Latirdo

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Latirdo
ψoⱶιɥҷoⱱ ϑ϶ƽƽ
Pronunciation: latiːɾdan kɛsː
Spoken in: Latirda, Leitídua, Sukkistanas, Tehteluanasta, Keshtaffvikst
Total speakers: 1.186 billion
Language family: Isiat-West
Writing system: Isialuior Script (ϑɞ᾿oⱱ ιƽιoψɞιơɥ)
Official status
Official language in: Latirda, Sukkistanas, Keshtaffvikst
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ltr
ISO 639-2 ltr
SIL ltr
See also: LanguageLists of languages

Latirdo (Latirdan kess/ψoⱶιɥҷoⱱ ϑ϶ƽƽ [latiːɾdan kɛsː]) is a fictional language developed for use in books including "Ulmusea" by Sihithe Avralte. Latirdo is spoken by close to a billion and a quarter people in Latirda, it's fictional theoretical place of origin. The language comes from the family sub-group West-Isiat and is grouped closely and is almost mutually intelligible with several other West-Isiat languages, such as "Leitídu", "Sukkista Isiat", and "Tehteluo". This language has been being constructed for over a year now and its dictionary has gotten to 3,300 words. Latirdo traditionally uses the Isialuior Script, but for ease of reading and typing, in this article the Latin Script is used to write. Latirdo serves as a lingua franca for all nations in West Okkirna, almost all of whose languages are of the West Isiat family, thus related to Latirdo, as far as fluent native speakers go, the number is limited to only about 740 million who are those who inhabit Latirda itself.


Phonology

Latirdo is traditionally written using the Isialuior script, but the Latin Script is used for this article

CONSONANTS

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p t d k ʔ
Fricative β v f θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ɤ h
Affricate ts tʃ dʒ
Lateral l
Tap/flap ɾ
Approximant w j
Nasal m n ŋ
Trill ʀ

VOWELS

Front Central Back
High i iː ʏ ʏː u uː
Mid ɛ eː ʌ ɔ oː
Low æ a aː

-accented vowels are pronounced twice as long as normal

Orthography

Front Central Back
High i, í ü, ű u, ú
Mid e, é ö o, ó
Low ä a á
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p t d k
Fricative b v f þ ð s z x j g h
Affricate ts tx dj
Lateral lw l
Tap/flap r
Approximant w y
Nasal m n n(k)
Trill rr

Morphology

Latirdo is an agglutinative / fusional language, straddling the two categories. The rule is that if it's one idea, it's one word, and crazily long words can be made by not only making compound words but conjugating and declining to add on length. The longest recorded "official" compound is murniarkavatiellanlatsukkusutaihtunovinitivintodussuyukkéodustalle, and that means with the deciduous forest's admirable official general's office building's big windows.

Grammar

Nouns

In Latirdo, nouns can be declined according to case, and number. And because of the subject and object marking with case, syntax is very flexible although it usually follows a pattern of SVO.

Noun Cases
CASE Singular Plural Suffix
Nominative Lira Lirat none
Accusative Liret Liratet -t, -et
Genitive Liran Liraten -n, -en
Comitative Liralte Liratalle -lte, -alle
Vocative Liras Lirates -s, -es
Pluralization

There are two numbers: singular, and plural. A noun is default singular alone, and requires a suffix to denote plurality, the suffix changes depending on the final letter of the noun, and nouns are pluralized BEFORE their case is specified.

lira → lirat (ending in -rV)

mluss → mlusst (ending in -s)

kava → kavar (ending in -V)

kúan → kúanar (ending in -nasal consonant)

ajor → ajorat (ending in -r)

tok → tokre (ending in plosive)

kiz → kizd (ending in -z)

-note for accusative with type A, the first listed, the final vowel is changed automatically to -e to differentiate from the plural, as both are defined with the suffix -t

Diminutive and Empowering

Nouns, before pluralization and declension, can take on a suffix denoting smallness, the diminutive, or largeness, the empowering.

diminutive -edis empowering -odus

lira → house, liredis → little house / cottage; lirodus → big house / mansion

-note the final vowel is changed to the first vowel of the suffix*

Adjectives

Adjective endings are changed depending on the gender of the noun they describe. Noun classes - or genders - in Latirdo have adjectives take the following forms

Singular Plural
Animate lasið lasi
Inanimate lasiþ lasi
Abstract lasisk lasi
Nouns Derived from Adjectives

The simple suffix -e can be put on the end of any adjective in its default INANIMATE form to make it a noun possessing the quality denoted by the adjective.

goáiþ → red

goáiþe → "the red one"

these nouns can be declined and pluralized just like any other noun.

Adverbs

Adverbs in Latirdo are non-existent and the regular adjectives are simply used because they can describe both nouns and verbs, although since verbs do not have gender, the adjective takes the default -þ for INANIMATE ending.

Numerals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 20 30
Number nei kej xa loi góa kóa suvi dra vér vernei vermú múver kejver
Ordinal neiþ múlþ keiþ xaþ loiþ góaþ kóaþ suviþ draþ vereþ verneiþ vermúlþ múvereþ kejvereþ
Fractional ómi ximua xikua xixua xilua xigoua xikoua xidraua xiverua xiverneua xivermua xiverkua xiverxua xiverlua
Example 40 100 200 1,000 10,000 1,000,000 0
Number xaver dóyu múdóyu verdóyu dóyuverdóyu tuttu ulla
Ordinal xavereþ dóyuþ múdóyuþ verdóyuþ dóyuverdóyuþ tuttuþ ullaþ
Fractional xixaverua xidóyua ximúdóyua xiverdóyua xidóyuverdóyua xituttua semi

Verbs

Verbs are by far the most complex part of speech in Latirdo, as every verb can have up to five hundred and some possible conjugations, since person, number, and mood are all denoted in the conjugation via prefixing and suffixing. Instead of building onto conjugation making long, incredibly complex verb forms, one may use the default verb "ft-" for mood and the verb done by the subject with conjugation.

Conjugation
↓person↓ Pluperfect Past perfect Perfect Past Recent Present Future Imminent
1sg mlimeksi mlimelessa mlimessa mlimel mlimelli mlime mlimetti mlimettili
2sg mlimoksi mlimolossa mlimossa mlimol mlimolli mlimo mlimotti mlimottili
3sg mlimaksi mlimalassa mlimassa mlimal mlimalli mlima mlimatti mlimattili
3sg inan. mlimauksi mlimulussa mlimaussa mlimul mlimulli mlimau mlimautti mlimauttili
1pl mlimemiksi mlimemilessa mlimensa mlimemil mlimemilli mlimem mlimenti mlimentili
2pl mlimomiksi mlimomilossa mlimonsa mlimomil mlimomilli mlimom mlimonti mlimontili
3pl mlimamiksi mlimamilassa mlimansa mlimamil mlimamilli mlimam mlimanti mlimantili
1pl inc. mliméoksi mliméolossa mliméossa mliméol mliméolli mliméo mliméotti mliméottili

regular verb in use: mlim- (to drink)

inc. - inclusive; inan. - inanimate

Progressive tense

the progressive tense is denoted by adding the particle "sa" after the verb, and can be added onto any verb with any conjugation and tense.

Moods
Mood Latirdo Translation
Normal indicative kuote I want
Interrogative kuote do I want?
Negative uy-kuote I do not want
Imperative kuote I must want
Possible kuotenus I may/can want

-if moods are to be used together, they are to be attached in the order that they are displayed in the chart. -moods are indicated AFTER personal and tense conjugation

Infinitive

The infinitive in Latirdo is formed by adding -ea or -rea on the end of the stem depending on if it ends in a vowel (except for u-), or not. If yes, the latter is used, if no, the former.

ai- → airea

kuot- → kuotea

vin- → vinea

mi- → mirea

Infinitives can also be treated like nouns, and can be declined, like in the sentence (I like to read) one would use the form "luea" as a noun, taking the COOMITATIVE case as is require with the verb "mirea", it would become (Eté mie luealte

ZERO PERSON

it is formed by putting verb in 3rd person singular conjugation with any tense and mood needed, then adding hyphenated '-nei', meaning 'one' onto the end Example: One cannot think here. Uy-pivanus-nei étte.

Irregular Verbs

There are charted 15 irregular verbs in Latirdo, making it fairly low on irregularities. the following common verbs are irregular... airea, vintea, iestea, islairea, namea, ðoirea, erea. In this article, they will not be conjugated.

Pronouns

PERSONAL

Nominative Accusative Genitive Comitative
1sg eté es en elte
2sg otó os on olte
3sg atá as an alte
3sg inan. űr űret űn űlte
1pl enté est eng emalle
2pl ontó ost ong omalle
3pl antá ast ang amalle
1pl inc. etéo eost eon eolle
1+2+3 itoi oist oinen oille

-there is no gender distinction in pronouns

RELATIVE

interrogative conjunctive this... that... none... every/all...
PERSON mar marmu marí marú semar ðumar
THING mer mermu tai tai semer ðumer
TIME mor mormu mori urú semor ðumor
PLACE muér muérmu étte ótte, urú semuér ðumuér
REASON mirki mirkimu mirkí mirkú semirki ðumirki
MEANS miriga mirig(a)mu mirigí mirigú semiriga ðumiriga

NOTE ON CONJUNCTIVE: In the conjunctive to say for example "with he who", one would use the conjunctive of person "marmu" and decline the "mar" to "malle" to get "mallemu - with he who", and this can be done with any of them by removing -r and adding -lle (mallemu, mellemu, mirkillemu, muéllemu) this also is done for accusative and other cases (metmu, matmu, muétmu).

CASES: Often pronouns are declined, which is done by removing -r and adding -t, which is a fairly simple rule. This chart only shoes the pronouns in their NOMINATIVE form. For example, to say "what are you doing?", the "what" is in the accusative, so mer → met (met oiro sa?)

Prepositions

Prepositions in Latirdo work the same way as they do in English. Here are some prepositions...

ðu - in

arðu - into

el - of

mlá - away from

geue - by

algeue - alongside

uf - over

el nuvu el - under

okxi - next to

el nóy (el) - outside

ðu þrú (el) - inside

ar - to

tilla - through

ulja - across

lúm - in terms of

Language Examples

Article one of the Universal Human Rights Declaration...

  Óm ajorat nolam horþ su vartarþ lúm sástolla su kuórmia. Antá fam malirþ tiyot su tissodat su faramassanü safkailanívkualte.
File:Latirdo Example.m4a
Recording of line

First paragraph of the book "Ulmusea"

  Femil toirþ ar tuðen jertar geue póvifojna uiknavissiþ el toroskira mu kaksal sa ar enté oz ivuttariar fíttaralle. Iss su iss aréjmemil, sti ðumor ugamil est. Uy-erul skúa nurkentiedis mu kassolnamil eng naset. Sti ftamil ðu tuss su siesodus. Sies erul xo el eng árastre, űret mu uy-gúremilus úai listrosemilus, ðumor holkemiksi sa ar kiri, merur quéar semor vinamiksi el fea nurkairþ. Okonar tiffarmisinamil, dauestottar ftamil véo, tvuirat iz essirirþ ar enté famil polstirþ.
  (σ϶өιψ ⱶơιɥƿ oɥ ⱶɞӈ϶ⱱ ҧ϶ɥⱶoɥ ɤ϶ɞ϶ ϱớϻισơҧⱱo ɞιϑⱱoϻιƽƽιƿ ϶ψ ⱶơɥơƽϑιɥo өɞ ϑoϑƽoψ ƽo oɥ ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ ơƨ ιϻɞⱶⱶoɥιoɥ σíⱶⱶoɥoψψ϶. ιƽƽ ƽɞ ιƽƽ oɥɜ̃ҧө϶өιψ, ƽⱶι ӈɞөơɥ ɞɤoөιψ ϶ƽⱶ. ɞԇ-϶ɥɞψ ƽϑɞ᾿o ⱱɞɥϑ϶ⱱⱶι϶ҷιƽ өɞ ϑoƽƽơψⱱoөιψ ϶ⱱɤ ⱱoƽ϶ⱶ. ƽⱶι σⱶoөιψ ӈɞ ⱶɞƽƽ ƽɞ ƽι϶ƽơҷɞƽ. ƽι϶ƽ ϶ɥɞψ ɕơ ϶ψ ϶ⱱɤ óɥoƽⱶɥ϶, үүɥ϶ⱶ өɞ ɞԇ-ɤɞ᾿ɥ϶өιψɞƽ ɞ᾿oι ψιƽⱶɥơƽ϶өιψɞƽ, ӈɞөơɥ ɂơψϑ϶өιϑƽι ƽo oɥ ϑιɥι, ө϶ɥɞɥ ϑɞɜ̃oɥ ƽ϶өơɥ ϻιⱱoөιϑƽι ϶ψ σ϶o ⱱɞɥϑoιɥƿ. ơϑơⱱoɥ ⱶισσoɥөιƽιⱱoөιψ, ҷoɞ϶ƽⱶơⱶⱶoɥ σⱶoөιψ ϻɜ̃ơ, ⱶϻɞιɥoⱶ ιƨ-϶ƽƽ϶ψιɥƿ oɥ ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ σoөιψ ϱơψƽⱶιɥƿ.)
Poem "Vola Niéskask/ϻơψo ⱱιɜ̃ƽϑoƽϑ"

Tamarkka ðol yukka yohrau yask tuér

Kío ðol kuyuri narfau hifnodus skataér

Elvonedis akkistaþ fai gyalau voltrut essen

Tuss varrau osstiot noissa sei el eupre kessen

Mlá þtór tovoku aislaeiraussa sti sanvau sa

Kúi mu pául norrau fai uterkiaussu sa

Skúa kíonarfi ðumor faunus hrákaþ

Fai enté lemü kaksiþ olliþet alakaþ

Volyor se vinir uy-siletisam ar enté

Su fai enté ruskemü messimu ollautti téi

Fai enté dafikemus eng eupret se aumea

Su fai enté eumem lopkat ast luea

Fai enté kottinem ar tuðaren gafsar

Su fai enté raksem pául kizet niéskarþ.

(transliteration)


ⱶoөoɥϑϑo ӈơψ ԇɞϑϑo ԇơɂɥoɞ ԇoƽϑ ⱶɞɜ̃ɥ

ϑíơ ӈơψ ϑɞԇɞɥι ⱱoɥσoɞ ɂισⱱơҷɞƽ ƽϑoⱶoɜ̃ɥ

϶ψϻơⱱ϶ҷιƽ oϑϑιƽⱶoƿ σoι ɤԇoψoɞ ϻơψⱶɥɞⱶ ϶ƽƽ϶ⱱ

ⱶɞƽƽ ϻoɥɥoɞ ơƽƽⱶιơⱶ ⱱơιƽƽo ƽ϶ι ϶ψ ϶ɞϱɥ϶ ϑ϶ƽƽ϶ⱱ

өψó ƿⱶớɥ ⱶơϻơϑɞ ιƽψo϶ιɥoɞƽƽo ƽⱶι ƽoⱱϻoɞ ƽo

ϑɞ᾿ι өɞ ϱóɞψ ⱱơɥɥoɞ σoι ɞⱶ϶ɥϑιoɞƽƽɞ ƽo

ƽϑɞ᾿o ϑíơⱱoɥσι ӈɞөơɥ σoɞⱱɞƽ ɂɥóϑoƿ

σoι ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ ψ϶өү ϑoϑƽιƿ ơψψιƿ϶ⱶ oψoϑoƿ

ϻơψԇơɥ ƽ϶ ϻιⱱιɥ ɞԇ-ƽιψ϶ⱶιƽoө oɥ ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃

ƽɞ σoι ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ ɥɞƽϑ϶өү ө϶ƽƽιөɞ ơψψoɞⱶⱶι ⱶɜ̃ι

σoι ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ ҷoσιϑ϶өɞƽ ϶ⱱɤ ϶ɞϱɥ϶ⱶ ƽ϶ oɞө϶o

ƽɞ σoι ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ ϶ɞө϶ө ψơϱϑoⱶ oƽⱶ ψɞ϶o

σoι ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ ϑơⱶⱶιⱱ϶ө oɥ ⱶɞӈoɥ϶ⱱ ɤoσƽoɥ

ƽɞ σoι ϶ⱱⱶɜ̃ ɥoϑƽ϶ө ϱóɞψ ϑιƨⱶ ⱱιɜ̃ƽϑoɥƿ

Dialects

Since Latirdo is a very wide-spread language, naturally it has many internal and external dialects. The large difference is in pronunciation, and little vocabulary is substituted between dialects.

Pronunciation

Take the following chart as a glimpse into how the various dialects of Latirda itself work differently in spelling and pronunciation of the four main internal dialects.

English Main dialect Mountains Far west Küelestanka
It's still raining outside. Pául noi vásst nóa. Pal noi vas noya. Pau öma vast no. Pól no vast noa.
When is the homework due? Maremü liranvintat mor? Maremu liravinta' moi? Marjemü liran vintat mo? mademü liravinta mod?
I have to go. Eté agyenü. Iti akyenu. Te ağenü. Te ftienü aideia.
They're waiting for you. Holkam sa os. Hokam sa os. Oukam sa oþ. Hulkam sa ous.