrish differentiates between masculine, feminine and neuter in definite nouns, the masculine and neuter have merged in the declension of indefinite articles.

In terms of phonology, Friso-Dogrish is typified by its realisation of the letter ð as a voiced alveolar tap or flap /ɾ/ under all circumstances.


Anglo-Dogrish is the variety of Dogrish spoken in Queensgarth in the northernmost reaches of the island and in the Anglodale in the province of Islesmidst. It is the fourth most widely spoken variety of Dogrish and is written using Valley Dogrish.

Anglo-Dogrish is characterised by using only the nominative and the genitive in the declension of nouns, adding the accusative only in the declension of pronouns. It also does not differentiate nouns based on grammatical gender and is the only variety of Dogrish to use an article instead of a suffix to indicate definiteness.

In terms of phonology, Anglo-Dogrish is most notably characterised by the lack of both preaspiration and consonant lengthening, e.g. þótt, "thought", is pronounced [θou̯ʰt] in Formal Dogrish, but [θot] in Anglo-Dogrish, seggja, "to say", is pronounced [ˈsej:ɐ] in Formal Dogrish, but [sej] in Anglo-Dogrish.

Dutch Dogrish

Dutch Dogrish is the least used variety of Dogrish and spoken in the Whispermere, the Uva Valley and in the Skow. It is written using Valley Dogrish, with the exception of the Skow, where Formal Dogrish is used instead.

Dutch Dogrish is characterised by the declension of nouns and pronouns in accordance with three cases: the nominative, the genitive and the accusative; and in accordance with only two grammatical genders, namely gendered and neuter, with no differentiation whatsoever for indefinite articles.

In terms of phonology, Dutch Dogrish is notable for being the only variety to devoice voiced consonants at the end of a word, including a final -ð being realised as a voiceless dental frictative /θ/. It is also notable for the rá-ró merger, with both á and ó realised as [ɑu̯], and the mann-månd merger, with both a and å being realised as /ɔ/ and any plosives following a nasal consonant being dropped.


Despite certain areas of the island being monolingually Frisian, English or Dutch, Dogrish is taught nationwide and understood by almost all inhabitants. In monolingually Frisian, English or Dutch areas of the island, bilingualism between the local language and one of the two standard varieties of Dogrish is the norm. The only exception to this is the urban area of St George's Haven in the northernmost corner of the island, where all signage, education and government communication is done only in English.

Number of speakers

In-universe, over 5.2 million Dogric citizens out of just short of 6 million, or about 87%, speak Dogrish as a first language, with the remainder speaking it as a second language. The total number of speakers, formally equivalent to the total population of the Island Provinces of Dogger, is 5,997,215 as per the 2023 census.

The most commonly used variety of standardised Dogrish is Formal Dogrish, used by approximately 50% of the population. Second is Valley Dogrish at 34%, followed by Friso-Dogrish at a distant third position with 14%. Just short of 3% of the population uses Anglo-Dogrish, and less than 1%, or 42,301 citizens, uses Dutch Dogrish.

Number of speakers per language and variety of Dogrish (2023 census)
Dogrish Dogric Frisian English Dogric Dutch
Formal Dogrish Valley Dogrish Friso-Dogrish Anglo-Dogrish Dutch Dogrish
First language Second language First language Second language First language Second language First language Second language First language Second language
2,989,992 16,222 2,000,304 14,791 182,221 633,009 42,484 75,891 18,211 24,090 660,235 78,738 25,030
Total first language speakers: 5,233,212




The Dogrish alphabet consists of 31 letters.

Names of letters
Letter Name Pronuciation Most common corresponding phonemes
A a Hyvud-A ("main A") [ˈhy:vɘðˌɔ] [a], [ɑ], [ɔ], [ɑu̯]
Á á Langa A ("long A") [ˌlɑu̯ŋka.ˈa] [ɑu̯]
B b Begja [ˈbej:ə] [b]
D d Degja [ˈdej:ə] [d], [ˀ]
Ð ð [ɤð] [ð], [ɫ], [ɾ], [θ], [ˀ]
E e Egja [ˈej:ə] [e], [ɛ], [ə]
F f Eff [ɛf:] [f], [v], [w]
G g Gegja [ˈgej:ə] [g], [j]
H h [ho:] [h], [ç]
I i Hyvud-i [ˈhy:vɘðˌɨ] [ɪ], [ɨ]
Í í Langa i [ˌlɑu̯ŋka.ˈi] [i], [i:]
J j Jóð [jou̯ð] [j], [ʲ]
K k [ko:] [k], [x]
L l Ell [ɛtːl̥] [l]
M m Emm [ɛm:] [m]
N n Enn [ɛn:] [n]
O o Hyvud-O [ˈhy:vɘðˌo] [o], [ɔ]
Ó ó Langa O [ˌlɑu̯ŋka.ˈo] [ou̯]
P p Pegja [ˈpej:ə] [p], [f]
Q q1 Ku [ku:] [k]
R r Er [ɛɐ] [r], [ɐ], vowel lengthening
S s Ess [es:] [s]
T t Tegja [ˈtej:ə] [t], [l], [ˀ]
U u U [u:] [u], [u:]
V v Vegja [ˈvej:ə] [v], [u̯]
X x1 Eksa [ˈɛksa] [ks]
Y y Y [y:] [y]
Þ þ Þorn [θɔ:ˀn] [θ]
Æ æ Æ [æ:] [æ]
Ö ö Ö [ø:] [ø], [œ]
Å å Å [o:] [o:]
1 The letters Q and X are only used in Anglo-Dogrish spelling, and there only unofficially.

Digraphs and trigraphs

In addition to the base alphabet, Dogrish also uses fourteen digraphs and two trigraphs.

Multigraph Most common associated phoneme
av [au̯]
dj [ɟ]
ej [ɑi̯], [ɛi̯]
eyj [œi̯]
gj [j:]
ng [ŋ]
óv [ow]
ófð [ow:]
sj [ɕ]
tj [c]
uv [u:u̯]
yv [yu̯]
æi [æ:i̯]
öj [ɤy̯]
öy [œy̯]
åi [oːi̯]


The number and nature of the consonant phonemes of Dogrish is subject to broad disagreement, due to a complex relationship amongst consonant allophones and due to some phonemes being restricted to only one or a limited number of the officially recognised varieties of Dogrish.

Major allophones

Even the number of major allophones is subject to some dispute, although less than for phonemes. The following is a chart of potentially contrastive phones (important phonetic distinctions which minimally contrast in some positions with known phonemes; not a chart of actual phonemes).

Consonant phones
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m̥ m n̥ n ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k ɡ̥
Sibilant frictative s ʃ ɕ
Nonsibilant frictatives f v θ ð x ç h
Approximant w ʋ j
Tap/flap (ɾ̥) (ɾ)
Trill r̥ r
Lateral frictative (ɬ)
Lateral approximant l̥ l (ɫ)


The following consonants are pronounced differently depending on their position:

Normal Unclustered before a vowel Preceding a voiceless dental plosive Preceding a voiced dental plosive Preceding a nasal consonant or lateral approximant
F staf [stá:f]
"(wooden) staff"
gífa [ˈji:vɐ]
"to give"
gíft [ji:ˀf]
hófgårð [ˈhou̯ˀwˌgo:ɐð]
grafner [ˈgrapnə]
G grönn [gɾøn:]
segt [sé:xt]
skógdalur [ˈskou̯çˌdalɤr̥]
"forest valley"
sagn [saˀn̩]
"tale, story"
H hus [hú:s]
N/A N/A hnjæi [xɲ̊æ:i̯]
K kólð [kou̯lð]
hakt [haxt]
N/A knoll [çnotl̥]
P penn [pen:]
lópt [lou̯ft]

A special case of alternation are the collective nouns which are formed using the circumfix e-[root]-t, where, if the final phoneme of the root word is an elongated non-nasal consonant or a consonant cluster, the entire final consonant cluster becomes a stófð:

efjællt [əˈfjæ:ˀ], "mountain range"
efuglt [ə̯ˈfu:ˀ], "poultry, birds"


ebejnt [əˈbai̯nt], "skeleton, bones".




Consecutive diphthongs

It is not uncommon for multiple diphthongs to occur consecutively, especially in compound words, in which case they are assimilated into one another with a pitch accent (see below) falling on the last diphthong. If the diphthong(s) preceding the pitched diphthong contain(s) a lengthened vowel, that vowel is reduced to its shortened form.

Examples of consecutive diphthongs
Word Pronunciation Meaning
Åieyjer [oi̯.œi̯ꜜəɐ] A Dogric municipality. Losely translated as "riverbed islands".
Höjæiöyer [hɤy̯æi̯.œy̯ꜜəɐ] "High hillside meadows".


Stress, stófð, pitch accent and intonation are prosodic features of Dogrish phonology. Indistinct durational differences are also present and are dependent on the surrounding phonemes, but these are usually considered an integral part of the vowel phonemes rather than a distinct prosodic feature.


Dogrish stress is phonemic in nature and not always easily predictable. Nevertheless, some general rules exist.

  1. Stress never falls on an affix, nor does it fall on the final syllable of a regular verb in any of its conjugated iterations:
    1. umöglig [uˈmø:li], "impossible"
    2. kyrkelös [ˈky:kəløs], "churchless"
  2. Stress never falls on a syllable following a stófð; if, within a sentence, the first syllable of a word is stressed but follows a stófð in the previous word, a devoiced schwa is interfixed:
    1. han skyljet ikke [ˈhɑn ˌskyljˀɯ̥.ˈiˀə], "he will not".
  3. Stress always falls on the pitch accent if a word has one.


Stófð is a common prosodic feature that is realised as a creaky voice, often in combination with a posterior glottal approximant[2]. It is similar to the Danish stød.

Unlike sang (see below), stófð only seems to occur on certain monosyllables that find their origin in Old Norse, notwithstanding grammatical modifiers, and which may have been accented or pitched in a particular manner.

Within the universe wherein Dogrish is used, debate between linguists is ongoing about the nature of stófð. It is believed that stófð precedes sang, due to the fact that under almost all circumstances stófð neutralises sang in compound words or speedily uttered phrases, thus indicating that sang may have occured or become commonplace later in time.

Stófð is indicated in neither Formal Dogrish nor Valley Dogrish spelling.

Similar phonemes with and without stófð
Without stófð With stófð
skóg [sko:u̯]
skóv [skou̯ˀ]
lár [lɑu̯ɐ]
lav [lau̯ˀ]
sófður [sów:ə]
sóver [ˈsowˀ.ə]
"to sleep"

Pitch accent

Some words and in particular some vowel combinations may exhibit a prosodic feature known as a pitch accent, or sang [sau̯ŋ]. Both monosyllabic and polysyllabic words may feature a pitch accent.

If the pitch accent falls on a monosyllabic word, the monosyllabic word is uttered in a higher register than the adjecent syllables.

If the pitch accent falls on the initial syllable of a polysyllabic word, the first syllable is uttered in a high pitch and the following syllables in a falling pitch.

If the pitch accent falls on a noninitial syllable of a polysyllabic word, the syllables preceding the accented syllable are pronounced with a low pitch and, depending on the variety of Dogrish, any lengthened vowels and consonants are shortened. This is then followed by a syllable break, whereafter the accented syllable is pronounced with a high pitch and, depending on the variety of Dogrish, lengthened to between 1.5 and 3 times the length of the low pitch vowel or vowels. Vowels following the pitched vowel, if there are any, are pronounced with a falling pitch at normal length.

If a word contains two or more consecutive diphthongs, there will always be a pitch accent on the final diphthong of the consecutive string. Whether monosyllabic words consisting of just one diphthong preceding a word starting with a diphthong are counted as part of a string of consecutive diphthongs differs per dialect.

A word that contains a stófð cannot also contain a pitch accent. If a compound word contains both a stófð and a pitch accent, the pitch accent is realised as a normal stress. However, if a compound word contains multiple diphthongs consecutively, there will always be a pitch accent on the final diphthong and any stófð is neutralised.

Pitch accents are not indicated in either Formal Dogrish or Valley Dogrish spelling.

Examples of pitch accent
Sófður Grönnkrístvís Höjæiöyer Av eyjitt
[sów:ə] [gɾøn.kɾí:stʋìs] [hɤy̯æi̯.œy̯əɐ] [au̯ˀ ˈœi̯ɪʰt]
(Central Dogrish)
(Valley Dogrish)
HꜜL L-HꜜL L-L-HꜜL no pitch accent L-HꜜL
"Soft" A Dogric city. "High hillside meadows" "Of the island"
Stófð versus sang

Similar words that carry different meaning depending on whether they feature stófð, sang or neither are known as siblings.

Sibling words
Neither Stófð Sang Example sentence
hun [hu:n]
hunð [hunˀ]
hun [hún]
Hun hær en hunð og en hun [ˈhu:n ˌhæ:ɐn ˈhunˀ owən hún]
"She has a dog and a grouse"
hönn [høn:]
"him" (dative)
hönð [hønˀ]
hön [hǿn]
"rooster, cock"
Hönen hönn gift hönðen [hǿn`ən ˌhøn: jif ˈhønˀn]
"The rooster shook his hand"
hej [hɑi̯]
"hi" (greeting)
hej [hɑi̯ˀ]
hej [hái̯]
Hej, í hejet ert en hej [hɑi̯. i hɑi̯ˀə̆ˀ ɛˀn hái̯]
"Hey, there's a shark in the hay"






Distribution of case systems across the island of Dogger.

Dogrish nouns, pronouns and adjectives are declined in up to six cases: the nominative, the genitive, the dative, the accusative, the ablative and the locative. Some dialects still use a seventh case: the vocative. There are however no dialects that use all seven cases, as the only dialects where the vocactive has persisted have also merged the locative into the ablative.

The number and nature of grammatical cases varies greatly between and within varieties and dialects of Dogrish:

  • the Swamp Dogrish case system (dark purple on map) features the vocative and has merged the locative into the ablative for a total of six cases
  • the Formal Dogrish case system (red on map) features the abovementioned six grammatical cases
  • the Valley Dogrish case system (light purple on map) has merged the locative into the ablative for a total of five cases
  • the Heathside Dogrish case system (yellow on map) has merged the genitive into the accusative for a total of five cases
  • the Friso-Dogrish case system (green on map) features the four "traditional" Germanic cases: nominative, genitive, dative and accusative
  • the Dutch Dogrish case system (orange on map) has merged the dative into the accusative for a total of three cases
  • the Anglo-Dogrish case system (blue on map) uses only the genitive, and only occasionally.

In effect, the number and nature of grammatical cases used in speech may vary from person to person depending on their fluency in both their local dialect and their spoken variety of standardised Dogrish, especially with the increased interregional mobility and influences from foreign languages in more modern times.

With the onset of television in the late 20th century, the Formal Dogrish and Valley Dogrish case systems have become more widely used, whereas the accusative case disappeared in English Dogrish during the same period due to more present influence from English-language media.

The most used case system amongst Dogric citizens who speak Dogrish as a first or second language is Formal Dogrish, with over 40% using it. Second is Valley Dogrish with 35%, followed by Friso-Dogrish at just short of 20%. Approximately 3% of the population uses the Anglo-Dogrish case system, with the remaining 2% divided amongst the Dutch, Heathside and Swamp Dogrish systems, all three of which only occur in sparsely populated and relatively isolated rural communities.



Nouns are declined according to gender, number and definiteness, with the definite article and the indefinite plural article being affixed to the word, whilst the indefinite singular article remains a separate word preceding the noun. In practice, the indefinite singular article is rarely used in neither spoken nor written language, its usage being considered very formal.

Declension of nouns
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite
Nominative -en en -erne -er -en en -arna -ar -ið1/-itt2 et -erne -er
Genitive -ens -(e)s -ernes -ers -arn -ars -arnas -arns -inn1/-itts2 -(e)s -ernas -ar
Dative -em enem -ernem -erm -en am -ernam -arm -inni1/-iði2 -ernam -arm
Accusative -en enen -erne -er -en en -arna -ar -ið1/-itt2 en -erne -er
Ablative -ent enenna -eðenna -ert -ena ena -aðenna -art -irinn1/-irið2 -að -ert
Locative -ent enent -einnt -ereð -enar enar -ainnt -areð -irinnt1/-iritt2 itt -einnt -arenað
1 Used after an open vowel. 2Used after a closed vowel, ignoring umlaut.


The vocative is declined according to number and gender. Masculine and neuter singular nouns undergo umlaut when declined in the vocative. Stress always falls on the final syllable in the vocative.

Vocative declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite
-ennen -ut -is -i -enna -(nn)a -eras -eran -enitt -uð -eras -a
"the man!"
"the men!"
"the woman!"
"the women!"
"the house!
"the houses!

Although the vocative is still used integrally in only a small number of very localised dialects in the more isolated swamplands and marshes of Leyland, Ravennest, the Wolds and the Evendale, it still frequently occurs in set expressions in the main varieties of Dogrish. Examples include:

- mænnennen ert hun!, "he is the man!"
- hljápa, fránna!, "run, woman!"
- bjerna, baka til klassen!, "children, back to class!"


The diminutive is formed by adding a suffix to a noun and occasionally to an adjective or verb.

The following suffixes are used:

  • -ling for masculine words (drenge, "boy" becomes drengling, "little boy")
  • -lín for feminine words (mejð, "girl/maid" becomes mejlín, "little girl")
  • -ikki for neuter ords (bjern, "child" becomes bjernikki, "little child")
  • -ís for names and words of relation, as a term of endearment (ex. mamma, "mom" becomes mammarís, "mommy"; Anna becomes Annarís, Davíð becomes Davíðís)

Note that -ís is a term of endearment; the other suffixes can also be affixed to a name or word of relation, but will have a different connotation, whilst using the neuter suffix to make a name or word of relation diminutive is considered pejorative (ex. Annalín for "little Anna/Annie" or Davílling for "little David/Davy", either to indicate a young age or to compare to an older person with the same name; Annikki or Davikki, meanwhile, would be used out of condescension).

Usage of the diminutive differs vastly between varieties of Dogrish, but is generally commonplace except in Anglo-Dogrish, where it is nearly nonexistent. The diminutive is used so commonly in Dutch Dogrish that it is generally seen as its defining characteristic and thus frequently becomes the subject of imitation and satire of Dutch Doggerlanders.


Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case.

In practice, the ablative and locative are, in speech, often replaced with the dative and accusative respectively, and their usage in personal pronouns is considered formal and archaic. Meanwhile, personal pronouns are the only aspect of Dogrish grammar where across the five standard varieties the vocative is still commonly used.

The genitive

The genitive can be declined according to the gender of the word which it refers to. For example:

Hveres ert husið?, "Whose (the) house is [it]?", or more accurately "Who does the house belong to?"
Husið ert mítt, "The house is mine".

Here the 1st person genitive personal pronoun refers to a neuter word and thus becomes mítt. Compare:

Hveres ert mannen?, "Whose (the) husband is [that]?"
Han ert mínn, "He is mine".

Here the 1st person genitive personal pronoun refers to a masculine word and thus becomes mínn.


When referring to an animate object such as a person or an animal, the gender of the animate object becomes leading rather than the grammatical gender. For example:

Hveres ert mejlínið?, "Whose (the) girl) is [that]?"
Hun ert mínna, "She is mine".

Despite mejlín being grammatically neuter, due to the word referring to a feminine person it is declined in the feminine.

Up until the early 21st century, using the neuter to decline personal pronouns referring to animate objects was considered highly offensive. If a person's gender was not known, declension defaulted to the masculine. However, since the early 2020s, especially in the larger and more progressive cities of Dogger, it has become more common to use the neuter to refer to nonbinary individuals or to individuals whose gender is unknown.

In all varieties of Dogrish it has become accepted to refer to individuals whose gender is unknown in the 3rd person neuter and to decline the genitive using the neuter. In 2023, the Valley Dogrish Language Authority officially declared the usage of the neuter to refer to nonbinary persons grammatically correct.

Declension of pronouns
Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative Jag Þu Han Hun Það Þí Þeir Þár Þyr
Masculine Mínn Þínn Hanns Hennes Þess Ósin Ísin Þeirrer Þárrer Þyrer
Feminine Mínna Þínna Hanna Henna Þessa Ósa Ísa Þeirra Þárra Þyra
Neuter Mítt Þítt Hatt Hette Þett Ósið Ísið Þeitt Þátt Þytt
Dative Mjer Þjer Hönn Hynna Því Ös Ys Þeim Þaram Þyrim
Accusative Mig Þig Hann Hunn Þæð Ós Ísi Þá Þá Þá
Ablative Mínent Þínent Hænent Hjunent Þæðið Entví Entþví Þeimma Þámma Þymmi
Locative Mínent Þínent Hinnun Hjunnun Þæðun Ösent Ysent Þeirent Þárent Þyrint
Vocative Mín Þín Hán Hjun Þíð Þí Þei Þej Þeyj

Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns are declined according to gender, number and case. They precede the noun which they refer to. When a possessive pronoun is used, the noun which it refers to will only be declined according to number (singular or plural), with case and article being indicated by the possessive pronoun. Feminine words ending in -a lose their -a when preceded by a possessive pronoun.

Possessive pronouns are less frequently used than the genitive personal pronoun. It is argued that possessive pronouns have recently taken over the function of the vocative when referring to possessions, as words for which previously the vocative may have been used are now always preceded by a possessive pronoun, and if no direct personal possessive relation is present a placeholder "eð" is used instead.

Possessive pronouns referring to masculine and neuter words are declined using the same suffixes as nouns, which are affixed to the following roots:

Possessive pronouns referring to masculine and feminine words
Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Min- Þin- Sin- Hinn- Þav- Vór- Þin- Þerr- Þerr- Þirr-

Possessive pronouns referring to neuter words have their own seperate declension.

Possessive pronouns referring to neuter words
Singular Plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative Mitt Þitt Sitt Hitt Þett Ótt Ytt Þeitt Þeitt Þeitt
Genitive Minn Þinn Sinn Hinn Þitts Ótts Ytts Þeitts Þátts Þitts
Dative Mið Þið Sið Hið Þinni Ónni Ynni Þeið Þáð Þið
Accusative Mitt Þitt Sitt Hitt Þett Ótt Ytt Þeitt Þatt Þeitt
Ablative Mir Þir Sir Hirr Þir Ór Yr Þeir Þeir Þeir
Locative Minnt Þinnt Sinnt Hinnt Þiritt Ónnt Ynnt Þeinnt Þeinnt Þeinnt



Adjectives are declined according to gender and number.

First declension

The first adjectival declension of the Dogrish language covers the declension of adjectives ending in all except nasal consonants, as well as those adjectives ending in -å, -y or -á. The adjective ("calm, quiet, sedate") is also declined using the first declension.

First declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -en -er -a -ar -et -er
Genitive -es -er -en -ar -es -er
Dative -em -erm -ar -ar -em -er
Accusative -en -er -en -ar -et -er
Ablative -ent -ert -ena -art -ið -ir
Locative -ent -ert -enar -art -itt -ir

Second declension

The second declension covers adjectives ending in nasal consonants -n, -m and -ng.

Second declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -en -er -a -ar -t -er
Genitive -s -er -en -ar -s -er
Dative -em -erm -ar -ar -em -er
Accusative -en -er -en -ar -t -er
Ablative -t -er -ar -art -ið -ir
Locative -t -er -ar -art -itt -ir

Third declension

The third declension covers adjectives ending in all vowels except -å, -y and -á.

Third declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -ne -re -nna -ra -nt -r
Genitive -se -re -nnen -ra -nn -r
Dative -nem -rm -nnar -ra -nem -r
Accusative -nen -re -nnen -ra -nt -r
Ablative -net -rt -nnar -rt -rið -r
Locative -net -rt -nnar -rt -ritt -r

Fourth declension

The fourth declension covers the archaic vocative and is formed by using the stem of the adjective without any modifiers.


Dogrish verbs are conjugated according to tense, mood, number and person.

Verbs are conjugated according to three tenses: the present, the past, and the future. They are also conjugated according to four moods: the indicative, the imperative, the conditional and the subjunctive.

Verbs always end in -a, -ja, -er, or .

Dogrish verbs are divided into strong verbs, which follow irregular conjugation patterns and are subjected to umlaut, and weak verbs, which follow a regular conjugation pattern. Verbs ending in form a special case: in the present tense they follow the regular conjugation pattern of a weak verb, but in the past tense each verb follows a different irregular conjugation.

Strong verbs

Weak verbs

Present tense
Number Singular Plural
Person Jag
you (sing.)

you (pl.)
-a verbs
to talk
-ja verbs
to say
-er verbs
to learn
-å verbs

to go

-á verbs
to wash
Past tense
Number Singular Plural
Person Jag
you (sing.)

you (pl.)
-a verbs
to talk
-ja verbs
to say
-er verbs
to learn
-á verbs
to wash



Constituent order

In general, the Dogrish language is classified as a V2 language, meaning that the finite verb of a sentence or clause is placed in the clause's second position. The main exception to this is Anglo-Dogrish: the Anglo-Dogrish spoken around St George's Haven strictly uses SVO or subject-object-verb, whereas the Anglo-Dogrish spoken in the Anglodale uses VSO or verb-subject-object.

Word order comparison
English Formal Dogrish (V2) Anglo-Dogrish (SVO) Anglo-Dogrish (VSO)
María did not want to read the newspaper today. Íþægen villt María tíðningen inte lesa. María villt inte lesa tíðningen íþægen. Lesa villt inte María tíðningen íþægen.
Today I'm going to walk in the woods. Íþægen jag í skógent tråða. Jag skylje gå tråða í skógen íþægen. Gå tråða jag í skógen íþægen.

Word order rigidity

Rigidity of the word order is generally dependent on the morphological characteristics of the local dialect. In general, the more cases the local variety of Dogrish maintains, the less rigid the word order becomes.

Low-rigidity word order

This is especially true in literary and poetic Dogrish, where word order may be greatly varied as long as the declension of nouns indicates the function of said noun within the clause. Compare:

V2 word order
1. Í morgonen gång jag með hynna á vísereinnt, á bryggenar gaf jag hynna en kyss á kindent
"In the morningDAT went INOM with herDAT on the fieldsLOC, on the bridgeLOC gave INOM herDAT a kissACC on the cheekLOC"

Poetic word order
2. Í morgonen á visereinnt jag gång með hynna, á kindent jag hynna gaf á bryggenar en kyss
"In the morningDAT on the fieldsLOC INOM went with herDAT, on the cheekLOC INOM herDAT gave on the bridgeLOC a kissACC"

In the standard word order, the finite verb is placed in the second position in the clause. Poetic word order, or literary word order, however, allows for the shifting of positions: in this case, the first sentence in (2) follows the SVO worder order, or subject-verb-object ("I went with her"), with the verb falling in the fourth position, whereas the second sentence follows the SOV word order, or subject-object-verb ("I her gave"), with the verb once again falling in the fourth position.

Compare this to the second phrase of the poem:

V2 word order
1. Hven ví hlejer sammar í sólensljós og skríer av ångar í skadyvens ryst, vinden röyret grasið
1. When weNOM laugh together in sunlightLOC and cry of joyGEN in the shadow'sGEN shadeLOC, the windNOM touches the grassACC

Poetic word order
2. Grasið vinden röyret hven sammar ví í sólensljós hlejer og av ångar skríer í skadyvens ryst
2. The grassACC the windNOM touches when together weNOM in sunlightLOC laugh and of joyGEN cry in the shadow'sGEN shadeLOC

Here, in (2), three separate clauses are made into one continuous one, with the secondary clause of (1) becoming a primary clause in (2) following the OSV word order "the grass the wind touches", whilst the second clause follows the SOV word order ("we in sunlight laugh") and the third clause follows the SVO word order ("[we] cry in [the] shade").

High-rigidity word order

As the number of grammatical cases is dramatically lower, Anglo-Dogrish maintains a very rigid word order.

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Dogrish proverbs
Dogrish English translation Meaning
Kitlið en drekka, þakið í flammar (Formal Dogrish)
Kitlið en drækka, þakið í flammar (Valley Dogrish)
If you tickle a dragon, your roof will catch fire
You tickle a dragon, the roof in flames (literally)
Play stupid games, win stupid prizes.
Að komma á andensrupp. To come at the duck's call. To come right away.
Þrí veller í skógen, mörðrar ert flógen (Formal Dogrish)
Þrí veller í skógen, mördrer ært flógen (Valley Dogrish)
Three wells in the woods, the killer has fled To run behind the facts.

Other resources

Notes and references

  1. ^ Some local variaties, when using formal Dogrish, have preserved seven cases, but the usage of the seventh case, in casu the vocative, is generally considered archaic.
  2. ^ In some dialects the glottal approximant may be realised as a voiced pharyngeal frictative.