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This is a list of sentences suggested to translate in order to check the extent of a language's capability of expressing concepts. The list is in increasing order of "difficulty". A language does not need to have an established distinction for all of the possibilities below, some can coincide and be left to context to disentangle. Those that are recommended are coloured red

  • Intransitive verb:A man is falling
  • Transitive verb:A dog is biting a man
  • Definiteness:The dog is biting a man
  • Imperfective: I was sleeping
  • Perfective: I slept
  • Past tense:I was sleeping