Haeac

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Haeac
Ἅιακα (Héaka)
Pronunciation ['haiaka], ['heaka]
Created by Christian Meredith
Setting Fictional
Spoken natively in Haeas
Region Haeac seas, rivers, tributaries and maritime network
Native speakers About 10 million?  ({{{date}}})
Language family
Writing system Greek alphabet
Official status
Official language in Haeac Federation
ISO 639-3 hea

The Haeac language (Haeac: Ἅιακα, Ἁιακός, Héaka, Heakós in 2nd-Koine pronunciation) is a Greek (aesthetic) and Germanic (lexicon), amongst other influences, inspired constructed language. Despite originally being Proto-Indo-European etyma of modern Germanic languages having Greek sound changes applied to them, it has been expanded to have more diverse influences, and a less a-posteriori bent. The language is written in the Greek alphabet and marks for breathing. In-universe, the Haeac language is the lingua-franca Dachsprache of the Haeac Federation. As a Dachsprache, it is prone to absorbing the linguistic diversity of its territory into itself; as a result various stages of the Haeac koine have varied in complexity and flexibility, based on the influences of its daughter and sister dialects.

Introduction

Haeac has a principally Hellenic inspiration as far as aesthetics are concerned, written in the Greek alphabet and using a mixture of phonologies from the various stages of the Greek language. However, the wordstock is derived from Germanic and Italic etyma reverted to their Proto-Indo-European forms (amongst other sources). Grammatically, the language resembles a mixture of Germanic, Greek, Italic, and other influences, with a great deal of simplification and flexibility added into the mix. Some of that flexibility is inspired by Proto-Indo-European and is intended to reflect the productiveness of many of its morphemes before rigid paradigms were established in the daughter languages.

Phonology

Haeac is dominated by two Koines from two different eras that are still taught, learnt, and used in the present. The first is, aptly, 1st Koine Haeac, and the second is, logically following that, 2nd Koine Haeac. Naturally, this variability between the two Koines (both having had an impact on the overall present situation for the Dachsprache) has lead to a broad variety of confused pronunciations today, with hypercorrections and misidentification of phonemes being quite common in less educated varieties of the language.

Scholars posit that a third koine, unsystematically by popularly named Neo-Haeac, is being formed due to this confusion, with vast simplifications to the language taking place based on the confused pronunciations of the first two koines. This theoretical 3rd Koine is considered both a frightening and exciting prospect for Haeac linguists.

Orthography

The Haeac orthography is the Greek alphabet, using breathing marks due to the presence of a /h/ phoneme in most varieties of the language. When written in Latin script, it uses old-fashioned English Greco-Latin orthographic conventions. For example, Haeac rather than Heac (cf. encyclopaedia vs encyclopedia).

Consonants

2nd Koine Haeac is characterised by a more solidified consonant inventory, while 1st Koine Haeac is far more variable with regards to pronunciation. For example, ph in 1st Koine is optionally an aspirated plosive and a voiceless fricative, and as an aspirated plosive, it may merge with the normal voiceless plosive into one phoneme.

2nd Koine Haeac

Manner Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Plosive p, b* t, d* k, g*
Fricative ph, v th, s, z ch^ h
Nasal m n
Liquid l, r

*Voiced plosives typically lenite between vowels.
^ ch is often pronounced with a [k] or [h] in many ad-hoc varieties and idiolects.

1st Koine Haeac

Manner Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
Plosive p, b t, d* k, g*
'Fricative' p~ph, v t~th, s, z k~ch h
Nasal m n
Liquid l, r

Vowels

Once again, 2nd Koine Haeac represents a reformation of the vowel system while 1st Koine Haeac is far more variable in pronunciation.

2nd Koine Haeac

Openness Front Central Back
Closed i, y^, (ē) ou
Mid e, (ē) o, ō, au
Open a

1st Koine Haeac

Openness Front Central Back
Closed i, (ē) y (ou)
Mid e, (ē) o, ō
Open (ē) a

In addition, ai (ae) and ei are treated as diphthongs, and to a lesser degree ou (u) (often [u]), oi (oe) (often [y ~ ü]), and ui (y) (often [y ~ ü]).

3rd Koine Haeac (Neo-Haeac)

Characteristic of Neo-Haeac pronunciation is the confusion between the historic monophthongs and diphthongs, and an uncertain placement of historic long, but generally POA-shifted vowels such as ē and ō.

Traditional Vowel Phonemes New Phoneme Pronunciations*
a a a
ae, e, (ē) ai e, ai
i, y, ui, oi i i, ü~i:
o, ō, au o~au o, o: au
ou o~u u, ou, o:
ē, (i, e)^ e i, e, a

*Often the latter pronunciations are used in 'stressed', emphatic, or simply stylish pronunciations, but it is important to note that 'stress' here does not refer to normal stressed syllables.
^These vowels in this situation may be pronounced like /e/, but not /a/.

Prosody

Stress

In 1st and 2nd Koine Haeac the stress is marked in the orthography and is generally free. More in depth analyses however place stress on the nucleus of the nucleus of the most stressed morpheme of the word, and present a hierarchy of stress for morphemes. For example, -ós, -ón and -´ē often pull the stress away from the main root. Because these morphemes carry certain meanings, and have their influence on semantics is bound to their influence on a word's stress patterns, some Haeac linguists feel that the underlying default placement for stress is in fact the first syllable.

Intonation

(To be addressed later)

Phonotactics

(To be addressed later)

Morphology