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	This module creates standardised displays for gender and number.
	It converts a gender specification into Wiki/HTML format.
	A gender/number specification consists of one or more gender/number elements, separated by hyphens.
	Examples are: "n" (neuter gender), "f-p" (feminine plural), "m-an-p" (masculine animate plural),
	"pf" (perfective aspect). Each gender/number element has the following properties:
	1. A code, as used in the spec, e.g. "f" for feminine, "p" for plural".
	2. A type, e.g. "gender", "number" or "animacy". Each element in a given spec must be of a different type.
	3. A display form, which in turn consists of a display code and a tooltip gloss. The display code
	   may not be the same as the spec code, e.g. the spec code "an" has display code "anim" and tooltip
	   gloss "animate".
    4. A category into which lemmas of the right part of speech are placed if they have a gender/number
	   spec containing the given element. For example, a noun with gender/number spec "m-an-p" is placed
	   into the categories "LANG masculine nouns", "LANG animate nouns" and "LANG pluralia tantum".

local export = {}

local codes = {}

-- A list of all possible "parts" that a specification can be made out of. For each part, we list
-- the class it's in (gender, animacy, etc.), the associated category (if any) and the display form.
-- In a given gender/number spec, only one part of each class is allowed.

codes["?"] = {type = "other", display = '<abbr title="gender incomplete">?</abbr>'}

-- Genders
codes["m"] = {type = "gender", cat = "masculine POS", display = '<abbr title="masculine gender">m</abbr>'}
codes["f"] = {type = "gender", cat = "feminine POS", display = '<abbr title="feminine gender">f</abbr>'}
codes["n"] = {type = "gender", cat = "neuter POS", display = '<abbr title="neuter gender">n</abbr>'}
codes["c"] = {type = "gender", cat = "common-gender POS", display = '<abbr title="common gender">c</abbr>'}
-- Noun classes for High Valyrian, feel free to add more custom classes for your language
codes["sol"] = {type = "gender", cat = "solar POS", display = '<abbr title="solar class">sol</abbr>'}
codes["lun"] = {type = "gender", cat = "lunar POS", display = '<abbr title="lunar class">lun</abbr>'}
codes["aq"] = {type = "gender", cat = "aquatic POS", display = '<abbr title="aquatic class">aq</abbr>'}
codes["ter"] = {type = "gender", cat = "terrestrial POS", display = '<abbr title="terrestrial class">ter</abbr>'}

-- Animacy
codes["an"] = {type = "animacy", cat = "animate POS", display = '<abbr title="animate">anim</abbr>'}
codes["in"] = {type = "animacy", cat = "inanimate POS", display = '<abbr title="inanimate">inan</abbr>'}
-- Animal (for Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish)
codes["anml"] = {type = "animacy", cat = "animal POS", display = '<abbr title="animal">animal</abbr>'}
-- Personal (for Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish)
codes["pr"] = {type = "animacy", cat = "personal POS", display = '<abbr title="personal">pers</abbr>'}
-- Nonpersonal not currently used
codes["np"] = {type = "animacy", cat = "nonpersonal POS", display = '<abbr title="nonpersonal">npers</abbr>'}

-- Virility (for Polish)
codes["vr"] = {type = "virility", cat = "virile POS", display = '<abbr title="virile">vir</abbr>'}
codes["nv"] = {type = "virility", cat = "nonvirile POS", display = '<abbr title="nonvirile">nvir</abbr>'}

-- Numbers
codes["s"] = {type = "number", display = '<abbr title="singular number">sg</abbr>'}
codes["d"] = {type = "number", display = '<abbr title="dual number">du</abbr>'}
codes["p"] = {type = "number", cat = "pluralia tantum", display = '<abbr title="plural number">pl</abbr>'}
codes["pa"] = {type = "number", display = '<abbr title="paucal number">pa</abbr>'}
codes["ol"] = {type = "number", display = '<abbr title="collective number">col</abbr>'}

-- Verb qualifiers
codes["impf"] = {type = "aspect", cat = "imperfective POS", display = '<abbr title="imperfective aspect">impf</abbr>'}
codes["pf"] = {type = "aspect", cat = "perfective POS", display = '<abbr title="perfective aspect">pf</abbr>'}
-- Soc'ul'
codes["acc"] = {type = "aspect", cat = "accusative POS", display = '<abbr title="accusative aligned">ᴀᴄᴄ</abbr>'}
codes["erg"] = {type = "aspect", cat = "ergative POS", display = '<abbr title="ergative aligned">ᴇʀɢ</abbr>'}

-- Combined codes that are equivalent to giving multiple specs. `mf` is the same as specifying two separate specs,
-- one with `m` in it and the other with `f`. `mfbysense` is similar but is used for nouns that can be either masculine
-- or feminine according as to whether they refer to masculine or feminine beings.
local combined_codes = {}
combined_codes["mf"] = {codes = {"m", "f"}}
combined_codes["mfbysense"] = {codes = {"m", "f"}, cat = "masculine and feminine POS by sense"}

-- Categories when multiple gender/number specs of a given type occur in different 
local codetype_cats = {}
codetype_cats["gender"] = "POS with multiple genders"
codetype_cats["animacy"] = "ambiguous POS"
codetype_cats["aspect"] = "biaspectual POS"

-- Version of format_list that can be invoked from a template.
function export.show_list(frame)
	local args = frame.args
	local lang = args["lang"]; if lang == "" then lang = nil end
	local list = {}
	local i = 1
	while args[i] and args[i] ~= "" do
		table.insert(list, args[i])
		i = i + 1
	return export.format_list(list, lang)

-- Older entry point; equivalent to format_genders() except that it formats the
-- categories and returns them appended to the formatted gender text rather than
-- returning the formatted text and categories separately.
function export.format_list(specs, lang, pos_for_cat, sort_key)
	local text, cats = export.format_genders(specs, lang, pos_for_cat)
	if #cats == 0 then
		return text
	return text .. require("Module:utilities").format_categories(cats, lang, sort_key)

-- Format one or more gender/number specifications. Each spec is either a string, e.g. "f-p", or
-- a table of the form {spec = "SPEC", qualifiers = {"QUALIFIER", "QUALIFIER", ...}} where `.spec`
-- is a gender/number spec such as "f-p" and `.qualifiers` is a list of qualifiers to display before
-- the formatted gender/number spec. `.spec` must be present but `.qualifiers` may be omitted.
-- The function returns two values:
-- (a) the formatted text;
-- (b) a list of the categories to add.
-- If `lang` and `pos_for_cat` are given, gender categories such as "German masculine nouns" or
-- "Russian imperfective verbs" are added to the categories. Otherwise, if only `lang` is given,
-- the only category that may be returned is "Requests for gender in LANG entries". If both are
-- omitted, the returned list is empty.
function export.format_genders(specs, lang, pos_for_cat)
	local formatted_specs = {}
	local categories = {}
	local seen_types = {}
	local category_text = ""
	local all_is_nounclass = nil

	local function do_gender_spec(spec, parts)
		local types = {}

		for key, code in ipairs(parts) do
			-- Is this code valid?
			if not codes[code] then
				error('The tag "' .. code .. '" in the gender specification "' .. spec.spec .. '" is not valid.')
			-- Check for multiple genders/numbers/animacies in a single spec.
			local typ = codes[code].type
			if typ ~= "other" and types[typ] then
				error('The gender specification "' .. spec.spec .. '" contains multiple tags of type "' .. typ .. '".')
			types[typ] = true
			if spec.qualifiers and #spec.qualifiers > 0 then
				parts[key] = require("Module:qualifier").format_qualifier(spec.qualifiers) .. " " .. codes[code].display
				parts[key] = codes[code].display
			-- Generate categories if called for.
			if lang and pos_for_cat then
				local cat = codes[code].cat
				if cat then
					table.insert(categories, lang:getCanonicalName() .. " " .. cat)
				if seen_types[typ] and seen_types[typ] ~= code then
					cat = codetype_cats[typ]
					if cat then
						table.insert(categories, lang:getCanonicalName() .. " " .. cat)
				seen_types[typ] = code
		-- Add the processed codes together with non-breaking spaces
		if #parts == 1 then
			return parts[1]
		return table.concat(parts, "&nbsp;")

	for _, spec in ipairs(specs) do
		if type(spec) ~= "table" then
			spec = {spec = spec}
		local is_nounclass
		-- If the specification starts with cX, then it is a noun class specification.
		if spec.spec:find("^[1-9]") or spec.spec:find("^c[^-]") then
			is_nounclass = true
			code = spec.spec:gsub("^c", "")
			local text
			if code == "?" then
				text = '<abbr class="noun-class" style="font-style: italic;" title="noun class missing">?</abbr>'
				text = '<abbr class="noun-class" style="font-style: italic;" title="noun class ' .. code .. '">' .. code .. "</abbr>"
				if lang and pos_for_cat then
					table.insert(categories, lang:getCanonicalName() .. " class-" .. code .. " POS")
			local text_with_qual
			if spec.qualifiers and #spec.qualifiers > 0 then
				text_with_qual = require("Module:qualifier").format_qualifier(spec.qualifiers) .. " " .. text
				text_with_qual = text
			table.insert(formatted_specs, text_with_qual)
			-- Split the parts and iterate over each part, converting it into its display form
			local parts = mw.text.split(spec.spec, "%-")
			local extra_cats = {}

			local has_combined = false
			for _, code in ipairs(parts) do
				if combined_codes[code] then
					has_combined = true

			if not has_combined then
				table.insert(formatted_specs, do_gender_spec(spec, parts))
				local all_parts = {{}}

				for i, code in ipairs(parts) do
					if combined_codes[code] then
						local new_all_parts = {}
						for _, one_parts in ipairs(all_parts) do
							for _, one_code in ipairs(combined_codes[code].codes) do
								local new_combined_parts = mw.clone(one_parts)
								table.insert(new_combined_parts, one_code)
								table.insert(new_all_parts, new_combined_parts)
						all_parts = new_all_parts
						if lang and pos_for_cat then
							local extra_cat = combined_codes[code].cat
							if extra_cat then
								table.insert(extra_cats, lang:getCanonicalName() .. " " .. extra_cat)
						for _, one_parts in ipairs(all_parts) do
							table.insert(one_parts, code)

				for _, parts in ipairs(all_parts) do
					table.insert(formatted_specs, do_gender_spec(spec, parts))

			if #extra_cats > 0 then
				for _, cat in ipairs(extra_cats) do
					table.insert(categories, cat)

			if lang then
				-- Do some additional gender checks if a language was given
				-- Is this an incomplete gender?
				if spec.spec:find("?") then
					table.insert(categories, "Requests for gender in " .. lang:getCanonicalName() .. " entries")
				-- Check if the specification is valid
				--elseif langinfo.genders then
				--	local valid_genders = {}
				--	for _, g in ipairs(langinfo.genders) do valid_genders[g] = true end
				--	if not valid_genders[spec.spec] then
				--		local valid_string = {}
				--		for i, g in ipairs(langinfo.genders) do valid_string[i] = g end
				--		error('The gender specification "' .. spec.spec .. '" is not valid for ' .. langinfo.names[1] .. ". Valid are: " .. table.concat(valid_string, ", "))
				--	end

			is_nounclass = false

		-- Ensure that the specifications are either all noun classes, or none are.
		if all_is_nounclass == nil then
			all_is_nounclass = is_nounclass
		elseif all_is_nounclass ~= is_nounclass then
			error("Noun classes and genders cannot be mixed. Please use either one or the other.")

	if lang and pos_for_cat then
		for i, cat in ipairs(categories) do
			categories[i] = cat:gsub("POS", pos_for_cat)

	if is_nounclass then
		-- Add the processed codes together with slashes
		return '<span class="gender" style="font-style: italic;">class ' .. table.concat(formatted_specs, "/") .. "</span>", categories
		-- Add the processed codes together with " or "
		return '<span class="gender" style="font-style: italic;">' .. table.concat(formatted_specs, " or ") .. "</span>", categories

return export