Hauteis

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Hauteis or L'Hautlang is a Romance language descended from Norman French and is one of two languages spoken on the island of Rathmos.

Phonology and Orthography

Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives p      b t      d k      g
Nasal         m         n
Trill         r
Fricative f      v s      z h        
Affricate t͡s         t͡ʃ      d͡ʒ
Approximant         w         l         j

Vowels

Hauteis has the following six pure vowels, most of which (excluding only /ɛː/), have long and short variants.

Front Back
Close i(ː) u(ː)
Close-mid e(ː) o(ː)
Open-mid ɛː
Open a(ː)

In addition to the pure vowels there are five diphthongs: /au̯/, /ei̯/, /i̯u/, /oi̯/ and /ou̯/.

Orthography

The Hauteis alphabet consists of the following letters:

a b c d e f g h i j l m n o p q r s t u v w z

The table below shows the correspondence between orthography and pronunciation:

Graph IPA Notes
a /a/
á /aː/
au /au̯/
b /b/
c /k/ before a, o, u, au and oi
/s/ before e, i, ei and iu
d /d/
e /e/
é /eː/
ei /ei̯/
f /f/
g /g/ before a, o, u, au and oi
/d͡ʒ/ before e, i, ei and iu
h /h/
i /i/
í /iː/
iu /i̯u/
j /d͡ʒ/
l /l/
m /m/
n /n/
o /o/
ó /oː/
oi /oi̯/
ou /ou̯/
p /p/
q /k/
qu /kw/
r /r/
s /s/ initially; finally; adjacent to a voiceless consonant
/z/ between vowels or voiced sounds
t /t/
u /u/
ú /uː/
v /v/
w /w/
z /t͡s/

Phonological Processes

The following phonological processes occur in Hauteis:

  • word-final al and ol become au and ou when a following consonant is added (e.g. animal "animal" > animaus "animals").
  • word-final z becomes c when a vowel-intial ending is added (e.g. fáz "face" > fáces "faces").

Morphology

Nouns

Nouns are either masculine or feminine in gender. Nouns themselves are not usually marked for gender but words qualifying nouns, such as articles and adjectives, often are.

lo rei "the king" (m.)
la rein "the queen" (f.).

The plural of most nouns is formed by adding -s to the stem. Nouns ending in -s or -z add -es (-z also changes to -c-).

los óms "the men"
iuns dáms "some women"
les fáces "the faces" (< fáz)
fóus "fools" (< fól)

Articles

Hauteis has definite and indefinite articles, which agree with their noun in number and gender. The definite article is declined as follows:

Singular Plural
Masculine lu lus
Feminine la les

Both singular articles are reduced to l' before a vowel-initial word.

Examples:

l'óm "the man"
la nuris "the nurse"
lus arbres "the trees"
les cats "the cats"

The prepositions de "of", a "to" and en "in" combine with the definite article in the following ways:

de "of" a "to" en "in"
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masculine del dels au, al aus el els
Feminine de la, del dels a la, al aus e la, el els


The indefinite article has only two forms: iun (singular) and iuns (plural).