Evonish

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Evonish (subject to constant renaming) is a constructed language (for a possible constructed world) mostly limited to my day dreaming and notebooks. It is a-posetriori and influenced primarily by (West) Germanic, (Insular) Celtic, and Russian. Its phoneme inventory is based on General American phonology. The wordstock has many influences of Germanic languages, Celtic languages, Slavic languages, and some a priori vocabulary.

Imagine Germanic tribes such as the Anglo-Saxons and the eastern gathering together with Celts and sailing the Baltic Sea. They landed near modern day Saint Petersburg where they established their own nation-state, absorbing some northern Russian groups.


Evonish
Evonic (?)
Progress: 22%
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Verb-second
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Common/Neuter
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Objectives

  • to create a poetic, flowing language
  • to preserve old Germanic grammar
  • to preserve Celtic vocabulary
  • to create a left-hand friendly writing system

Phonology

Æ-Tensing, a process by which the vowel /æ/ is raised and lengthened to produce /æ̝ˑ/ before a nasal consonant, is in free variation and is merely an allophone. Iotation may feature in the language for a form of inflection. Palatalization occurs in /sk/ consonant clusters rendering them /ʃ/.

Consonants

Parenthesis indicate allophones.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Labio-velar Velar Glottal
m /m/ n /n/ ŋ /ŋ/ Nasal
p /p/ b /b/ t /t/ d /d/ k /k/ g /g/ Plosive
f /f/ v /v/ þ /θ/ ð /ð/ s /s/ z /z/ c /ʃ/ ʒ /ʒ/ x /x/ h /h/ Fricative
r /ɹ/ j /j/ q /ʍ/ w /w/ Approximant
l /l/ Lateral

Vowels

Parenthesis indicate allophones. The following table includes the rhotic vowels as well.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
í /i/ ú /u:/ Close
i /ɪ/ y /ʊ/ Near-close
é /e:/, /e˞ː/ ó /o:/ Close-mid
e /ə/ Mid
e /ɛ/, /ɛ˞ː/ /ɝː/ u /ʌ/ · œ /ɔ/, or /ɔ˞ː/ Open-mid
æ /æ/ (æ̝ˑ) Near-open
a /ɑ/, ar /ɑ˞/ Open

Writing

The writing system is based on a Latin alphabet, which represents the scope of the romance influence on the language. Additionally, the alphabet is greatly modified from the traditional Roman variant with a handful of relatively unique characters. The language may be written from right to left, so long as the capital letter at the beginning of the sentence is at the write, and the form is consistent throughout. The exact phonetic equivalents can be found in the tables above. A tailed z gradually developed to represent the zh sound, now represented by the character ʒ.

The thirty-two letter alphabet is a modified Latin alphabet that contains the following bookstaves:

  • æ, a, b, c, d, ð, e, f, g, h i, j, k, l, m, n, ŋ, œ, o, p, q, r, s, t, þ, u, v, w, x, y, z, ʒ.

The archaic characters are ƕ(hwair) and ƿ(Wynn), which represent q and w respectively. The IPA for Varevon is sorely out of date, and is subject to change soon. Umlauts are written with a diaeresis/umlaut, and doubled vowels indicate long vowels or gemination.

Pronouns

Personal pronouns are the most complex. The sole relative pronoun is [TBD].

Person Number Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative
Singular First
Second
Common
Neuter
Plural First
Second
Third
Indefinite Reflexive
Interrogative Common
Neuter

Determiners

The negative article is understood as indefinite; there is no negative definite article so the verb of the sentence is negated instead. Determines are key to distinguish to distinguishing gender. the E at the end of some determiner plurals is an ancient pluralizing form.

Determiners Article Demonstrative
Definite Indefinite Negative Proximal Distal
Common Singular
Plural -
Neuter Singular
Plural

Table of Correlatives

Lorem Ipsum.

Morphology

Adjectives

Certain adjectives decline only in an attributive position; they do not in a predicative position. Cf. German die schwarze Magd vs die Magd ist schwarz. Some adjectives undergo mutation. Furthermore, there are many common affixes which form adjectives, whose list will be available in time.

Mutations

Ablaut

In progress

Grammatischer Wechsel

The language is descended from Proto-Germanic. Thus it includes Grimm's Law and Verner's Law; however, it retains a unique variant, as does all modern Germanic descendants. It's variant of these two laws creates different sound changes within verb paradigms known as the Grammatischer Wechsel. Commas indicate the second phoneme occurs in the case of Verner's Law. Phonemes in parenthesis were allophones and innovations in their respective languages.

Proto-Indo-European Proto-Germanic Old Norse Old English Old High German Evonish
*p *ɸ, β f f (v) f, b ???

Umlaut

Nouns

Their declension depends upon case and number. The plural genitive ending is used in compound words much like kennings. The umlaut occurs in some plurals, in some cases, and sometimes in whole words. The vocative, instrumental, and locative forms disappeared since Proto-Germanic. A pseudo-vocative form is made with the clitic O' (from Celtic) and uses the zero conjugation.

Strong

The vowel a became associated with plural and e with singular. Vowel dropping may be apparent spoken, but it is not written, such as Engel not declining to Eng'la.

Strong - Engel (Angel) Singular Plural
Nominative/Accusative Engel Engelas
Genitive Engeles Engela
Dative Engele Engelam

Weak

Weak - Name (name) Singular Plural
Nominative/Accusative Name Namen
Genitive Name(n)s Nam(en)a
Dative Namen Namen

Augmentative & Diminutive

Lots of Stuff here

Verb

Verbs or verb forms in quotes are either an English equivalent or a work in progress. The infinitives of the frequentative form are -eln and -ern; these can be made of many verbs. The infinitive form in Evonish is the lemma form of the verb, meaning it is the one used in dictionaries. The primary aspects are simple, perfect, progressive, habitual, and inchoative. Simple aspect is used for:

  • Stative verbs
  • Gnomic aspect

Further aspects are formed by nonstandard ways or purely by context.

Copula

There will be both copular and semi-copular verbs. The copula is the most inflected and suppletive verb in the entire language.

Paradigms

Form Suffix
Lemma
Frequentative
Aspect Main Auxiliary
Habitual infinitive "to do"
Inchoative supine "to begin"
Perfect past participle "to have"
Progressive present participle "to be"
Tense Person Auxiliary
Future First "shall"
Second "will"
Third "go"

The particle [TBD] after the main verb negates the verb. The following table shows the conjugation of the verb fällen, a weak 1 class verb. The auxiliary verbs in the table are the verbs used with the participles to form two different aspects.

zdfbzdcb
Nonfinite Infinitive
Gerund
Supine
Participle Tense Positive Negative
Present
Past
Mood Tense Singular Plural
Indicative Present [TBD]
[TBD]
[TBD]
Past [TBD]
[TBD] [TBD]
[TBD] [TBD]
Subjunctive Nonpast
Past
Imperative Present

Syntax

Comparisons

Comparative forms use a particle followed by the noun(s) being compared to. Depending on that noun's case will determine which noun is first making the comparison. These can imply drastically different meanings, for example:

  • "He ate pie quicker than I" would yield "than I ate pie" (in this example the compared noun is in the nominative).
  • "He ate pie quicker than me" would yield "than he ate me" (in this example the compared noun is in the accusative).

Word Order

The standard word order is V2; when a phrase, clause, adverb, or adjective precedes the subject for emphasis, the second argument is always the verb. This can be demonstrated in the somewhat archaic or fanciful use "From the ground grew the tree." Word order is flexible due to conjugations however the primary form for independent clauses is Subject-Verb-Object. Questions without interrogative pronouns(yes or no) have verb first and subject second. Dependent clauses have a special word order:

  • Subject
  • Indirect Object
  • Direct Object
  • Instrument
  • Verb.

Relative clauses follow the same pattern as independent clauses when appended to independent clauses and follow the dependent pattern when appended to a dependent clause.

Dictionary

Kinship
Grandmother Grandfather Grandmother Grandfather
 
 
 
Uncles Wife Uncle Uncles Wife Uncle Uncles Wife Uncle Aunts husband Aunt Aunts husband Aunt Aunts husband Aunt Father Mother Uncles Wife Uncle Uncles Wife Uncle Uncles Wife Uncle Aunts husband Aunt Aunts husband Aunt Aunts husband Aunt
 
 
 
Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin
 
 
Twin Sisters Husband Twin Sister Little Sisters Husband Little Sister Big Sisters Huband Big Sister Wife Self Husband Big Brother  Big Brothers Wife Little Brother Little Brothers Wife Twin Brother Twin Brothers Wife
 
 
 
Niece Nephew Niece Nephew Niece Nephew Son Daughter Son Daughter Niece Nephew Niece Nephew Niece Nephew

Example texts

Lorem Ipsum.