|Native to||South Korea, Japan|
|Regulated by||The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science|
Dokdo Creole, a.k.a Dokdoi, Takeshiman or Liancourt Creole(독도고, dogdo-go, Korean:독도어, dogdo-eo(Dokdo language), Japanese: 竹島方言, takeshima-hógen(Takeshima dialect)) is a Korean-Japanese creole language spoken on the islands of Liancourt Rocks, known as Dokdo in Korean and Takeshima in Japanese. Grammatically, it has been described as Japonic, however lexically it is a mixture of both Japonic and Koreanic languages.
In South Korea, specifically North Gyeongsang province, Dokdo Creole(독도어, dogdo-eo, lit. "Dokdo language") is the co-official language with Korean. Contrary to popular belief, Dokdo Creole is not considered a language in Japanese administration(specifically in Shimane prefecture), and is instead called the "Takeshima dialect"(竹島方言, takeshima-hógen) in official documentation. Despite this, South Korea, as well as international consensus classifies Dokdo Creole as a seperate language from either Korean or Japanese.
Due to the wider administrative support of the Korean government in the preservation of Dokdo Creole, the language de-facto uses the Hangul writing system, which is of Korean origin, and indeed, on the Korean-controlled half of Liancourt Rocks, known in Korean as Seodo(서도), all signs are written in Korean and Dokdoi, both in Hangul. On the Japanese-controlled island of Onna-jima(女島), Dokdoi is not considered a separate language and instead as a dialect of Japanese, thus all signs on the island are written in Standard Japanese. This also explains why the Sódo dialect, native to Seodo, is much more widely spoken than the Dukdo dialect which is native to Onna-jima.
Most of Dokdoi romanisation is based on Korean romanisation, apart from special symbols like ó, ê, ö and ü.
Monophthong /j/, /ɲ/, /ɟ/ do not have a Hangul symbol, instead being represented in diphthongs with vowels, e.g. /ja/ as 야.
/tɕ/ - ㅊ
/dʒ/ - ㅈ
(⟨ㅇ⟩ at the beginning of a syllable represents no sound. At the end of a syllable, it represents the consonant /ŋ/.)
⟨야⟩ - /ja/
⟨얘⟩ - /je/
⟨요⟩ - /jo/
⟨유⟩ - /ju/
⟨여⟩ - /joː/
⟨예⟩ - /jæ/
Dokdo Creole uses a (C)V(C) syllabic structure. This means that some words of Japanese origin(which uses a (C)V structure) like yama(山, mountain) becomes yam(얌, mountain).
In Dokdoi, there are two main verbs per se: both ending in da. These two verbs are to have and to be. To have is o/a + da(if the preceding word ends in a vowel, ada is used), e.g. tasu ada(타수아다, (I) have a cup). To say something is something else, one simply uses da(or dayo in the Dukdo dialect), e.g. (yong) a aho da((용)아아호다, (I) am an idiot).
Dokdoi, like Japanese, uses an SOV(subject-object-verb) grammatical structure, e.g. inu ga gong oda.(인우가공오다.)(the dog has a ball, lit. dog TOP ball has).
인우투갼 (inu tu gyan)
lit. dog and cat
The above sentence translates to "The dog and the cat". In Dokdoi, articles like "the" are not used unless you specify the location, e.g. "안우인우(anu inu)", or lit. "the dog (over there)".
anu(안우) - that (one thing, over there)
enu(앤우) - this (next to me)
anugu(안우구) - that (multiple things, over there)
enugu(앤우구) - this (multiple things next to me)
Dukdo(둨도), a.k.a eastern dialect(히가쌔후겐, higaze hugên) is spoken mainly on the Japanese-controlled island of Onna-jima(임지마, imjima). Lexically, it is the more Japonic of the two dialects, which leads to some differences in words, even if they are of the same root, e.g. singsa(싱사) in Sódo and jinja(진자) in Dukdo, both of which come from Japanese jinja(神社).
Additionally, Dukdo tends to have more diphthongs with /n/, compared to Sódo which tends to turn /n/ into /ŋ/ in diphthongs. For example, Sódo anyóngan(안영안) and Dukdo ênyunan(엔유난). Also, Dukdo has more /æ/s than Sódo, which tends to have more /e/s.
Sódo(서도), a.k.a western dialect(니지후겐, niji hugên) is spoken mainly on the South Korean-controlled island of Seodo, where the dialect gets its name. It is the more widely spoken dialect of Dokdo Creole, with about 6,000 more native speakers than Dukdo(with 5,000 native speakers). Lexically, it has larger Koreanic influences than Dukdo, but Japonic influence can still be seen, especially in words for nature, cardinal directions, body parts and animal parts.
Example textsIn English:
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
In Dokdo Creole(Dukdo):
In Dokdo Creole(Sódo):