|Created by||Marvin Johanning|
|Setting||Used for official documents of the Institute for Jeïos, personal use|
|Writing system||Latin script with additions|
|Regulated by||Institute for Jeïos|
All vowels can be long. The vowels in paratheses are borrowed from other languages and are not native
|Mid||e (ø) ɛ||ə||ɔ o|
|Plosive||p b||t d||ɟ||k g||ʔ|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||ʝ ç||ʁ χ||h|
Kwarna uses the Latin alphabet with a couple of extensions
|They||Prasnaler, krasnaler, rasnaler|
There are no articles in Kwarna. The accusative suffix "-juva" can be used to indicate that you are talking about a specific item
ŧağa → to be -ğa is the stem of the verb. If the pronouns starts with a vowel (e.g. Ẽo), then the "ğ" stays. For any other case, the "ğa" is removed completly, and the pronoun is added to the remaining verb
ŧağa → ŧa(ğ) → ŧağẽo (I am) → ŧalaña (you are)
The past works almost the same as the presens, but instead of adding the pronouns to the stem of the verb, the pronouns are added to the stem of the verb + "gu"
ŧağa → ŧa- → ŧagu (past stem)
ŧagṽẽo¹ (I was)
ŧagulaña (you were)
¹When the pronoun start with a vowel, the "u" is being replaced with a ṽ
The past works almost the same as the presens, but instead of adding the pronouns to the stem of the verb, the pronouns are added to the stem of the verb + "la"
ŧağa → ŧa- → ŧala (future stem)
ŧalağẽo (I will be)
ŧalalaña (you will be)
Negation is indicated by a „đa“ directly after the stem of the verb.
I do not like being in school
Ẽojẽo koli gamađağẽo đağa
Ẽo-jẽo koli gama-đa-ğ-ẽo đa-ğa
1SG-ALL school like-NEG-ğ-PRS.1SG be.inside-INF
I-to school like-not-I be inside
Me school not like to be inside
he word „to be“ can either be „ŧağa“ or it can be added to the end of a word.
The endings are as follows:
interneŧudim – I am on the internet
kolitudimae – We are at school
žafalañamotuduras – He is in your house
frizørlañamotudeš-mı; - Are you at your barber?
ŧertadeš-mı; - Where are you?
Negation works by adding „ço“ before the form
kolitudimae – we are at school
kolituçodimae – we are not at school
I want to be
„I want to be“ has its own form, it is formed by using the „to be“ forms + „agura“ (desire)
Kolitudimagura – I want to be at school
Kolituçodimagura – I do not want to be at school
Prepositions in Kṽarna are either integrated into the verb or are added at the end of a noun.
ŧağa → to be
đağa → to be in(side)
I am in school
Otherwise, the prepostions are added to the end of a noun
|Case name||Description in English||Ending in Kwarna|
²If word ends in a "t" (internet), it is replaced with -ŧu (interneŧu)
1. If last letter consonant: devoice consonant and add “a”
(a) If consonant has no devoiced part, write consonant twice (lañaler -> lañalerra)
2. If last letter is vowel: replace vowel with “ø”
3. If last vowel is „ø“, „oes“ is used
4. If it is „ẽo“, the form is irregular - kaeftø
Here is an example of a more advanced sentence using „-ja“
Žafaja halđa milaña-mı; → When are you going to the house?
Žafa-ja halđa mi-laña-mı;
House-ALL when go-PRS.2SG Q?
(Note: The question mark is a colon in Kṽarna)
Here is an example of a sentence using the Instrumental case:
lañø zuğẽo, venųğẽomo → I am speaking to you, my friend
lañ-ø zuğ-ẽo venų-ğẽo-mo
2SG-INS speak-PRS.1SG friend-1SG-GEN