Kṽarna

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Kṽarna

Kwarna
Kṽarna
Pronunciation [kʍarnɐ]
Created by Marvin Johanning
Setting Used for official documents of the Institute for Jeïos, personal use
Date 2015
Language family
Language isolate
  • Kwarna
Writing system Latin script with additions
Official status
Regulated by Institute for Jeïos
ISO 639-3

History

Phonology

All vowels can be long. The vowels in paratheses are borrowed from other languages and are not native

Front Central Back
Close i (y) u
Mid e (ø) ɛ ə ɔ o
Open a ɐ


Bilibial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d ɟ k g ʔ
Affricative t͡s tʃ dʒ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʝ ç ʁ χ h
Approximant (ʋ) j w ʍ
Trill r r̥
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l
Flap ɾ


Ortography

Kwarna uses the Latin alphabet with a couple of extensions

Grammar

Pronouns

English Kõraakii
I Ẽo
You Laña
He Prasna
She Krasna
It Rasna
We Ẽoler
You (pl.) Lañaler
They Prasnaler, krasnaler, rasnaler


Articles

There are no articles in Kwarna. The accusative suffix "-juva" can be used to indicate that you are talking about a specific item

Conjugation

Presens Conjugation

ŧağa → to be -ğa is the stem of the verb. If the pronouns starts with a vowel (e.g. Ẽo), then the "ğ" stays. For any other case, the "ğa" is removed completly, and the pronoun is added to the remaining verb

ŧağa → ŧa(ğ) → ŧağẽo (I am) → ŧalaña (you are)


Past Conjugation

The past works almost the same as the presens, but instead of adding the pronouns to the stem of the verb, the pronouns are added to the stem of the verb + "gu"

ŧağa → ŧa- → ŧagu (past stem)
ŧagṽẽo¹ (I was)
ŧagulaña (you were)

¹When the pronoun start with a vowel, the "u" is being replaced with a ṽ


Future Conjugation

The past works almost the same as the presens, but instead of adding the pronouns to the stem of the verb, the pronouns are added to the stem of the verb + "la"

ŧağa → ŧa- → ŧala (future stem)
ŧalağẽo (I will be)
ŧalalaña (you will be)


Negation

Negation is indicated by a „đa“ directly after the stem of the verb.

I do not like being in school
Ẽojẽo koli gamađağẽo đağa
Ẽo-jẽo koli gama-đa-ğ-ẽo đa-ğa
1SG-ALL school like-NEG-ğ-PRS.1SG be.inside-INF
I-to school like-not-I be inside
Me school not like to be inside

To be

he word „to be“ can either be „ŧağa“ or it can be added to the end of a word.

The endings are as follows:

I am -dim
You are -deš
He/she/it/ is -duras
We -dimae
You(pl.) -dešae
They -durasae

interneŧudim – I am on the internet
kolitudimae – We are at school
žafalañamotuduras – He is in your house
frizørlañamotudeš-mı; - Are you at your barber?
ŧertadeš-mı; - Where are you?


Negation

Negation works by adding „ço“ before the form

kolitudimae – we are at school
kolituçodimae – we are not at school


I want to be

„I want to be“ has its own form, it is formed by using the „to be“ forms + „agura“ (desire)

Kolitudimagura – I want to be at school
Kolituçodimagura – I do not want to be at school


Prepositions

Prepositions in Kṽarna are either integrated into the verb or are added at the end of a noun.

ŧağa → to be
đağa → to be in(side)
Koli đağ-ẽo
School be.inside-PRS.1SG
I am in school

Otherwise, the prepostions are added to the end of a noun

Case name Description in English Ending in Kwarna
Allative to (place/person) -ja
Allative to (thing) -jẽo
Genitiv of -mo
Inessive in -tu (ŧu²)
Accusative -juva
Instrumental ³ ³

²If word ends in a "t" (internet), it is replaced with -ŧu (interneŧu)

³Instrumental (with)

1. If last letter consonant: devoice consonant and add “a” 

(a) If consonant has no devoiced part, write consonant twice (lañaler -> lañalerra)

2. If last letter is vowel: replace vowel with “ø”
3. If last vowel is „ø“, „oes“ is used
4. If it is „ẽo“, the form is irregular - kaeftø


Here is an example of a more advanced sentence using „-ja“

Žafaja halđa milaña-mı; → When are you going to the house?
Žafa-ja halđa mi-laña-mı;
House-ALL when go-PRS.2SG Q?
(Note: The question mark is a colon in Kṽarna)

Here is an example of a sentence using the Instrumental case:

lañø zuğẽo, venųğẽomo → I am speaking to you, my friend
lañ-ø zuğ-ẽo venų-ğẽo-mo
2SG-INS speak-PRS.1SG friend-1SG-GEN