PME Lexicon

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B

brem

[brem] v.
Ø-stem bṛm; e-stem brem; o-stem brom

(noun) blossom, flower, leaf, plant. (perfective) to blossom, to flower, to spring. (imperfective) to be young, new, fresh.

Descendants:

  • bróm-eḫ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: ɸromā
  • bí-bṛm-ti, bi-brém-ṇti
    • Proto-Iscaric: ɸiβremjā

D

der

[d̪er] v.
Ø-stem dṛ; e-stem der; o-stem dor

(imperfective) to hold, to grasp, to carry, to bear, to hold in hand.

Descendants:

  • dér-e-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: θerets
      • Aeranir: feriç
    • Proto-Anderic: dereti
    • Proto-Fyrdic: deridi
    • Proto-Stravonic: dereti
    • Proto-Talothic: déretsi
      • Dalitian: déreis
    • Proto-Maro-Stiric: dʰárati
      • Stirc: dhárati
      • Old Marian: daratiy

DD

ddeul

[d̪̥eu̯l] v.
Ø-stem ddul; e-stem ddeul; o-stem ddoul
alt. e-stem dduel; o-stem dduol

(stative) to be full, to be ripe.

Descendants:

  • dduél-e-ḫōr
    • Proto-Iscaric: dwelōr

Ď

ďéḫi

[deħi] n.
ø-stem ďḫil; e-stem ďeḫil; o-stem ďoḫil

(adjective) small, few, little. (noun) smallness.

Descendants:

  • ďḫi-ió-
    • Proto-Iscaric: r̥ajjos
    • Proto-Talothic: dayyós
      • Dalitian: daiós
  • ďéḫi-kʷo-
    • Proto-Iscaric: r̥āikʷos
  • ďéḫi-li-
    • Proto-Iscaric: r̥āilis
  • ďḫi-ó-
    • Proto-Fyrdic: zajaz

ĎĎ

ďďeḥ

[d̥eh] v.
Ø-stem ďďḥ; e-stem ďďeḥ; o-stem ďďoḥ

(perfective) to put in place; to place, to make, to do.

Descendants:

  • ďďéh-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: dēts

ďďek

[d̥ek] v.
Ø-stem ďďak; e-stem ďďek; o-stem ďďok

(imperfective) to hug, to embrace, to hold in arms.

Descendants:

  • ďďék-e-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: dekets
    • Proto-Anderic: deketi
    • Proto-Fyrdic: tehidi
    • Proto-Stravonic: dečeti
    • Proto-Talothic: tékʰetsi
      • Dalitian: tékheis
    • Proto-Maro-Stiric: ɖáčati
      • Stirc: ḍácati
      • Old Marian: dačatiy

ďďieggw

[d̥i̯eg̊ʷ] v.
Ø-stem ďďiggw; e-stem ďďieggw; o-stem ďďioggw

(imperfective) to be scratching, to be carving, etching, engraving, slicing. (perfective) to scratch, to mar, to deface, to scar. (stative) to be scarred, to be marred, deface, defiled, profane, impure, imperfect.

Descendants:

  • ďďiéggw-e-ti
    • Proto-Talothic: dzékʷetsi
      • Dalitian: zépteis
  • ďďieggw-éḥ-e-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: djegʷējets

GG

ggeḥi-š

[g̊ehiʃ] n. c.
GEN.SG ggeḥi-oš

(noun) goods, wealth.

Descendants:

  • Proto-Iscaric: gēis

GGW

ggwei

[g̊ʷei̯] v.
Ø-stem ggwi; e-stem ggwei; o-stem ggwoi

(perfective) to accomplish, to win, to be victorious, in the sense of an achievement, something that requires skill and may normally fail; to survive (stative) to be strong, to be fit, to be able, to be skilful.

Descendants:

  • ggwoi-nó-
    • Proto-Iscaric: gʷoinom
  • ggw-ṇ-í-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: gʷənjets

ggwlei

[g̊ʷlei] v.
Ø-stem ggwḷi; e-stem ggwlei; o-stem ggwloi

(perfective) to flatten, to push down, to pressure, to press. (imperfective) to lie down flat, to be laying down on one's side, to be prone. (stative) to be flat, to be smooth, to be even.

Descendants:

  • ggweli-ḫōr
    • Proto-Iscaric: gʷeljōr
  • ggwléi-do-š
    • Proto-Talothic: kʷléidos
      • Dalitian: Pleîdos

Ğ

ğeḥš

[ɢehʃ] n.
Ø-stem ğḥš; e-stem ğeḥš; o-stem ğoḥš

(noun) god, deity, divinity, spirit; holy place, holy. (imperfective) to be a god, to do the activities of being a god or spirit, to live piously, to practice aestheticism. (perfective) to sanctify, to purify, to deify; to make suitable for the dwelling of gods.

Descendants:

  • ğḥš-nó-
    • Proto-Iscaric: χaznom
  • ğéḥš-to-
    • Proto-Iscaric: χēstos

I

ieul

[i̯eu̯l] v.
Ø-stem iul; e-stem ieul; o-stem ioul

(imperfective) to sing a song, to recite a poem, to cast a spell or curse; to chant.

Descendants:

  • iéul-ieḫ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: jouljā
  • iúl-iḫ-
    • Proto-Talothic: iuľľa
      • Dalitian: hylla

ḫéioš, ḫéiešeš

[ħéi̯oʃ, ħéi̯eʃeʃ] n.
Ø-stem ḫeiš; e-stem ḫeieš; o-stem ḫeioš

(noun) life force, vitality.

Descendants:

  • ḫéieš-mo-m
    • Proto-Iscaric: ajezmom
  • ḫeieš-mṓ(n), ḫeiéš-mon-oš
    • Proto-Talothic: ajezmṓn
      • Dalitian: āmṓn ("heart")

ḫelḥ

[ħelh] v.
Ø-stem ḫḷḥ; e-stem ḫelḥ; o-stem ḫolḥ

(imperfective) to be nourishing, sustaining, helping, enriching; to flow into, to feed into. (perfective) to grow, to mature, to come of age, to ripen. (stative) to be grown, feed, nourished, happy, prosperous.

Descendants:

  • ḫelḥ-teḫ-š
    • Proto-Iscaric: altā
    • Proto-Talothic: alatʰā́s
      • Dalitian: altethḗs
  • ḫelḥ- (root stative)
    • Proto-Iscaric: alōr

ḫeš

[ħeʃ] v.
Ø-stem ḫš; e-stem ḫeš; o-stem ḫoš

(imperfective) to breath, to respirate. (stative) to be alive.

Descendants:

  • ḫeš-omnó-
    • Proto-Iscaric: azomnos
  • ḫeš-uḥ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: astūs

ḫešr-ós

[ħeʒ.róʃ] n. t.
Ø-stem ḫešr-óšio

Related to ḫešr “minnow.”

Fish, either alive or eaten

Descendants:

  • Proto-Iscaric: aðros
  • Proto-Talothic: asrós
    • Dalitian: ērós

ḫeugg

[ħeu̯g̊] v.
Ø-stem ḫugg; e-stem ḫeugg; o-stem ḫougg

(stative) to see, to know.

Descendants:

  • ḫeugg-éḥ-ie-
    • Proto-Iscaric: augējets

ḫeyy

[ħeɟ̊] v.
Ø-stem ḫyy; e-stem ḫeyy; o-stem ḫoyy

(perfective) to sow, to plant, to sprinkle, to press something lightly into the ground, to bring life into something, to inseminate.

Descendants:

  • ḫéyy-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: agets
  • ḫeyy-ié-
    • Proto-Talothic: áťťetsi
      • Dalitian: átteis
  • ḫeyy-nó-
    • Proto-Iscaric: agnom
    • Proto-Fyrdic: akką
  • ḫéyy-ti-
    • Proto-Talothic: áktsis
      • Dalitian: áxis
        • Aeranir: axēs

ḫleyy

[ħleɟ̊] v.
Ø-stem ḫḷyy; e-stem ḫleyy; o-stem ḫloyy

(perfective) to collect, to gather, to assemble, to come together, to have a meeting.

Descendants:

  • ḫléyy-e-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: legets

ḪW

ḫweiddł

[ħʷei̯d̥ɬ] v.
Ø-stem ḫwiddł; e-stem ḫweiddł; o-stem ḫwoiddł

(imperfective) to work, to labour, to toil, to struggle. (stative) to be working, to be functioning, going as planned. (noun) work, toil, labour.

Descendants:

  • ḫweiddł-ó-š
    • Proto-Iscaric: oi(d)ɬom
    • Proto-Talothic: oitsón > oitsā́
      • Dalitian: oisḗ
    • Proto-Fyrdic: aitą
    • Proto-Maro-Stiric: aiĵám
      • Old Marian: aidam
      • Stiric: ejam
        • Doti: ejaṁ

ḥep

[hep] v.
Ø-stem ḥp; e-stem ḥep; o-stem ḥop

(stative) to remain, to be left over, to be in excess, to be too many.

Descendants:

  • ḥep-n-ié-ḫōr
    • Proto-Iscaric: epnjōr

K

ke

[ke] pro.

(pronoun) reflexive pronoun; myself, yourself, themselves, etc.

Descendants:

  • Proto-Iscaric: ke
    • Aeranir: ce

kenḫ

[kenħ] v.
Ø-stem kṇḫ; e-stem kenḫ; o-stem konḫ

(perfective) to go past, to leave behind, to go through, to pass through. (noun) bound, boundary, limit.

Descendants:

  • kón-to-š
    • Proto-Iscarian: kontos
    • Proto-Fyrdic: hanþaz
    • Proto-Maro-Stiric: kántas
  • kénḫ-ie-ti
    • Proto-Iscarian: kenjets
      • Aeranir: ciniç
  • kénḫ-e-ti
    • Proto-Talothic: kʰénajetsi
      • Dalitian: khenāîs
    • Proto-Maro-Stiric: čánHati

keḫš

[keħʃ] v.
Ø-stem kḫš; e-stem keḫš; o-stem koḫš

(perfective) to measure, to assess, to estimate. (imperfective) to advise, to give advice, to mediate, to take care of someone.

Descendants:

  • kḫš-eḫ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: kazā
  • kéḫš-ni-š, kḫš-ní-š
    • Proto-Iscaric: kaznis
      • Aeranir: cās

kḥer

[kher] v.
Ø-stem kḥr; e-stem kḥer; o-stem kḥor
alt. e-stem keḥr; o-stem koḥr

(imperfective) to sway, to shift, to move it waves, slowly and elegantly; to turn, to change; to bend.

Descendants:

  • kḥr-é-
    • Proto-Iscaric: karets
  • kḥr-mṇ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: karmən
  • kḥor-éie-
    • Proto-Iscaric: korejets

kreud

[kreu̯d̪] v.
Ø-stem krud; e-stem kreud; o-stem kroud

(noun) blood, flesh, meat.

Descendants:

  • kréud-š, krud-ós
    • Proto-Iscaric: krous
      • Aeranir: crūs ("blood")
  • kérud-to-
    • Proto-Talothic: kʰérussos
      • Dalitian: kheryssos ("blood, heart")
  • krud-ió-
    • Proto-Iscaric: krujjos
      • Aeranir: cruius ("flesh")
  • krúd-ďďḥ-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: ob kruzdets
      • Aeranir: occrūdiç ("it commits me, violates me")

KW

kweyy

[kʷeɟ̊] v.
Ø-stem kwayy; e-stem kweyy; o-stem kwoyy

(perfective) to separate, to divide, to split, to section off.

Descendants:

  • kwéyy-io-š
    • Proto-Iscaric: kʷegjos
  • kwóyy-o-m
    • Proto-Iscaric: kʷogom

M

men

[men] n.
Ø-stem mṇ; e-stem men; o-stem mon

(noun) body, shape, form, mass, substance, essence. (stative) to be alike, to be similar, to resemble, look like, to embody.

Descendants:

  • mṇ-těr-
    • Proto-Iscaric: məntēr
    • Proto-Talothic: mətʰḗr
      • Dalitian: mathḗs
      • Aeranir: mater
  • mén-ie-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: menjets

P

peť

[pet] v.
Ø-stem pať; e-stem peť; o-stem poť

(perfective) to cook, to bake (in an oven), to boil, to make a stew, to ripen.

Descendants:

  • póť-to-
    • Proto-Iscaric: possos
  • peť-mṇ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: petmən
  • peť-nó-
  • poť-iḥ-nó-
  • peť-šló-
    • Proto-Iscaric: petslom
  • peť-ié-
    • Proto-Talothic: pʰéťťetsi
      • Dalitian: phétteis

plei

[plei̯] v.
Ø-stem pli; e-stem plei; o-stem ploi

(imperfect) to divide, to dissect, to split, to take apart into constituent pieces, to disassemble, to de-rig or deactivate a trap, to unarm. (perfective) to separate, to put apart, to remove, to exile, to ostracise.

Descendants:

  • pli-ié-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: plijets
  • pléi-no-š
    • Proto-Iscaric: pleinos
      • Aeranir: plīnus
  • plei-dó-š
    • Proto-Talothic: pʰleidós
      • Dalitian: Pleidós

pred

[pred] v.
Ø-stem pṛd; e-stem pred; o-stem prod
alt. e-stem perd; o-stem pord

(perfective) to join, to attach, to suit, to agree or be in unison with. (noun) agreement, promise, settlement.

Descendants:

  • pred-tó-
    • Proto-Iscaric: pressos
  • pord-éie-
    • Proto-Iscaric: proðejets
    • Proto-Talothic: pʰrodejetsi
      • Dalitian: phrodéeis

R

renḫw

[renħʷ] v.
Ø-stem rṇḫw; e-stem renḫw; o-stem ronḫw

(imperfective) to lead, to rule, to straighten, to organise, be setting right. (stative) to be straight, to be orderly, organised, to be right, just, correct.

Descendants:

  • rēnħʷ-š
    • Proto-Iscaric: rēns
  • rṇħʷ-nó-
    • Proto-Iscaric: rənnom
  • š-ṛnḫw-téḥ-
    • Proto-Talothic: ʰranotʰḗs
      • Dalitian: rhanothḗs

Š

šeḫl

[ʃeħl] v.
Ø-stem šḫl; e-stem šeḫl; o-stem šoḫl

(imperfective) to spin, to coil, to whirl. (perfective) to curl, to foil, to wind. (stative) to be sitting in a way as to draw ones legs towards oneself.

Descendants:

  • šḫl-w-éḫ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: salwā

šem

[ʃem] cop.
Ø-stem šṃ; e-stem šem; o-stem šom

(copula) to be, to exist.

Descendants:

  • šóm-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: sonts
    • Proto-Talothic: hóntsi
      • Dalitian: hoúsi

šḫeip

[ʃħei̯p] v.
Ø-stem šḫip; e-stem šḫeip; o-stem šḫoip

(imperfective) to swing, to slash, to strike, to cut; to move a blade in an arcing movement as to cut something.

Descendants:

  • šéḫip-ie-
    • Proto-Iscaric: saipjets

šleup

[ʃleu̯p] v.
Ø-stem šlup; e-stem šleup; o-stem šloup

(imperfective) to shout, to scream. (noun) a loud noise.

Descendants:

  • šlup-eḥ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: slupējets

T

tedłḫw

[t̪edɮħʷ] v.
Ø-stem tadłḫw; e-stem tedłḫw; o-stem todłḫw

(stative) to see, to know.

Descendants:

  • todłḫw-éie-ti
    • Proto-Talothic: tʰodzóyetsi
      • Dalitian: thozoĩs
    • Proto-Iscairc: toɮejets
    • Proto-Fyrdic: þalīdi
    • Proto-Anderic: toleyeti
    • Proto-Maro-Stiric: tāĵʰáyati
      • Stiric: tāháyati
        • Doti: tāheti
      • Old-Mirian: tādayatiy

Ť

ťer

[ter] v.
Ø-stem ťṛ; e-stem ťer; o-stem ťor

(perfective) to hit, to strike, to smack, to pack down, to beat.

Descendants:

  • š-ťér-o-
    • Proto-Iscaric: steros
    • Proto-Maro-Stiric: sʈárah
      • Stiric: ṣṭaraḥ
        • Doti: ṭharo

tłeḫš

[tɬeħʃ] v.
Ø-stem tłḫš; e-stem tłeḫš; o-stem tłoḫš

(perfective) to bloom, to blossom, to ripen, to come of age or maturity, to spread out, to open up. (noun) a flower.

Descendants:

  • tłḫš-nó-
    • Proto-Iscaric: tɬaznā

U

ueggš

[u̯eg̊ʃ] v.
Ø-stem uggš; e-stem ueggš; o-stem uoggš

(imperfective) to stream, to flow, to run, to sweep, to spread; to drift, to float, to wander, to stray. (perfective) to be washed away, to be carried away, to disappear, to be removed.

Descendants:

  • uéggš-mṅ-
    • Proto-Iscaric: weksmən

uegh

[u̯eɢ] v.
Ø-stem ugh; e-stem uegh; o-stem uogh

(imperfective) to carry over one's shoulder, to sling over one's shoulder. (noun) a shoulder pole, a pole used for carrying things over one's shoulders.

Descendants:

  • uégh-e-ti
    • Proto-Iscaric: weʁets
  • uégh-(k)lo-m
    • Proto-Iscaric: weʁlom
      • Aeranir: veġüluṅ ("palanquin")
  • uegh-kṓr
    • Proto-Iscaric: wekkōr
      • Aeranir: veccor ("courier")

uekḫ

[u̯ekħ] n.
Ø-stem ukḫ; e-stem uekḫ; o-stem uokḫ

(noun) illness, sickness, disease, disability, disfigurement, bad luck, curse, anything that negatively effects human life. (perfective) to curse, to wish or being bad luck or misfortune upon someone. (stative) to be sick, to be ill, disabled, disfigured, to have bad luck, to be cursed, to be disaffected.

Descendants:

  • uékḫ-o-
    • Proto-Iscaric: wekom

Y

yneḥ

[ɟneh] n.
Ø-stem yṇḥ; e-stem yneḥ; o-stem ynoḥ
alt. e-stem yenḥ; o-stem yonḥ

(nominal) earth, soil, dirt; humans, regular folk. (adjective) strong, sturdy, reliable.

Descendants:

  • yneḥ-iš-
    • Proto-Iscaric: ŋnēis
  • yónḥ-o-
    • Proto-Iscaric: xonom

YY

yyeḥr

[ɟ̊ehr] v.
Ø-stem yyḥr; e-stem yyeḥr; o-stem yyoḥr

(stative) to be tall, high, to be important, to be sacred, to be beloved, of elevated or special status.

Descendants:

  • yyḥr-ḫṓr
    • Proto-Iscaric: garōr
    • Proto-Talothic: kéretsi
      • Dalitian: kéreis