Lax An

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(Wuja our lax an speak, wuja our legayu an long for)

Lax An, or Ancestor's Tongue, is an a posteriori language created to be part of the history of a science fiction culture by Zomborgs.

History

Lore

The Lax An language (LA) is the linguistic reconstruction of the first language spoken by those (Humans) first brought into (the Void). Scholars hypothesize that LA was the result of a merging of Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Afro-Asiatic languages and estimate that it was spoken as a simple language until (year) (era), when the language was split into (Proto-Scholar) and (Proto-Dev-Merc-Polit) due to cultural isolation and exposure to both new cultures and new vocabulary.

The existence of LA was first proved in the (*** century) by (name), who observed the use of a unique, well-defined language used by the first (wave) of (Humans) while researching historical records held by (the First). Efforts have since been made to continue analysis and documentation of both the culture and the language used by this first era of (Humans) whenever possible.

Reality

For the sake of creating four separate-yet-connected languages and cultures that feel as realistic and natural as possible, I have decided to start with a proto-language that I can gradually evolve into four separate languages.

The theory behind Lax An is that large groups of humans were simultaneously stolen away from two separate areas of Earth over the period of several decades. The resulting peoples (the speakers of Proto-Indo-European and Proto-AFro-Asiatic languages) were then forced to combine cultures and languages due to close proximity. This new language continued without major change until the group was divided and then recombined, separately, with two new languages and cultures.

Basic Grammar

Lax An was a Subject-Object-Verb, inflected language in which words were modified using both ablaut and infixes. The language had three numbers, three persons, three genders, and eight cases with ***-*** alignment.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Coronal Palatal Dorsal Pharyngeal
"plain velar" "labiovelar"
Nasal m n
Plosive

voiceless

p t k  
Voiced b d g
Fricative θ, s, ʂ, ʐ ç x, ɣ ʕ
Liquid r, l
Semivowel j w
B  D  G  H₁  H₂  H₃  J  K  L  M  N  P  Q   R  S  T  V  W  X  Y  Z
b  d  g  ç   x  ɣ   j  k  l  m  n  p  kʷ  r  s  t  θ  w  ʂ  ʕ  ʐ

Vowels

  Front Central Back
short long short long short long
High /ɪ/ /iː/   /ʊ/ /uː/
Mid /eː/   /oː/
Low   /a/  
A  I  U  E  II  O  UU
a  ɪ  ʊ  e  i   o  u

Stress and Pitch

It is believed that Lax An had a pitch accent system in which all words had only one accented syllable which received a high pitch. Stress could fall on any syllable of a word and was thought to differ based on the length and purpose of the word in question.

Phonotactics

Every syllable of Lax An required at least one vowel, with the most common syllable structures being CV, followed by CVC and V. C consisted of, at most, two consonants, while V only represented a single vowel. There did not seem to be a restriction on how many syllables a single word may consist of.

Phonotactical restrictions for Lax An remain a subject of conjecture and debate.

Orthography

Morphology

Pronouns

Nouns

Adjectives

Syntax

Less is known about the syntax of LA than about its morphology.

Word Order

Popular theory holds that Subject-Object-Verb was likely used in LA, as this is the word order still found in ***, ***, and, to some extent, in ***.


(PAA) use of infixes, rather than prefixes and suffixes, to represent grammatical relations and form new words;

Vocabulary

Lax An Vocabulary
Number Lax An Word Lax An Word Meaning Proto-Afroasiatic Word Proto-AA Word Meaning Proto-Indoeuropean Word Proto-IE Word Meaning
1 ami I ʾanā I me I
2 atuh₂ you (sing) atta you túh₂ you
3 h₁uu he he * *
4 wuja we nəħna we wéy we
5 atuuo you (pl) attōn you you
6 h₁um they hum they * *
7 kav this hāðē this kod this
8 tad that hāhu that tód that
9 uune here hunā here * *
10 uunega there hunāka there * *
11 manis who mannu who kʷis who
12 me what what * *
13 age where ʾaykā where * *
14 mave when mâθay when * *
15 agun how ʾaykan how * *
16 na not ma not ne not
17 duum all tVm all * *
18 hawl many HawVl many * *
19 kalo some kmā some kaylo, solwo some
20 udet few ḫədāṭ few * *
21 h₂elvruo other ʾaħér other h₂el-yó other
22 vonuu one, 1 ʾaħadu one (H)óynos one
23 bayax two, 2 baʕiĉ̣ two dwóh₁ two
24 xajis three, 3 šalāš three tréyes three
25 tworba four, 4 ʾarbaʿ four kʷetwóres four
26 banqi five, 5 ḫ/ḥup/bin five pénkʷe five
27 kop big kabVr big * *
28 luuh₂k long ĉaʔd long dluh₂gʰós long
29 luva wide rəħub wide * *
30 viin thick ʿvīṭā thick bʰenǵʰ thick
31 h₃aluu heavy ɣaluč̣ heavy gʷer(h₂) heavy
32 guz small kus small mey small
33 rugos short qâṣâr short mreǵʰú short
34 h₂unga narrow qatnu narrow h₂enǵʰ narrow
35 tanuus thin rVḳ thin ténh₂us thin
36 gamun female ʔamin woman gʷḗn woman
37 xuro male ʒ/ǯa man wiHrós man
38 manixa human being ga/ič(-aʔ) human being mánus human being
39 puwuud child w/yVd child nepeh₃t grandson/nephew
40 uxo wife ʾiššâ wife snúsos daugter-in-law
41 dawa husband ḥawVy husband *daywe husband's brother
42 mamu mother ʔVma mother méh₂tēr mother
43 papu father bab father ph₂tḗr father
44 yomyum animal ʕum-ʕam animal * *
45 kuu fish bus fish dʰǵʰu fish
46 suwa bird sabaḥ bird h₂éwis bird
47 kor dog kayar dog ḱwṓ dog
48 niin louse ʔint louse knid louse
49 suvan snake sVf snake h₂engwi snake
50 rom worm dVm worm wr̥mi worm
51 dowuu tree rVwVy tree dóru tree
52 xuur forest suʕVr forest * *
53 gadso stick guʕad stick ǵhasto stick
54 bar fruit pi/ar fruit * *
55 xul seed či/ul seed * *
56 zup leaf ĉap leaf * *
57 zura root ĉVr root wréh₂ds root
58 gog bark ḳaw(ḳ) bark of tree * *
59 uumpa flower ʔanbab flower * *
60 sen grass sayam grass koino grass
61 suul rope sur rope * *
62 apu skin ʔad-Vm skin pel skin
63 mux meat fVʔ meat mēms meat
64 umxa blood dam blood h₁ésh₂r̥ blood
65 qas bone ḳ(ʷ)as bone kost bone
66 taruu fat pidar fat smeru fat
67 zah₂o egg sawVḥ egg h₂ōwyóm egg
68 ko horn ḳar horn koru horn
69 xu tail č̣ihr tail * *
70 sa feather ŝakʷ feather * *
71 vol hair sVʔVm hair pulh₂ hair
72 kal head gVl(gVl) head kaput head
73 os ear sim ear h₂ows ear
74 eh₃uuk eye ʕayVn eye h₃ekʷ eye
75 niih₂a nose naḫVr nose hnéh₂s nose
76 uvas mouth ʔa-pay mouth h₁oh₁s mouth
77 aduus tooth kV(ʔ)Vs tooth h₃dónts tooth
78 lax tongue lis tongue dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s tongue
79 nak fingernail gu/iĉ fingernail h₃nógʰ(r)o fingernail
80 gob foot ĉayṗ foot pṓds foot
81 rosgo leg wa(ʕ)r leg kroksko leg
82 kuna knee g(ʷ)inʒ knee ǵónu knee
83 tepa hand ṭapiḥ hand man hand
84 gam wing ganVḥ wing * *
85 h₁uuduu belly hun belly udero belly
86 iita guts * * eh₁ter guts
87 gad neck ḳard neck mon neck
88 ja back yiʔ back * *
89 sdam breast ʔa-nwan breast psten breast
90 kiil heart li/ubb heart ḱḗr heart
91 uh₁iiwa liver tiraw/ʔ liver yeh₁kwr̥ liver
92 ag drink ʕab drink h₁egʷʰ to drink
93 ud eat birVh eat h₁ed to eat
94 kuk bite ḳVḳ bite denḱ to bite
95 ok suck ni/uḳ suck dʰeh₁(i) to suck
96 piix spit pičw to spit sp(y)eu to spit
97 qun vomit ḳ(ʷ)VʔVʕ vomit wem to vomit
98 suwu blow fiwaq blow weh₁ to blow
99 nuusu breathe nVsVp breathe pneu to breathe
100 mi laugh * * (s)mei to laugh
101 no see naʔ see weyd to see
102 gluu hear * * ḱlew to hear
103 uwa know siwan know ǵneh₃ to know
104 rag think lak think tong to think
105 sune smell sVn smell h₃ed to smell
106 vuuru fear furVh fear * *
107 wam sleep wiʕan sleep drem to sleep
108 guw live gir live gʷeiH₃w to live
109 mat die mawVt die mer to die
110 kun kill ɣVwar kill gʷʰen to kill
111 lam fight laḥm fight * *
112 xoh₁u hunt c̣ayad hunt * *
113 plu hit nig(ʕ) strike pleh₂k to hit
114 tag cut dac cut * *
115 vudak split fVṭVḳ split * *
116 taka stab dagwaṣa stab * *
117 kolb scratch ʔakul scratch gerbʰ to scratch
118 h₁ot dig hut dig * *
119 nuh₂uu swim nVbVy swim néh₂-u to swim
120 pur fly pVr fly pet to fly
121 krod walk ŝVʔŝVʔ walk gʰredʰ to walk
122 zam come may come gʷem to come
123 luk lie * * legʰ to lie
124 sdus sit tis sit sed to sit
125 sta stand ĉawVʔ stand steh₂ to stand
126 yan turn ʕVn turn * *
127 du fall diḥ fall * *
128 bula give barVʕ give deh₃ to give
129 suk hold kum hold segʰ to hold
130 xad squeeze ĉVḥaṭ squeeze * *
131 malu rub ʕVruk rub melh₁ to rub
132 luw wash waʕab wash leh₂w to wash
133 vut wipe fVtt wipe * *
134 ta pull ʔitaḥ pull * *
135 tuu push tur push * *
136 vup throw ĉVl throw swep to throw
137 kanuu tie ḳanVw tie * *
138 siih₁uup sew ʕVḳVp sew syuh₁ to sew
139 uud count ʕud count * *
140 ka say kaw say * *
141 gan sing gaʔ sing kan to sing
142 ruh₁ play riw play * *
143 dav float ṭaf float * *
144 balal flow bVl(Vl) flow * *
145 gurux freeze ḳVrVs freeze * *
146 bay swell bVʕ swell * *
147 azo sun ʔaǯ sun sóh₂wl̥ sun
148 muh₁iin moon ḳiḥ moon mḗh₁n̥s moon
149 ustiir star suhw star h₂stḗr star
150 ma water maʔ water h₂ekʷeh₂ water
151 muun rain buʕun rain h₂ekmon rain
152 uke river siw/ʔVn river h₂ekw-eh₂ river
153 h₂up lake wVʕVr lake h₂ep lake
154 uam sea yam sea * *
155 h₁am salt ḥamʕ/ʔ salt sal salt
156 akmo stone ḥak stone h₂ekmon stone
157 bor sand bur sand * *
158 ve dust fay/ʔ sand pers dust
159 arix earth ʔariĉ̣ earth dʰéǵʰōm earth
160 nebo cloud ɣay/wb cloud nébʰos cloud
161 snuuv fog luf fog sneudh fog
162 ra sky raw sky * *
163 saqa wind sa(w/yV)ḥ wind ḱewero wind
164 snu snow * * sneigwh snow
165 uk ice * * yeg ice
166 damo smoke daʕar smoke dʰuh₁mós smoke
167 zur fire gir fire h₁égnis fire
168 zuur ash gur ash h₃és-i ash
169 iir burn ʔu/ir burn swel to burn
170 pan road darib road pent road
171 wuur mountain ḫurs mountain gʷerh₃ mountain
172 ton red dVm red h₁rewdʰós red
173 uurug green wVraḳ green * *
174 kam yellow caḥm yellow k(e)nhkos yellow
175 abos white c̣aḥ white h₂elbʰós white
176 xum black č̣ilam black h₂ems black
177 naku night naw/yn night nókʷts night
178 ura day hVraw/y day h₂eǵh day
179 san year san year yeHr year
180 surs warm sirVf warm tep warm
181 zuuwa cold ḥVwas cold gel cold
182 uuro full ḫVr full pl̥h₁nós full
183 meh₁o new may/ʔ new néwos new
184 yasun old yas old senh₁ó old
185 mor good mVr good h₁su good
186 awab bad yaway bad h₂wap bad
187 pog rotten buḳ be rotten * *
188 suud dirty suʔit be dirty * *
189 iisar straight yasar straight * *
190 topol round dVbVl round * *
191 zud sharp ħadd sharp h₂eḱ sharp
192 bwado dull pVṭVs flatten * *
193 ulak smooth ḥalaḳ be smooth * *
194 uda wet daʔ wet wed wet
195 tuuz dry kVʒ dry ters dry
196 maro correct marVʕ be true * *
197 kerv near qâróv near * *
198 wu far way far wi far
199 duluum right walyam right deḱs right
200 xuwas left šimāl left sewyós left
201 apii at ba at opi at
202 pun in bi in (h₁?)en in
203 bu with bi with pe with
204 qa and wa and kʷe and
205 am if ʾim, if * *
206 budal because biğlal because * *
207 xiinam name sim name h₁nómn̥ name
208 an ancestor * * h₂en- ancestor
209 Padi The First ʔadir master potis master
210 xun a dietary staple ŝi/uʕ(V̄ʕ) grain grānom grain
* dudar brother di/ad brother bʰréh₂tēr brother
* susar sister si/ut sister swésōr sister
* zanuu son ʒ/ǯaʔ son suHnús son
* datu daughter si/ut daughter dʰugh₂tḗr daughter
* legayu settlement gaw(V)y settlement leghskā settlement
* * * * * * *
* * * * * * *
* * * * * * *
Nanyse