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Created byJukethatbox
Native toEnkophone communities
EthnicityBawakhi, Nedeẃi, Yawayé, Nnibiteẃẃi
Native speakers3 million (2023)
  • Naknaic
    • Enkesh
Standard form
Standard Urban Enkesh
  • Bawakhi
    • Seẃibawakhi
    • Khuẃabawakhi
  • Nedeẃi
    • Inkhénedeẃi
    • Mabhinedeẃi
  • Yawayé
  • Nnibiteẃẃi
  • Khopatiẃẃaẃeni †
Official status
Official language in
Anéppia, Bawakyawan Confederacy
Recognised minority
language in
Northern Republic
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Enkesh(/ɛŋ.kɛʃ/, Enkesh: ['e.ɳe.koʃwan]) is a Nakna-Tiwaic language spoken natively on the river banks of the Anippa/Anéppa river, which is a major source of irrigation water for most pastures in the nation of Anéppia, as well as for the nomadic tribal confederacy of Bawakyawan.

The formation of the Enkesh language is actually an ongoing conversion of Nakna languages into a singular language of varied dialects throughout the centuries. The first records of linguistic converging among Nakna languages was recorded in 1889, when linguists discovered that the now extinct Bawak(bémékoẃanma) language and Yawa languages had grown similar enough to be considered dialects of a single language.



Enkesh uses a modified version of the Latin script.


Enkesh consonants
Alveolar Post-
Retroflex Palatal/
voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiceless voiced
Plosive standard p b t d ʈ ⟨tt⟩ ɖ ⟨dd⟩ c k g q
aspirated pʰ⟨ph⟩ bʱ⟨bh⟩ tʰ⟨th⟩ dʱ⟨dh⟩ ʈʰ ⟨tth⟩ ɖʱ ⟨ddh⟩ kʰ⟨kh⟩ gʱ⟨gh⟩ qʰ⟨qh⟩
ejective pʼ ⟨pp⟩ bʼ ⟨bb⟩ kʼ ⟨kk⟩ gʼ ⟨gg⟩ qʼ ⟨qq⟩
Nasal m n ɳ ⟨nn⟩ ɲ ⟨ny⟩ ŋ ⟨ng⟩
Tap/Flap ɾ ⟨r⟩
Fricative standard f v s z ʃ ⟨ś⟩ (ʒ) ç ⟨cc⟩ x ɣ ⟨xx⟩
no audible release fʼ ⟨ff⟩ sʼ ⟨ss⟩ zʼ ⟨zz⟩
Affricate standard t͡s ⟨ç⟩ d͡z⟨çç⟩ t͡ʃ ⟨ć⟩ d͡ʒ ⟨ćć⟩
aspirated t͡sʰ ⟨çh⟩ d͡zʱ⟨ççh⟩ t͡ʃʰ ⟨ćh⟩ d͡ʒʱ ⟨ććh⟩
Lateral Approximant
l ɭ ⟨ll⟩ j ⟨y⟩ ʍ ⟨ẃẃ⟩ w


Enkesh vowels
Front Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close i ɯ ⟨ú⟩ u
Mid Close-mid e ⟨é⟩ ø ⟨ö⟩ o
Open-mid ɛ ⟨e⟩ ʌ ⟨á⟩ ɔ ⟨ó⟩
Open a



Stress is prototonic in Enkesh, so stress is placed on the first syllable word of a word.

The use of stress in a Nakna-Tiwaic language is rare, as most other Nakna-Tiwaic and even Nakna languages in general tend to have a detailed tone system, although even Enkesh's use of stress closely resembles tone patterns in other Nakna-Tiwaic languages.


Enkesh uses a (C)(C)V(V)(C)(C) syllable structure, which is descendant from Proto-Nakna-Tiwaic *(C)V(C).


If a voiced plosive consonant(usually alveolar~retroflex) is in an outset position, then the consonant becomes voiceless, e.g.:

  • /d/ in Adam → /t/ in otiqaöpinád.

Enkesh also extensively uses the sandhi phenomenon, e.g. the word śukullan("chocolate"), when in its accusative form, the outset and onset /n/s from śukullan and -né respectively turn said /n/s into a /ɳ/.



Enkesh nouns are agglutinates of basic words, a bit like how some German words are constructed(such as German Fernseher, "television", lit. "far-seer"). An Enkesh example of this would be a word like otiqaöpinád, meaning "front yard/lawn", which is comprised of the words otiqa(green), öpin(front, front-facing), and the locative case suffix -ád, so, a literal translation would be green-front-LOC.


Like verbs, adjectives have strong and weak forms. Weak forms end in -a, and strong forms have their own irregular ending. However, one thing they all have in common is that alongside their ending, they have a case ending correlating to the noun they describe, although this rule is null in agglutinate words. They are also always placed before the noun.

  • Nawéiw Budhakiw ya. ("Big Buddha exists.")
  • Khána döpaz śukullan. ("I like little chocolates")


Enkesh uses noun case declensions to describe nouns. Of these, Enkesh has six noun cases: the nominative, ergative, accusative, dative, genitive and locative. All of them, excluding the nominative, are indicated using a distinct suffix.

Enkesh noun case declensions
written form pronunciation
Ergative -iw iw
Accusative -né ne
Dative -nyé ɲe
Genitive -kö
Locative -ád ʌt


Verbs in Enkesh have strong(irregular conjugation) and weak(strict conjugation pattern) forms.

Most verbs end in -a.

Weak verbs

Weak verbs always end in -a or -z, but if it ends in -a then it is inflected to -am if the subject is plural.

  • Médda phulád. (I swim in the pool.)
  • Myeddariw méddam phulád. (The swimmers swim in the pool.)

Strong verbs

Strong verbs do not have general grammatical patterns, and always end in -a, even in plural. It is then up to context to indicate the subject of the verb.


Constituent order

Enkesh has a free word order, as both subjects and objects are indicated by ergative and accusative case declensions, although most sentences stick to an SVO format.

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Other resources