Aeranir Lexicon

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[ˈa.bɛr] n. t.
GEN.SG abrī

From PI aðros, from PME ḫešróš “fish.”

  1. fish


  • S'entigneis: avre
  • Tevrés: abre


[aˈkʊɫ.tɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF acültīghan; PFV.PTCP acülsus; OPT.1SG acülsid; PFV.1SG acültīvī

from ac and alta.

  1. it waters me, it gives me water


  • S'entigneis: agouir, agouz, agouez
  • Tevrés: aguchir, aguchez, aguchaz


[ˈɛː.kuː] pro.
GEN teī

From PME ḫeikuḥ.

  1. first person singular pronoun; I, me, my, etc.

Clitics: NOM te; GEN ; ACC tis


[ˈɛː.daɫ] n. c.
GEN.SG aedālis

From aedaç + -al.

  1. deep, romantic love, which may sometimes be overwhelming; romantic obsession, longing, affection, care.
  2. attachment, craving, desire


  • S'entigneis: eal
  • Tevrés: eal


[ˈɛː.dat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF aedāghan; PFV.PTCP aedātus; OPT.1SG aedārid; PFV.1SG aedāvī

From PI aiðāts, from PME ḫeid- a term of affection

  1. it loves me


[aˈeː.mũː] n. e.
GEN.SG aēmī

From PI ajezmom, from PME ḫéioš, ḫéiešeš ("vital force"). Cognate with Dalitian āmṓn ("heart").

  1. time, eternity, perpetuity, permanence, immortality
  2. life force; from an Aeranid theological perspective, inanimate objects like rocks and trees are more alive than animate "living" things such as people and animals, because they they do not decay from exposure to time

Derived terms:

  • aēmeus ("eternal, everlasting")


[ˈaf.fæ.rɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF afferëghan; PFV.PTCP affertus; OPT.1SG afferrid; PFV.1SG affērī

From ac + feriç.

  1. it take me, it carries me (an inanimate object) away, it bears me


[ˈa.ɟɪt͡s] n. e.
GEN.SG agēnsī

from agiç.

  1. allotment


  • S'entigneis: aïs
  • Tevrés: aes


[ˈa.ɟɪt͡s] v. di.
IMPF.INF agëghan; PFV.PTCP āctus; OPT.1SG āxid; PFV.1SG ēgī

From PI agets, from PME ḫeyy- “to sow.”

  1. it gives me (time, money, goods), It donates (something) to me
    • āxe mater hānō sēdis etum binne
      The senator would like to donate one hundred horses to the temple of Sede.
  2. it does me, it performs me, it conducts me, it rules me
  3. it applies me (makeup), it adds me (ornamentation, annotation)
  4. it sows me, it seeds me, it scatters me, it sprinkles me
  5. it spreads me far and wide

Derived terms:

  • agēnsun ("allotment, dole")


[ˈãŋ.nũː] n. e.
GEN.SG agnī

From PI aŋnom, from PME ḫeyy-n-ó “seed,” from root ḫeyy “to sow.”

  1. seed (of a plant), pip, kind, variety, quality, tone
  2. material (for an article), matter (of a story), subject, theme
  3. cause, source
  4. sperm, semen


  • S'entigneis: aing
  • Tevrés: en


[ˈal.lɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF allissī; PFV.PTCP alsus; OPT.1SG alsor; PFV.1SG alō

From PI alnōr, from PME ḫelḥ “to be grown, feed, nourished, happy, prosperous.”

  1. I am fast, quick, hasty, brisk
  2. I am early, premature
  3. I am (too) soon, not yet, (too) early


[ˈaɫ.ta] n. c.
GEN.SG altae

From PI altā, from PME ḫélḥ “to be grown, feed, nourished, happy, prosperous.”

  1. water (esp. cool, fresh water, e.g. drinking water)


  • S'entigneis: aute
  • Tevrés: ota


[aɫˈtoː.kʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG altōcua; E.NOM.SG altōcun

From PI altā + -ōcus.

  1. full of water, wet, soaked


  • S'entigneis: auteu
  • Tevrés: otogo


[ˈa.qʷa] n. c.
GEN.SG aquae

From PME ḫeqw "to open, to spread open, to unwrap," in the sense that the year opens with the spring. May also refer to the opening (blooming) of flowers.

  1. spring, springtime
  2. one's youth; young adulthood


  • S'entigneis: eau
  • Tevrés: agua


[ˈa.qᶣɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF aquīghan; PFV.PTCP aqtus; OPT.1SG aqsid; PFV.1SG ēquī

From PI aqʷjets, from PME ḫeqw “to open, to pry open, to spread, to invite.”

  1. it opens me, unwraps me, unlocks me
  2. it begins me, starts me
  3. to bloom, to flower; to come to maturity, to become an adult


  • Tevrés: aguir, aguez, eguaz


[aˈqʊ̃m.nʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG aqumnī

From PI aqʷomnos, from PME ḫeqw “to open, to pry open, to spread, to invite.”

  1. a young, adolescent, youthful etc. person


  • S'entigneis: agons
  • Tevrés: agoños


[ˈark.t(ʰ)a] n. c.
GEN.SG archthae

From Dalitian árkhthos. Cognate with native varsus "geyser."

  1. hot water; a bath


  • S'entigneis: airte
  • Tevrés: arta


[aˈrʊ̃m.nʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG arumnī

From PI azomnos, from PME ḫeš “to breath, to be alive; spirit, soul.”

  1. living being, animal


  • S'entigneis: arons
  • Tevrés: aroños


[ˈas.pɛr] n. t.
GEN.SG aspëris

From Dalitian ásphēs, from Old Marian haspa, from Stiric haśvam, from PME šḥecu ("to be sharp, biting, sour, bitter").

  1. lime


  • S'entigneis: âpre
  • Tevrés: aspre


[ˈas.tuːs] n. t.
GEN.SG astȳs

From PME ḫeš “to breath, to be alive; spirit, soul.”

  1. soul, spirit
  2. ghost, spectre, phantom


  • S'entigneis: âz
  • Tevrés: astos


[ˈaː.sʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG āsa; C.NOM.SG āsun

From PI āssos from PME ḫéḥtł-to- from root ḫeḥtł “to burn, to be dry, hearth, ash.”

  1. roasted, baked
  2. dried


[ˈa.cjũː] n. e.
GEN.SG atī

From atiç ("to knead, refine, polish").

  1. metal
  2. silver
  3. money

Derived terms:

  • atiō ("gold")
  • atiōcus ("rich, full of money")
  • atiūmus ("of metal; made of metal")


[ˈaː.tɬa] n. c.
GEN.SG ātlae

From PI ātɬā PME ḫeḥtł “to burn, to be dry, hearth, ash.”

  1. alter, shrine


  • S'entigneis: etle
  • Tevrés: atla


[ɔː] n. e.
GEN.SG avis

From PI au, from PME ḫeu “to be bright; the sun.” Cognates include Dalitian , Proto-Maro-Stiric Hau, Proto-Fyrdic awiz. The first component of ōdëssēre ("Odesser") is believed to have also come from ḫeu.

  1. sun, sunshine, sunlight
  2. day, days

Derived terms:

  • aucella ("lamp, lantern, reading light")
  • aufer ("falcon, a priest of Odesser")
  • aula ("reflection, image, mirage")
  • aumēdus ("daily; morning glory")
  • aveus ("sunny, bright; happy")


  • Dalot: abeciu
  • Ilesse: avellu
  • S'entigneis: aveil
  • Tevrés: avijo


[ɔːˈcɛ] n. c.
GEN.SG aucellae

Diminutive of au ("sun"), with influence from lūcella ("nightlight"). Doublet with aula ("reflection").

  1. light, touch, lamp, specifically a bright light meant to illuminate a room fully, as opposed to lūcella, mīsella, and tōrella, which refer to subsequently dimmer/smaller lights.


  • S'entigneis: auzelle
  • Tevrés: azilla


[ˈɔː.ɟɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF augēghan; PFV.PTCP auctus; OPT.1SG auxid; PFV.1SG augēvī

From PI augējets, from PME ḫeugg “to know, see.”

  • active:
    1. it looks at, sees, perceives (with volition) me
    2. it observes me, it notes me
    3. it understands, perceives, comprehends me
    4. it looks at, considers, reflects upon me
    5. it looks after, keeps an eye on, takes care of me
  • middle:
    1. I look, see, perceive (without volition)
    2. I look (like something), I seem, appear
  • passive:
    1. I am regarded as, seen as, thought to be
  • auxiliary:
    1. to try, to try out, to test


  • S'entigneis: oir, oz, oiez
  • Tevrés: oér, oyez, oigaz


[ˈɔː.ɫa] n. c.
GEN.SG aulae

From awelā, diminutive of au ("the sun"). Originally formed to describe the image of the sun reflected on water or in a mirror.

  1. reflection, image, depiction
  2. mirage, illusion, hallucination

Derived terms:

  • aulaç ("it reflects me")


[ˈɔː.ɫat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF aulāghan; PFV.PTCP aulātus; OPT.1SG aulārid; PFV.1SG aulāvī

From aulā ("reflection, mirage, image")

  1. it reflects me, it looks like me
  2. it depicts me, it captures my image


[ˈak.seːs] n. c.
GEN.SG axī

From PI aksis PME ḫecš “axis, axle, pivot.” Cognate with Dalitian axṓn, Stiric akṣaḥ.

  1. school, axēs: the primary social unit of Aeranid society, wherein a child is raised by the collective community. A child is generally raised in their parent's axēs, but this is not always the case, and they may change axēs later in life. An axēs is divided into several smaller cōmur.
    • formīrate rhaelin axī iūrō imëre
      I want to help my child get into a good school.
  2. axle, axis, pivot, centre (of a wheel, or by extension an organisation or endeavour)
  3. shoulder, collarbone

Derived terms:

  • audexēs ("primary out-group")
  • imexēs ("secondary in-group")



[ˈbɛl.lɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF bellëghan; PFV.PTCP bulsus; OPT.1SG bulsid; PFV.1SG bolī

From PI dwelnets, a rebracketing of the PME nasal present infix.

  1. it fills me, it fills me up


[ˈbeː.sũː] n. e.
GEN.SG bēsī

From PI dwensom, from PME dduen ("to dig, to hollow"). Hence also boniç ("it digs me"). Beds were commonly dug into the ground to help cool them.

  1. bed

Derived terms:

  • bēseus ("comfy, cozy")
  • bēsïtaç ("I date, I court")


[ˈbɔ.ɫɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF bellī; PFV.PTCP boltus; OPT.1SG bellor; PFV.1SG bōlō

From PI dwelōr, from PME ddeul "to fill, to be full."

  1. I am full, I am at compacity
  2. I am enough sufficient, adequate, proper, satisfactory
  3. I am a lot, much



[ˈkaː.nɛks] n. c.
GEN.SG cānis

From PI kaznis, from PME keḫš- “to measure, to give advice."

  1. month
    • sumerra prīste fac cānix appīs
      This month will be the hottest of the year.


  • S'entigneis: chens
  • Tevrés: ganes


[ˈka.ra] n. c.
GEN.SG carae

From PI kazā, from PME keḫš- “to measure, to give advice."

  1. measure, value, character
  2. bound, limit
  3. manner, method, way


  • S'entigneis: chere
  • Tevrés: gara


[ˈkaː.re.ɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF cārēssī; PFV.PTCP cāstus; OPT.1SG cāsō; PFV.1SG cārēvō

From PI kāzējōr, from PME keḫš- “to measure, to give advice."

  1. (with dative) I heal, cure, remedy, am good for or against a disease
    • cās iūs!
      Get well soon!


[ˈka.rɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF carëghan; PFV.PTCP cartus; OPT.1SG carrid; PFV.1SG cērī

From PI karets, from PME kḥer- “to sway, to wave.”

  1. I dance (a whirling dance)
    • carrid nēcul
      I want to dance with you.
  2. I flutter about, I revolve


  • S'entigneis: cherre, cherz, cherez
  • Tevrés: carre, carez, caraz


[ˈkar.mɛ̃n] n. e.
GEN.SG carmïnis

From PI karmən, from PME kḥer- “to sway, to wave.” Hence also cariç.

  1. ocean , sea, waters


  • S'entigneis: charme
  • Tevrés: cambre


[ˈkar.ta] n. c.
GEN.SG cartae

From cariç.

  1. dance, ball, party


  • S'entigneis: cherte
  • Tevrés: carta


[ˈka.tɛt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF catēghan; PFV.PTCP cassus; OPT.1SG cassid; PFV.1SG catēvī

From PI katēts, from PME ceḫt (“to bind, to tie a knot; knot"). Hence also cōtus ("knot"), cattus ("friend, relative"). Cognate with Dalitian katheîs ("it stops me").

  1. I am tied together with, connected to, linked to
  2. I lead to, am related to

Derived terms:

  • catēnsun ("connection, relation")


  • S'entigneis: cheoir, chiez, chiz
  • Tevrés: cadér, cadez, quedaz


[ˈka.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG cattuī

From PI katwos, from PME ceḫt (“to bind, to tie a knot; knot"). Hence also cōtus ("knot"), cateç ("I am tied together with"). Cognate with Dalitian kathós ("cousin"), Stiric śitvaḥ, Old Marian xaθva ("servant").

  1. friend, comrade, relation

Derived terms:

  • colcettuaç ("it befriends me")


  • S'entigneis: chaz
  • Tevrés: gatos


[cɛ] pro.
GEN.SG ceī

From PME ke.

  1. reflexive pronoun; myself, yourself, themselves, etc.


[ˈcɛ.nɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF cenëghan; PFV.PTCP centus; OPT.1SG cēsid; PFV.1SG cenuī

From PI kenets, From PME kenḫ ("to pass, to go through").

  1. I finish, I end, I close


  • S'entigneis: ceindre, cienz, cienez
  • Tevrés: çengre, çienez, çengaz


[ˈciː.ɫũː] n. e.
GEN.SG cīlī

From PI keilom ("emptiness"), from PME kei ("to be empty, hollow; sky"). Hence also coegha ("beach").

  1. (daytime) sky, the air, the heavens (for nighttime sky, see satercās)
    • talī aux cīlun
      A bird is flying in the sky.
  2. weather
  3. falsehood, lie; fake
    • hiciūrērur gallun cīlī bīs
      False coin will not be tolerate here.

Derived terms:

  • cīlia ("daytime")
  • cīlēmeus ("sky blue")
  • gēscīlēda ("lies")


  • Dalot: kilu
  • Ilesse: chu
  • S'entigneis: cil
  • Tevrés: çil


[ˈkoː.da] n. c.
GEN.SG cōdae

From PI kōdā, from PME kṓddš, keddéš ("face"). Cognates include Dalitian khoús, Proto-Fyrdic hōts, Stiric cādaḥ. Dialectal variants include Gabinian cōs, Sabian cēs.

  1. face, visage
  2. look, expression, countenance
  3. front, frontside


[ˈcøː.ɣa] n. c.
GEN.SG coeghae

From PI koiʁā ("empty stretch of land"), from PME kei ("to be empty, hollow; sky"). Hence also cīlun ("daytime sky"), gēscīlēda ("lies"), cīlēmeus ("sky blue").

  1. beach, seashore, coastline; specifically a graded shoreline or flat coast (for cliffed coast see saepiun)

Derived terms:

  • accūghānun ("beach settlement, fishing village")
  • occūghaç ("to sail away, to depart")
  • incūghaç ("to sail into, to arrive")


  • S'entigneis: çoie
  • Tevrés: çega


[ˈcøː.ɲa] n. c.
GEN.SG coenae

From PI kʷoiɲā, deverbal noun from PME root kweiñ ("to say, speak"). Cognate with Dalitian phoînos and theîneis. Hence also cuiñor ("I think, reckon").

  1. that which is said; word, speech, utterance
  2. that which is thought; reason, reckoning
  3. love, affection, craving, yearning

Derived terms:

  • cincūñeus ("illogical, pointless")
  • coeñar ("language")


  • S'entigneis: ceigne
  • Tevrés: çeña


[ˈcøː.ɲar] n. c.
GEN.SG coenāris

From coeña.

  1. language, speech, dialect


  • S'entigneis: ceinre, ceigner
  • Tevrés: çingra, çeñár


[ˈkɔf.fæ.rɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF cofferëghan; PFV.PTCP coffertus; OPT.1SG cofferrid; PFV.1SG coffērī

From col- + feriç.

  1. it puts up with me, stands me, bears me, withstands me


[ˈkɔ.gũː] n. e.
GEN.SG cogī

From PI kʷogom, from PME kweyy ("to seperate, divide"). Hence also cueius.

  1. district, ward, division


[kɔˈlɪ̃n.dæ.rja] n. c.
GEN.SG colindëriae

From colindus + -ia.

  1. agreement together, union, concord, accord
    • coliūcētëra colindëria axī tūghī īme
      The accord combines the two schools into one.
  2. harmony, peace


  • S'entigneis: coudoire
  • Tevrés: coldera


[kɔˈlɪ̃n.dʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG colindëris; E.NOM.SG colindëre

From col- + indus.

  1. agreeing, of one heart, mind; concordant
  2. like-minded
  3. peaceful, harmonious


[kɔlˈjuːcɛt͡s] v. di.
IMPF.INF coliūcēghan; PFV.PTCP coliūctus; OPT.1SG coliūxid; PFV.1SG coliūcēvī

From col- + iūceç.


  1. it joins it with me, binds it with me


  1. it joins me together, it binds me together, it combines me
    • coliūcētëra colindëria axī tūghī īme
      The accord combines the two schools into one.


  • S'entigneis: couzoir, couilluz
  • Tevrés: cojuzér, cojuzez


[ˈkɔl.lɨ.ɟɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF colligëghan; PFV.PTCP collectus; OPT.1SG collexid; PFV.1SG collēvī

col- + legiç.

  1. it assembles me, it collects me, it gathers me
    • gēs aplīdiāna collecta
      the Collected Matters of Apleidion


  • S'entigneis: cuildre, cuilz
  • Tevrés: cujér, cujez


[ˈkoː.mɨ.dʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG cōmïda; E.NOM.SG cōmïdun

From cōmus + -ïdus.

  1. of or related to the house, home, cōmus
  2. (cyclical substantive) house name, family name (from noma cōmïda), used after position or noma (if necessary).


  • S'entigneis: conz
  • Tevrés: condos


[koːˈmiː.nʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG cōmīnī

From cōmus + -īnus.

  1. member of a household, house, family or cōmus


  • S'entigneis: commins
  • Tevrés: cominos


[ˈkoː.mʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG cōmī

From PME kwṓm, from root kwem "to build up, to arrange, to put together." Cognate with Dalitian phómos, Old Marian kāma, Proto-Stravonic komĭ.

  1. house, home
  2. household, family
  3. the round of social order below the axēs, a house or household, where members are not necessarily related by blood, but by common interest, ideas, aims, etc. Each cōmus belongs to an axēs, wherein any children of that cōmus are educated and raised, although children or parents may choose to enter other axēs or cōmus at any time of their own will, provided they are accepted

Derived terms:

  • auccōmus ("secondary out-group")
  • cōmīnus ("member of the house")
  • cōmïdus ("of the house")
  • incōmus ("primary in-group")


  • S'entigneis: coms
  • Tevrés: comos


[ˈkɔ.nɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF conēghan; PFV.PTCP conïtus; OPT.1SG conërid; PFV.1SG conēvī

From PI konēts, from PME kon-éie-ti, causative of root cen ("to drive away, to go away"). Cognate with Proto-Maro-Stiric ĉánati. Hence also ceniç, centaç.

  1. it finishes me, ends me, closes me
  2. it banishes me, casts me out
  3. it erases me, deletes me, crosses me out


  • S'entigneis: connoir, conz, cognez
  • Tevrés: conér, cuenez, congaz


[ˈkɔ̃n.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG contī

From PME kontos, from root kenḫ "to pass through, to go through, to pass, to end; limit, bound."

  1. end, stop, finish
  2. bounds, limits
  3. the last moment before action can take place; last chance, decisive moment
    • cīs contus tibōrānium paciendī
      Our last chance to take Tiboraniun approaches.


  • S'entigneis: conz
  • Tevrés: cuentos


[kɔˈpjẽː.sũː] n. e.
GEN.SG copēnsī

From copiç + -ēnsun.

  1. draft animal (e.g. ox, horse)


  • S'entigneis: couchois
  • Tevrés: cuyés


[ˈkɔ.pɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF copīghan; PFV.PTCP coptus; OPT.1SG copsid; PFV.1SG copuī

From PI kʷopjets from PME kʷep "to tie, to bind; a knot."

  1. it ties me (a knot), it binds me


  • S'entigneis: couvir, cœupz, cochez
  • Tevrés: cobír, cuebez, copaz


[ˈkɔps] n. t.
GEN.SG copis

From PI kʷops from PME kʷep "to tie, to bind; a knot."

  1. helmet, helm


  • S'entigneis: cos, cœuvre
  • Tevrés: cues, cuevre


[ˈkɔp.tɬɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF coptlëghan; PFV.PTCP copsus; OPT.1SG copsid; PFV.1SG coptluī

From PI koptɬets, from PME keptł ("to run").

  1. I run, I dash, I hurry to


  • S'entigneis: coutlloir, cotlz, cotllez
  • Tevrés: cotllér, cuetllez, cotllaz


[ˈkoː.rɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF cōrēghan; PFV.PTCP cōrtus; OPT.1SG cōrrid; PFV.1SG cōrēvī

From PI korejets, from PME kḫor-éie-, causative of root kḥer- “to sway, to wave; to bend” Hence also cariç.

  1. it tortures me, to torments me
  2. (middle) I am excruciating


  • S'entigneis: couroir, cœurz, cuirez
  • Tevrés: corér, corez, curaz


[ˈkoː.tat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF cōtāghan; PFV.PTCP cōtātus; OPT.1SG cōtārid; PFV.1SG cōtāvī

From cōtus ("knot").

  1. it ties me in a knot, it knots me

Derived terms:

  • cōtātaç ("it knits me")


  • S'entigneis: couer, cœuez, cœuz
  • Tevrés: codar, codaz, codez


[koːˈtaː.tat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF cōtātāghan; PFV.PTCP cōtātātus; OPT.1SG cōtātārid; PFV.1SG cōtātāvī

From frequentative of cōtaç. Found next to variant cōcātaç.

  1. it knits me, crochets me


  • S'entigneis: coucheer, couchiez, couchiez
  • Tevrés: cuadar, cuadaz, cuadez


[ˈkoː.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG cōtī

From PI kōtos, from PME ceḫt ("to bind, to tie together; knot").

  1. knot, joint, link; tie-together point
  2. point, dot

Derived terms:

  • cōtaç ("it ties me in a knot")
  • cōteus ("knot-like; knotted")
  • cōticülun ("knitting needle, crochet needle")


  • S'entigneis: cœuz
  • Tevrés: codos


[kruːs] n. t.
GEN.SG crūdis

From PI krous, from PME kréud-š ("blood"). Hence also cruius ("flesh"), and occrūdiç ("it violates me, commits me (a crime)").

  1. blood, consanguinity
  2. essence, being, substance; the active ingredient

Derived terms:

  • auccrūdaç ("I bleed")
  • colcrūs ("related by blood")
  • crūdīcus ("bloody, violent")
  • crūdix ("maggot, worm")


[kʊɫ] prep.

From PI kol from PME tł-lḥi from interrogative/relative pronoun .

  1. together, with


[ˈkuː.dɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF cūdëghan; PFV.PTCP cussus; OPT.1SG cussid; PFV.1SG cūvī

From PI kuzdets, from PME cwešd "to bend, to sag, to stoop."

  1. I descend, I come down
  2. I sag, I droop, I am weighed down, I bend down
    • cūda ema quaris sopërī orerraquo
      The branch of the tree is weighted down with snow, and breaks.
  3. I bow, I prostrate myself, I beg

Derived terms:

  • cēcūdiç ("I bow, beg")
  • cussaç ("I grovel")


[ˈkʊ.pɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF cupëghan; PFV.PTCP cuptus; OPT.1SG cupsid; PFV.1SG cūpī

From PI kupets, from PME keup "to take, to distribute."

  1. it buys me, it purchases me
  2. it values me, it has a high opinion of me


  • S'entigneis: couvre, cœupz, cœuvez
  • Tevrés: covre, covez, covaz


[ˈkuː.ra] n. c.
GEN.SG cūrae

From PI kouzā, from PME keuš (“grass, to grow, to sprout”).

  1. grass, weed, herb
  2. medicine
  3. domestic plant


  • S'entigneis: cure
  • Tevrés: cura



[ˈkᶣɛj.jæ.gat͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF cueiëgāghan; PFV.PTCP cueiëgātus; OPT.1SG cueiëgārid; PFV.1SG cueiëgāvī

From cueius + -gaç.

  1. I change, I am transformed, I am altered, I vary
  2. I am different, uncommon, unusual; strange


[ˈkᶣɛj.jɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF cueiissī/cueīsī; PFV.PTCP cueiïtus/cueītus; OPT.1SG cueiërid/cueīrid; PFV.1SG cueiuī/cueīvī

From cueius.

  1. I vary, I am different, I differ
  2. I am not in the usual condition
  3. I do not match the correct, the promised; I am wrong


[ˈkᶣɛj.jʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG cueia; E.NOM.SG cueiun

From PME kweyy ("to separate, to divide").

  1. various, diverse, different

Derived terms:

  • cueiëgaç ("I vary, change, become different")
  • cueior ("I vary, I am different")


  • S'entigneis: quis
  • Tevrés: queyos


[ˈkᶣɪ.ɲɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF cuiñisse; PFV.PTCP cuintus; OPT.1SG cuīsō; PFV.1SG cuiñuō

From PME kweiñ ("to say, to think"). Hence also coeña ("word").

  1. I think, I consider, I believe, I reckon
  2. I love, I yearn for, I desire



[ˈt͡sa.ɫa] n. c.
GEN.SG çalae

From PI tsalā, from PME čeḥdł “to be hollow.”

  1. bowl, cup
  2. tub, cauldron
  3. bucket


[ˈt͡] n. c.
GEN.SG çallae

From çala + -üla, through medial *çalola.

  1. bowl, cup


  • S'entigneis: celle
  • Tevrés: çalla


[ˈt͡sa.ɫʊt] n. e.
GEN.SG çalïtis

From çala + -ut.

  1. tub, cauldron
  2. bucket


[t͡saˈɫɪ.te.ʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG çalitea; E.NOM.SG çaliteun

From çalut + -eus.

  1. tub or cauldron like, container like
  • (cyclical substantive)
    1. bath; bathtub (from archtha calōtea); personal bath, as opposed to a public bath (see archtha nīrïda)


  • S'entigneis: celoiz
  • Tevrés: çalizos


[t͡sa.ɫɨˈtiː.nʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG çalïtīnī

From çalut + -īnus.

  1. chemist, alchemist, mage, magician, scientist
    • serva rēs ceçalïtīnī vecun exterre
      The king ordered his alchemists to confront the disease.


  • S'entigneis: ceautins
  • Tevrés: çaldinos


[ˈt͡sɪ] n. c.
GEN.SG çillae

Of unknown, possible substrate origins.

  1. cat


  • S'entigneis: çelle
  • Tevrés: çella


[t͡sʊr] prep.

Prom PME t͡sors, from PME ḫčṛḥ-š from root ḫčerḥ ("to cross through, pass through, overcome").

  1. (with accusative) through, across, beyond


[ˈt͡sʊr.mɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF çurmëghan; PFV.PTCP çuremptus; OPT.1SG çuremsid; PFV.1SG çurēmī

Shortened from çurïmiç, from çur + emiç.

  1. it transmits me, conveys me, reports me
  2. it communicates me, tells me, imparts me
  3. it propagates me, teaches me


  • S'entigneis: çourmoir, çourz, çourmaz
  • Tevrés: çormér, çormez, çormaz



[ˈdaː.rʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG dārī

From PI dāzos, from PME ddeḫ- “to put, to prosper, to succeed.”

  1. a helpful god or spirit; benevolent spirit


  • S'entigneis: ders
  • Tevrés: daros


[ˈdɛː.moː] n. t.
GEN.SG daemōnis

From PI dāimō, from PME ddeḫ- “to put, to prosper, to succeed.”

  1. blessing, spell, luck


  • S'entigneis: diem, demondre
  • Tevrés: diemo, demondre


[ˈdɛː.ʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG daeva; E.NOM.SG daeun

From PI dāiwos, from PME ddeḫ- “to put, to prosper, to succeed.”

  1. kind, gracious, benevolent


  • S'entigneis: diefs
  • Tevrés: dievos


[ˈdɛ.cɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF decëghan; PFV.PTCP dectus; OPT.1SG dexid; PFV.1SG decuī

From PI dekets, from PME ďďek- “to hug, to embrace, to hold in arms.”

  1. it embraces me, it holds me in its arms, it hugs me
  2. it harbours me (e.g. a grudge) bears me, has be (e.g. ambition), entertains me (e.g. hope, suspicion)
  3. (vulgar) it has sex with me, makes love to me, sleeps with me


  • S'entigneis: dizre, diz, diez
  • Tevrés: diezre, diezez, diegaz


[dɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF dēghan; PFV.PTCP dītus; OPT.1SG dērid; PFV.1SG

From PI dēts, from PME ďďeḥ “to put in place; to place, to make, to do.”


  1. it cause it to become me, it makes it into me, it turns it into me


  1. it does me
  2. it serves as me (a job or position)
  3. it wears me (small items of clothing, a facial expression, an aura, etc.)


  1. (with dative) I decide (on something)


  1. I decide (to do something)
    • dīvate saub carëghan
      I decided to just dance.


  • S'entigneis: doir, dez, diez
  • Tevrés: der, dez, díaz


[ˈdɪ.ɟjɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF didīsī; PFV.PTCP didītus; OPT.1SG didīrō; PFV.1SG didīvī

From PI didaiōr, from PME ddeḫ “to put in place; to place, to make, to do.”

  1. I am happy, I am prosperous

[ˈduː] adv.

From PI , from PME ddu-u, essive of the third person pronoun ddu. Hence also , .

  1. when, how soon
    • aqueanē carta ?
      When does the ball begin?


[ˈduː.be.ʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG dūbea; E.NOM.SG dūbeun

From PI doiβēos, from PME ddeib ("to burn, to be on fire; fire").

  1. dull black (as opposed to sater "shining black")


  • S'entigneis: duis
  • Tevrés: duyos


[ˈdʊ.ɫɛ] n. e.
GEN.SG dulis

From PME ďďul (“to rise; to be tall”).

  1. hill, height, knoll, rising ground

Derived terms:

  • duliaç ("to be hilly, to hill")
  • dulīcus ("hilly")
  • dulla ("small hill")
  • dulūmus ("of a hill, growing on a hill")



[ˈɛ.mɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF emëghan; PFV.PTCP emptus; OPT.1SG emsid; PFV.1SG ēmī

From PI emets, from PME hem ("to exchange, trade, bestow"). Cognate with Dalitian émeis ("it sells me").

  1. it sends me, dispatches me, transmits me
  2. it escorts me, guides me, attends me
  3. it bids me farewell, it sees me off
  4. it dismisses me, disregards me

Derived terms:

  • çurmiç ("it conveys me, transmits me, tells me")


[ˈɛ.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG etuī

From PI etwos, from PME ḥéťu-o-š from root ḥeťu "fast, swift." Cognate with Dalitian eîthos, Fyrdic eþwaz, Stiric aṭvaḥ, Old Marian aθva.

  1. horse, usually for riding
    • rīptin etuōnē iūs
      Can you ride a horse?
    • send etus iucātusquo arumnur çēle tūtërentur
      Riding horses and pack horses are completely different animals.


[ɛks] prep.

From PI ekis, from PME ḥec “near, against.”

  1. back (to, from), against


  • Ilesse: es
  • S'entigneis: ix
  • Tevrés: eis



[fat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF façëghan; PFV.PTCP fassus; OPT.1SG fassid; PFV.1SG fētī

Shortened from façiç, from PI θatsets, from PME dḥť-ié-ti "to do, to place, to out, to make."

  1. it does me, it makes me
  2. it cooks me, bakes me

Derived terms:

  • auffiç ("to destroy, sunder")
  • seffiç ("to remake, repair, heal, fix")


  • S'entigneis: fezre, fez, fezez
  • Tevrés: hazre, haz(ez), hazaz


[ˈfɛ.rɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF ferëghan; PFV.PTCP fertus; OPT.1SG ferrid; PFV.1SG fērī

From PI θerets, from PME der "to hold, to carry." Cognate with Dalitian déreis, Proto-Fyrdic diridi, Proto-Maro-Stiric dʰárati.

  1. it holds me (in its hand), it takes me, carries me, bear me
  2. it possesses me, has me, owns me
  3. it maintains me, keeps me, supports me, holds me up
  4. it endures me

Derived terms:

  • affëriç
  • aufëriç
  • coffëriç
  • diffëriç
  • effëriç
  • offëriç


[ˈfɛ.rja] n. c.
GEN.SG feriae

From ferus.

  1. wilderness, the wild, barbarism


[ˈfɛ.rʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG fera; E.NOM.SG ferun

From PI xʷeros, from PME gweď ("wild beast, feral creature; to be wild").

  1. wild, of the wilderness, uncivilised
  2. stray (e.g. dog, cat)

Derived terms:

  • feria ("wilderness, the wild")
  • ferīnus ("barbarian")
  • sōfërus ("near-wild, peripheral")
  • tānfërus ("half-wild, crazy")


[ˈfɛs.tɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF festëghan; PFV.PTCP fessus; OPT.1SG fessid; PFV.1SG festuī

From PI xʷestets, from PME gwešť "to hit, to strike, to throw, to kill."

  1. to kill, to slay, to strike down, to murder
    • augeagī tiffestëghan
      They are trying to kill me.


  • S'entigneis: fêtre, fêz, fêtez
  • Tevrés: hiestre, hiestez, hiestaz


[fẽːs] n. c.
C.NOM.SG fentis

From PI xʷentis, from PME ḥgwen "to breath, to blow."

  1. wind


[ˈfiː.ɣe.ʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG fīghea; E.NOM.SG fīgheun

From fīghus + -eus.

  1. bright yellow


[ˈfiː.ɣʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG fīghī

Possibly from a substrate word *θeiɣ-, based on local Dalitian seíos.

  1. palo verde tree
  2. the flower of a palo verde tree


  • S'entigneis: fius
  • Tevrés: higos


[fɪsk] pro.
C.NOM.SG fac; E.NOM.SG fic

From PI θeske, from PME demonstrative pronouns de "The previously mentioned," and ke (alternate of gge) "he, she, it."

  1. proximal demonstrative pronoun; this, this one


[ˈfɔr.mɪt͡s] v. di.
IMPF.INF formīghan; PFV.PTCP formītus; OPT.1SG formīrid; PFV.1SG formīvī

From PI θormīts, from PME drem "to help, to assist."

  1. it helps me (with an activity, action), assists me, aids me
  2. it contributes something to me


  • S'entigneis: fourmir, forz, formez
  • Tevrés: formir, fuermez, formaz


[fɔˈraː.nʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG forāna; E.NOM.SG forānun

From fos + -ānus.

  1. mountainous, hilly


  • S'entigneis: fourains
  • Tevrés: horanos


[fɔˈriː.nʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG forīnī

From fos + -īnus.

  1. mountain person, barbarian
  2. hick, hillbilly


  • S'entigneis: fourins
  • Tevrés: horinos


[fɔs] n. t.
GEN.SG foris

From PI θos, from PME deš "to rise above, to tower."

  1. mountain, hill
  2. heap, pile

(adjective noun)

  1. wild, unkempt, uncivilised, barbarian


  • S'entigneis: feus, feure
  • Tevrés: fues, fuerre


[ˈfrɔ.ma] n. c.
GEN.SG fromae

Loan from Proto-Anderic ɸromā, from PME brem ("blossom, flower"). Cognate with Dalitian brómos ("flower"), Stiric bhṛmya ("young").

  1. leaf, petal; shaped like a football, as opposed to sacūla ("needle shaped leaf, blade of grass") or tōlla ("star shaped leaf").
  2. a word, specifically any word but a verb; noun, preposition, particle, etc.


  • S'entigneis: fromme
  • Tevrés: frema


[ˈfuː.neːs] n. t.
GEN.SG fūnī

Loan from Proto-Anderic ɸoinā, from PME peḫwi-néḫ- from root peḫwi "to swim."

  1. boat, ship, vessel, watercraft



[ˈ͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF gabēghan; PFV.PTCP gabïtus; OPT.1SG gabërid; PFV.1SG gabēvī

From PI gaβēts, from PME ggehb, alternative form of ggehm ("to chew, to bite"). Hence also gēmun ("tooth").

  1. it eats me, devours me, as a human would eat, as opposed to eciç ("it eats me like an animal").
    • moeia tīçilla abrōsquo sacūlae gabēre
      My cat likes to eat grass even more than fish.
  2. it chews me


[gaˈriː.na] n. c.
GEN.SG garīnae

From garor + -īna.

  1. important platonic relation; stronger than the English word friend
  2. platonic friendship, platonic or familial love


  • S'entigneis: gerine
  • Tevrés: garina


[gɔː.dũː] n. e.
IMPF.INF gaudī

From PI gaudom, from PME yyeḫu ("to stretch"). Hence also gāveor ("I am thin"), ganuiç ("I stretch"). Within the scribe Limius' scheme, language is like the trunk of a tree, verbs its branches, and nouns and particles its leaves.

  1. branch, bow, bough, twig, limb
  2. verb


[ˈgɔː.la] n. c.
IMPF.INF gaulae

From PI gaulā, from PME ggeḫu ("to stop, to alight, to stay").

  1. overnight stay, stop over
    • staeva īman gaulan cōmīs garīnae
      They spent a night at their friend's house.
  2. inn, hotel, tavern

Derived terms:

  • gaulaç ("it stops me")


[ˈgɔː.lat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF gaulāghan; PFV.PTCP gaulātus; OPT.1SG gaulārid; PFV.1SG gaulāvī

From gaula.

  1. it stops me, prevents me, suppresses me
    • gaulāva pannōner toriātun hānō imëre
      The guards stopped the soldier from entering the temple.
  2. it fixes me (in place), fastens me, tacks me
  3. it parks me
  4. it gives me shelter


[ˈgɔː.rʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG gaurī

From onomatopoeic gau gau.

  1. crow, raven


  • S'entigneis: jors
  • Tevrés: goros


[ˈga.rɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF garrī; PFV.PTCP gartus; OPT.1SG garrō; PFV.1SG gērō

From PI garōr, from PME yyeḥr- “to tall, high, valuable, important.”

  1. I am expensive, valuable
  2. I am lovely, dear, beloved, darling, precious, cherished
  3. important, necessary, indispensable


  • S'entigneis: gere, gerz, gerez
  • Tevrés: garre, garez, garaz


[ɟeːs] n. c.
GEN.SG geī

From PI gēis, from PME ggeḥi-š “wealth, goods.”

  1. thing, matter, issue, affair, stuff
  2. incident, occurence, event
  3. circumstances, situation, state of affairs


[ɟeːsˈheːs.ta] n. c.
GEN.SG gīhēstae

From gēs and hēstus. Alternatively written gēs hēsta.

  1. rule, government
    • serī gēshēsta tīnī garian
      The government sets the price of tea.


  • S'entigneis: gête
  • Tevrés: gesta


[ˈgrɛː.kũː] n. e.
GEN.SG graecī

From PI graikom, from PME ggreḫ(i) (“vessel, to contain”).

  1. jar, pot, vase


  • S'entigneis: gri
  • Tevrés: griego



[ˈhaː.nũː] n. e.
GEN.SG hānī

From PI χaznom, from PME gheḥš “god, diety, sacred place.”

  1. temple, shrine, holy place


[ˈheːs.tʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG hēsta; E.NOM.SG hēstun

From PI χēstos, from PME gheḥš “god, diety, sacred place.”

  1. of or related to festivals, holidays, holy days
  2. happy, joyous, celebratory, festive
  3. of or related to the government (see gēshēsta)


[çɪˈbɛr.ɲja] n. c.
GEN.SG hiberniae

Dissimilated from PI ɸiβremjā, from PME bí-bṛm-ti, bi-brém-ṇti, iterative of brem ("blossom, flower").

  1. world, society, public
  2. age, era, period, epoch, generation
  3. reign, rules
  4. the times, the world


  • S'entigneis: everne
  • Tevrés: heberña


[çɪk] part.

From PI xeke, from PME yek “to step, to walk, to tread.”

  1. negative particle


[ˈçɪ.nɛː] pro.
GEN.SG neī

From PME ggṇḫéi.

  1. second person singular pronoun; you, your, etc.

Clitics: NOM ne; GEN ; ACC nis


[ˈçɪs.tuː] n. e.
GEN.SG histȳ

From PI xistū, from PME geištu ("white, glittering, clear, ardent").

  1. silver (metal, element)
  2. a silver thing


[ˈhɔ.dʊs] n. t.

From PI xoðos ("like, around, about, when"), from PME ged ("to resemble; image").

  1. degree, extent, bounds, limit; upper limit
  2. (in dative) to the extent; the more (can be relativised without marking with participles)
  3. (dative with negative) not as much, less than


[ˈhɔ.rjɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF horīsī; PFV.PTCP horītus; OPT.1SG horīrō; PFV.1SG horīvō

From PI xorīōr, from PME yer ("to die").

  1. I die, I pass away


  • S'entigneis: hourir, heurz, huire
  • Tevrés: horír, huerez, horaz


[ˈhɔrs] n. c.
GEN.SG hortis

From PI horts, from PME yer ("to die").

  1. death


  • S'entigneis: horz
  • Tevrés: huertes


[ˈhoː.sat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF hōsāghan; PFV.PTCP hōsātus; OPT.1SG hōsārid; PFV.1SG hōsāvī

From PI χonsāts, from PME ğenḥ "free, unbound, unattached."

  1. it releases me, lets me go, frees me, sets me free, lets me loose


[ˈhʊ.ne.ɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF hunissī; PFV.PTCP huntus; OPT.1SG hūsor; PFV.1SG hunuō

From hunun.

  1. I am dusty, dirty
  2. I am arid, infertile
  3. I am light brown


[ˈhʊ.nũː] n. e.
GEN.SG hunī

From PI xonom PME yonḥ-ó- "earth, soil, dirt; humans, regular folk."

  1. dust earth; specifically arid and infertile earth



[ˈĩː.kʊr] n. e.
GEN.SG īcis

From Proto-Iscaric (PI) eikor (stem eikn-), from Proto-Maro-Ephenian (PME) héikṛ "fire." The -gn- of the oblique stem was replaced with the nominative -k-. The opposite process also occured with īgnur (genitive īgnī), with also means 'fire,' but with a more negative connotation. Cognate with Dalitian eikhna, Stiric ekṛ, Old Marian aixra, Proto-Fyrdic eihur.

  1. fire, flame (collective, uncountable)
  2. passion, enthusiasm, joy, 'spark'


  • S'entigneis: ire
  • Tevrés: igre


[ˈiː.dɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF īdēghan; PFV.PTCP īsus; OPT.1SG īsid; PFV.1SG īdēvī

From PI eizdējets, from PME ḥeiš “clearly, manifestly" and ďďeḥ "to do, to put, to render."

  1. it hears me, it listens to me
    • īsur fīsc oeta carmïnis
      You can hear the sound of the ocean here.
  2. it asks me


[ˈjɛ.suːs] n. c.
GEN.SG iesȳs

From PI jessus, from PME iéď-tu(ḫ)-, from root iéď ("to strip, to be naked").

  1. night, dusk; nighttime
  2. last night


[ˈĩːŋ.nʊr] n. e.
GEN.SG īgnis

From Proto-Iscaric (PI) eikor (stem eikn-), from Proto-Maro-Ephenian (PME) héikṛ "fire." The -k- of the nominative stem was replaced with the oblique -gn-. The opposite process also occured with īcur (genitive īcis), with also means 'fire,' but with a more positive connotation.

  1. fire, flame (collective, uncountable)
  2. rage, anger, fury, resentment
    • feratequo īgnur agnīrī opan fessō
      I still carry anger for the person who killed my father.

Derived terms:

  • īgneor
  • īgnēsciç
  • īgnal
  • īgnālümus


  • Late Aeranir: ígnëre
    • Ilesse: inre
    • Îredese: îmnâre
    • S'entigneis: inre
    • Venzano: ignere
  • Iscariano: ignos
  • Tevrés: iños


[ɪ̃m] prep.

From PI əm, from PME - “in, inside.”

  1. in, inside, within


  • Ilesse: ẽ
  • S'entigneis: am, eim
  • Tevrés: en


[ˈɪ.mɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF imëghan; PFV.PTCP imptus; OPT.1SG imsid; PFV.1SG imuī

From im.

  1. I go in, I enter
    • deō hānō imundū saub hicimptīvī
      I tried to enter the temple, but I was not let in.


[ˈiː.mʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG īma; E.NOM.SG īmun

From PI eimos, from PME ḥei- “cardinal number one, singular, alone.”

  1. cardinal number one


  • S'entigneis: ims
  • Tevrés: imos


[ˈɪ̃m.niː] adv.

From PI epnis, from epniōr, from PME ḥep-né-ḫōr from root ḥep- “to remain, to be left over, to be in excess, to be too many.”

  1. not very (with a negative sentence), not much
  2. excessively, too much


[ˈɪ̃m.tɛr] adv.

From earlier impter, from īmus + teriç "I turn."

  1. once, one time


[ˈɪ̃n.dʊs] n. c.
GEN.SG indëris

From PI əndos, from PME ḥṇd-óš- from root ḥend “mind, thought, spirit, heart.”

  1. mind, heart, spirit
  2. core, center, origin, source
  3. capital city
  4. leader, chief

Derived terms:

  • acindëraç ("to believe")
  • colindus ("harmony, accord")


  • S'entigneis: anz, andre
  • Tevrés: endos, endre


[ˈĩː.ʋɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF īnvëre; PFV.PTCP īnvïtus; OPT.1SG īnvërid; PFV.1SG īnvīvī

From im + vaç.

  1. I enter, I go into
  2. I join, enrol


[ˈjɔ.ʋɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF iovēghan; PFV.PTCP ioctus; OPT.1SG ioxid; PFV.1SG iovēvī

From PI djegʷējets, from PME ďďieggw “to carve, to scratch, to etch.” Cognate with Dalitian zépteis.

  1. it writes me
  2. it draws me


  • S'entigneis: jouvoir, jeufz, jogez
  • Tevrés: jovér, jueves, jovaz


[ˈjuːcɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF iūcēghan; PFV.PTCP iūctus; OPT.1SG iūxid; PFV.1SG iūcēvī

From PI joukējets, from PME ieuc “to attach, to hook onto, to stick onto.”

  1. it attaches me, it joins me, it adds me, appends me, affixes me, sticks me, glues me, fastens me, sews me on, applies me (ointment)
  2. it furnishes me (e.g. furniture in a house)
  3. it puts me on, it wears me (small trinkets, jewellery, glasses, etc.)
  4. it appraises me, it puts a price on me, it sets me
  5. it gives me a name
  6. it keeps an eye on me

Derived terms:

  • iūcülun ("yoke, harness")


  • S'entigneis: juzoir, juz, juchez
  • Tevrés: juzér, juzez, juzaz


[jʊˈcẽː.sũː] n. e.
GEN.SG iucēnsī

From iuciç + -ēnsus. Cognate with Dalitian zýkhatton "sword."

  1. name, title, moniker (formal)


  • S'entigneis: jouzois
  • Tevrés: jozés


[ˈjʊ.cɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF iucëghan; PFV.PTCP iuctus; OPT.1SG iuxid; PFV.1SG iucuī

From PI jukets, from PME ieuc “to attach, to hook onto, to stick onto.”

  1. I am attached, I am connecteed with, I adhere, I stick, I cling
  2. I am given (a name, a price)


  • S'entigneis: joizre, joiz, joche
  • Tevrés: jozre, jozez, jozaz


[ˈjuː.lja] n. c.
GEN.SG iūliae

From PI jouljā, from PME ieul- “to chant, to sing, to recite.”

  1. song, music
  2. poem, poetry
  3. spell, curse, charm, enchantment, incantation


  • S'entigneis: juille
  • Tevrés: juya

iūliaī iūlian

[ˈjuː.lja.iː ˈjuː.ljãː]

  1. "We shall sing a song," a phrase said traditionally at the beginning of a musical or poetic performance, can also be said before beginning any endeavour or activity that once started must end. It is similar in use to English "the die is cast."


[ˈjuː.lɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF iūlīghan; PFV.PTCP iultus; OPT.1SG iullid; PFV.1SG iūlīvī

From iūlia.

  1. it sings me, it says, recites me (a poem)
  2. it composes me (a song or poem)
  3. it curses me, casts me (a spell)


  • S'entigneis: julir, julz
  • Tevrés: julír, julez


[ˈjuːlː.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG iūlïtus

From ioveç + lotus, from earlier jewilotos.

  1. scribe


  • S'entigneis: juz
  • Tevrés: juchos


[ˈjʊlːː.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG iullïtī

From iūliç + lotus.

  1. singer, muse


[ˈjʊ.mɨ.dʊs] adj. n.
GEN.SG iumïdī

From iumus + -ïdus.

  1. trifling, unimportant, idle, trivial


[jʊˈmiː.nʊs] n. c.
GEN.SG iumīnī

From iumus + -īnus.

  1. a pigmy, a person of short stature
  2. a person of little importance, an uncharismatic person
  3. a commoner, a peasant, a regular person


  • Tevrés: jomin


[ˈjʊ.mʊs] n. c.
C.NOM.SG iuma; E.NOM.SG iumun

From PI gjumos, from PME ggieu "to lick, to taste, to savour."

  1. a lick, a bit, a small amount, a trifle


[ˈjʊ.qᶣɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF iuquīghan; PFV.PTCP iuquītus; OPT.1SG iuquīrid; PFV.1SG iuquīvī

From PI juqʷīts, from PME ieuqw ("to talk, to speak").

  1. it talks me, speaks me, converses me
    • abs tibōrēs send nīrur andëriānur saub aerānïde iuquītur
      As for the Tibors, they are an Anderian people, but they speak an Aeranid language.
  2. it tells me, explains me, narrates me


[ˈjuː.rɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF iūrēghan; PFV.PTCP iūsus; OPT.1SG iūsid; PFV.1SG iūrēvī

From PI jouzēts, from PME iouž-éie-ti ("to let pass"), causative of root ieuž ("to pass"). Hence also iuriç ("to go by"). Cognates include houzeîs ("to kick out, expel"), Stiric yoháyati & Old Marian yaudayatiy ("it brings me").

  1. it permits me, allows me, approves me, consents to me
  2. it forgives me, pardons me, excuses me, tolerates me
    • hiciūrērur gallun cīlī bīs
      False coin will not be tolerate here.
  3. it trusts me, confides in me (indërin iūreç)


  • S'entigneis: juroir, jurz, juirez
  • Tevrés: jurér, jurez, juraz


[ˈjʊ.rɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF iurīghan; PFV.PTCP iussus; OPT.1SG iussid; PFV.1SG iurīvī

From PI juzjets, from PME ieuž ("to pass"). Hence also iūreç ("it forgives me").

  1. it goes by me, it goes past me, along me, through me; it takes me (a route), goes via me
  2. it penetrates me, pierces me, skewers me, goes through me
  3. it passes me on, it relays me, it conveys me


[ˈjuː.rʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG iūra; E.NOM.SG iūrun

From PI gjouzos, from PME ggieu "to lick, to taste, to savour." Cognate with Dalitian zóulos. Hence also gȳmus "a bit, a lick".

  1. having a nice taste; tasty, delectable
  2. good, nice, pleasant
  3. healthy, well, in good health


  • S'entigneis: jurs
  • Tevrés: juros



[ɫaˈdɛs.ta] n. c.
GEN.SG ladestae

From lador + -esta.

  1. happiness, joy, pleasure, jubilation
    • sa vītla prīstau ladestau culgarīnānā abrëghüntānā
      A life is happiest with friends overflowing.


  • Dalot: laresta
  • Ilesse: leasta
  • S'entigneis: laeste
  • Tevrés: llaesta


[ˈla.dɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF lassī; PFV.PTCP lassus; OPT.1SG lassō; PFV.1SG lēdō

From PI laðōr, from PME lehd - “to be warm, to be well.”

  1. I am happy, glad, joyous
    • lador et carpidïnī vandō tibī deāstī
      I am glad that you would choose me to go to Carpider.

Derived terms:


[ˈɫɛ.ɟɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF legëghan; PFV.PTCP lēctus; OPT.1SG lēxid; PFV.1SG lēgī

From PI legets, from PME ḫleyy- “to sway, to wave.”

  1. it assembles me, collects me, gathers me
  2. it chooses me, it picks me, it selects me


  • S'entigneis: leoir, liz, lige
  • Tevrés: lleer, lleez, lleigaz


[ɫɛ.tɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF letëghan; PFV.PTCP lessus; OPT.1SG lessid; PFV.1SG letuī

From PI let̺ets, from PME ḫleť (“to serve; slave”). Hence also lotus ("slave, robot").

  1. it serves me, it is a slave to me
  2. it is devoted to me, subject to me
  3. it is useful to me; I use it


  • S'entigneis: liere, liez, liez
  • Tevrés: lledre, lledez, lledaz


[ˈliːr.reːs] n. c.
GEN.SG līrrī

From collective form of līs, through intermediate līreris

  1. letter, brief, message
    • predium pactus iovēva līrren ab
      They took a pen and wrote up a letter.
  2. handwriting


  • S'entigneis: lirs
  • Tevrés: llirres


[liːs] n. c.
GEN.SG līris

From PI leis, from PME ḫwlei- “to cut, to carve, to etch.”

  1. letter, character, glyph


  • Ilesse: llire
  • S'entigneis: lir
  • Tevrés: lir


[ˈɫɔ̃n.tũː] n. e.
GEN.SG lontī

From PI lontom, from PME lemḥ “foot, to walk, to tread.” Hence also lōmēs "foot," limöra "step."

  1. plain, field
  2. ground, earth


  • S'entigneis: lont
  • Tevrés: llente


[ˈɫuː.ka] n. c.
GEN.SG lūcae

From PI xloukā, from PME gleu-keḫ- from root gelu ("to glow, be bright") Hence also hellor ("I am bright").

  1. Luca, the first, brightest, and largest of Avrid's moons
  2. the Lucid month; the times it takes Luca to complete one cycle

Derived terms:

  • lūcïdus ("pertaining to Luca")
  • lūcella ("nightlight, lamp")


  • S'entigneis: luche
  • Tevrés: lluga


[ˈɫʊ.pɛt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF lupēghan; PFV.PTCP luptus; OPT.1SG lupsid; PFV.1SG lupēvī

From PI slupējets, from PME šleup- “to shout, to scream; a loud noise.”

  1. I weep, I cry, I lament
  2. I shout, I cry, I scream, I shriek, I yell, I exclaim


  • S'entigneis: louvoir, lœupz, loiche
  • Tevrés: llober, llobez, llupaz



[ˈma.tɛr] n. t.
GEN.SG matëris

From Dalitian mathḗs. Cognate with native menter.

  1. senator, representative; high ranking legislative official


  • Ilesse: intre
  • S'entigneis: maîre
  • Tevrés: madre, máter


[ˈma.ʋat͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF mavāghan; PFV.PTCP mavātus; OPT.1SG mavārid; PFV.1SG māvī

From PI mowāts, from PME meuḫw- “to turn, to revolve, to spin.”

  1. I turn, I revolve
  2. I search for something
  3. I visit several places
    • māvis haccānā cepricïtïcābus plātīs
      They visited the graves of their ancestors on the plain.
  4. I wander, I travel


  • S'entigneis: maver, mevez, magez
  • Tevrés: mavár, mavaz, mevaz

[meː] adv.

From earlier mēg, mēc, from mēgus.

  1. indeed, really, absolutely, truly, actually, very, quite
    • iultïsur iūs
      They can sing quite well


[ˈmeː.dɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF mēdissī; PFV.PTCP mēsus; OPT.1SG mēsid; PFV.1SG mēvō

From PI mezðōr, from PME meḥš- “to follow, to lag behind.”

  1. I follow, I come after
    • mēderra cāna mīsïda cānō lūcïdō
      The Misid month follows the Lucid month.


[meːˈɟɛs.ta] n. c.
GEN.SG mēgestī

From mēgus + -esta.

  1. truth, reality, fact
    • se mēgestaunē. tauniaunē. hipplior iūs.
      Is this reality? Is this a dream? I cannot tell.
  2. right, correct, upright, well-done
    • iovēvane ubran iūliam mēgeste
      You recited the poem marvellously.


  • S'entigneis: moyête
  • Tevrés: meista


[meːˈɟɪ̃] n. c.
GEN.SG mēginnae

From mēgus + -inna.

  1. a truth, a maxim, a fact


[ˈmeː.gʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG mēga; E.NOM.SG mēgun

From PI mēgos from PME meḥyy "true, truth." Cognate with Dalitian mêkos, Stric mājaḥ, Old Mirian māda.

  1. true, real, genuine, actual
  2. proper, suitable
  3. right, just
  4. moniker of a god; a god

Derived terms:

  • mēgesta ("reality, truth")
  • mēginna ("a truth")


[mɛɫ] n. t.
GEN.SG melis

From PME šmḗl ("honey, dew; essence").

  1. nectar, honey, sap, syrup

Derived terms:

  • melïdus ("sweet, charming, pleasant")
  • melïdor ("I am sweet, charming, pleasant")
  • meleus ("sticky, thick")
  • meleor ("I am sticky, thick")


[ˈmɛ.nɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF menīghan; PFV.PTCP mentus; OPT.1SG mēsid; PFV.1SG menuī

From PI menjets, from PME men “body, shape; alike.”

  1. it pleases me, appeases me
  2. I like it, I enjoy it
    • meniç tīn tessūs salvae vōnïtūs cartūsquo
      I like to drink tea, read books, and dance.
    • hicauctistīnē menīsso nīgēs
      Can you not see that he likes you?


  • S'entigneis: menir, mienz, mignez
  • Tevrés: menír, mienez, mengaz


[ˈmɛ̃n.tɛr] n. t.
GEN.SG mentëris

From PI məntēr from PME mṇ-tḗr-, from root men "body; to be equal, to be like, to resemble."

  1. sibling; brother or sister of around similar age
  2. peer, classmate, coworker, etc. (person of similar age)
  3. comrade


  • S'entigneis: mantre
  • Tevrés: mientre


[ˈmɛr.ɟɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF mergëghan; PFV.PTCP mersus; OPT.1SG mersid; PFV.1SG merguī

From PI mergets, from PME mergg (“to spin, to swirl, to spiral, to do a spinning dance."). Occasionally margïtus is seen as an alternative past participle, to differentiate it from merror.

  1. I am mixed, mixing, blending with
  2. I associate with, mingle with, am interested in
  3. I marry with them

Derived terms:

  • mergiō ("marriage")


[ˈmɛr.rɔr] v. tr.
IMPF.INF merrissī; PFV.PTCP mersus; OPT.1SG mersō; PFV.1SG merruō

From PI merzōr, from PME merš- “to pile, to stack.”

  1. to be piled up, to lie on top of one another
  2. to come after one another, to happen over and over, to pile up, to accumulate
  3. to overlap, to occur at the same time, to happen simultaneously


  • S'entigneis: merir, merz, moirez
  • Tevrés: merrir, mierrez, merraz


[ˈmeːs] n. t.
GEN.SG menis

From PI mens from PME men "body, to be like."

  1. body
  2. oneself
  3. main part
  4. form, shape, figure


[ˈmɔr.ɟja] n. c.
GEN.SG morgiae

From PI morgjā, from PME mṛ́gg-iḫ-, from root mergg (“to spin, to swirl, to spiral, to do a spinning dance"). Cognate with Dalitian bráza, Hence brasa ("fog-at-sea").

  1. mist, fog, haze

Derived terms:

  • morgiōcus ("foggy, misty")


  • S'entigneis: morge
  • Tevrés: muerza


[ˈmɔ.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG motī

From PI smot̺os, from PME šmeť~šemť ("to put, place; to locate"), from šem ("to be, exist").

  1. place, spot, scene, site; location
  2. point, aspect, side, facet (see motus iūrus)
  3. space, room


  • S'entigneis: mœuz
  • Tevrés: muedos


[ˈmʊ.ɣɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF mugghan; PFV.PTCP mūctus; OPT.1SG mūxid; PFV.1SG mūghī

From PI muɣets, from PME meug (“to chew, to gnaw, to masticate”).

  1. it chews me, gnaws me, masticates me
  2. it fumbles me (words), it stutters me
  3. it tastes me, tries me, considers me


[ˈmʊr.ra] n. c.
GEN.SG murrae

From PI morzā from PME merš "to stack, to pile."

  1. wall, partition, barrier, obstacle
  2. (plural) walled city, town
  3. (plural) fortress, encampment
    • pēcenda tibōrer murrae carpidïnīs
      The Tibori took the fortress at Carpider.


  • S'entigneis: moure
  • Tevrés: morra


[ˈmyː.na] n. c.
GEN.SG mȳnae

From PI mūīnā from PME ḥmuḥ-íḫn-eḫ-, from root ḥmuḥ "to swell, to break."

  1. chest, breast
  2. breasts, bosom, bust
  3. heart
  4. stomach
  5. heart, mind, feelings
  6. hollow, cavity
  7. curve, fold, winding
  8. gulf, bay (see. mȳneun)


  • S'entigneis: minne
  • Tevrés: mina


[ˈmyː.ne.ũː] n. e.
GEN.SG mȳneī

From mȳna + -eun.

  1. gulf, bay


  • S'entigneis: min
  • Tevrés: miño


[neː] part.

From PME "not."

  1. interrogative marker, question marker


[ˈnɛ.mɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF nemëghan; PFV.PTCP nemïtus; OPT.1SG nemsid; PFV.1SG nemuī

From PI nemets, from PME nemḫw "to name, to call, to summon."

  1. it sues me, it calls me to court
  2. it judges me


  • S'entigneis: niembre, niemz, ningez
  • Tevrés: niembre, niemez, nemaz


[ˈnɛ.moː] n. t.
GEN.SG nemōnis

From nemiç + -ō.

  1. judge, barrister, lawyer


  • S'entigneis: niem, nemondre
  • Tevrés: niemo, nemondre


[ɲjɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF nīsī; PFV.PTCP nītus; OPT.1SG nīrō; PFV.1SG nīvō

From PI nīōr, from PME neiḫw ("to resemble, to look like"). Cognate with Dalitian inoîs, Proto-Fyrdic nīdijańą, Old Marian nihatiy.

  1. I resemble, look like, take after
  2. I am similar to, close to, alike, like
    • litāvō tlibī hodō rēnïnā mēgëntōnā saub nientus ōsur
      I have served many virtuous kings, but none compare to you.


[ˈniː.ɫe.a] n. c.
GEN.SG nīleae

From nīs + -ülea.

  1. doll, puppet, figure


  • S'entigneis: nille
  • Tevrés: nija


[ˈniː.rɨ.dʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG nīrïda; E.NOM.SG nīrïdun;

From nīs + -ïdus.

  1. popular, public; related to the people


[niːs] n. t.
GEN.SG nīris

From PI ŋnēis, from PME ynéḥ-iš-, from root yneḥ "dirt, soil, earth."

  1. person, wumbo
  2. human being, human
  3. another person, other person, others
  4. adult


  • S'entigneis: nis, nire
  • Tevrés: nis, nirre


[ˈnɔ.ma] n. c.
GEN.SG nomae

From PI nomos, from PME nemḫw "to name, to call, to summon."

  1. name; specifically one's personal name


  • S'entigneis: nomme
  • Tevrés: nuema


[ˈnoː.rũː] n. e.
GEN.SG nōrī

From PI ŋnōzom, from PME neḥ "to till, to drive, to plow."

  1. field (for agriculture)


  • S'entigneis: nœur
  • Tevrés: nor



[ˈɲɔː.tũː] n. e.
GEN.SG ñautī

From PI ɲāutom, from PME ñeḫu “water.”

  1. lake


  • S'entigneis: nieut
  • Tevrés: ñed



[ˈoːt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF ōçëghan; PFV.PTCP ōsus; OPT.1SG ōsid; PFV.1SG ōtlī

From PI ōtsets, from PME ḫehtł ("to burn, to be dry").

  1. it burns me
  2. it roasts me, broils me, grills me, bakes me, toasts me, barbecues me
  3. it heats me, heats me up


[ˈøː.lɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF oelīghan; PFV.PTCP oeltus; OPT.1SG oellid; PFV.1SG oeluī

From oelun.

  1. I work, I labour
  2. I function, I operate, I am effective


  • S'entigneis: ellir, euz, eillez
  • Tevrés: elir, elez, elgaz


[ˈøː.lɨ.dʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG oelïda; E.NOM.SG oelïdun

From oelun + -ïdus.

  1. of or related to work, labour, profession
  2. (cyclical substantive) professional name, professional title (e.g. iūlïtus prīstus materris "first scribe of the senate").


  • S'entigneis: œuz
  • Tevrés: eldos


[øːˈlɪ̃] n. c.
GEN.SG oelinnae

From oelun + -inna. Alternative ūlinna.

  1. odd job; small work, task


  • S'entigneis: elanne
  • Tevrés: ileña


[ˈøːlːː.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG oellïtī

From oelun + lotus, through medial **oelolotus. Alternate of oerolïtus.

  1. worker, (manual) labourer


  • S'entigneis: œuz
  • Tevrés: eutos


[ˈøː.ɫũː] v. tr.
GEN.SG oelī

From earlier oi(d)ɮom, from PI ḫweiddł-ó-, from PME ḫweiddł “to work, to labour, toil.” Cognate with Dalitian oisḗ, Fyrdic aitɬą, Stiric ejam, Old Marian aidam. Hence also oeliç "to work."

  1. work, labour
  2. job, business, occupation


[ˈøː.ta] n. c.
GEN.SG oetae

From oetaç ("make a noise, sound").

  1. sound, noise, report
  2. pronunciation


  • S'entigneis: oie
  • Tevrés: eda


[ˈøː.tat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF oetāghan; PFV.PTCP oetïtus; OPT.1SG oesid; PFV.1SG oetuī

From PI oitāts, from PME ḥeit ("to sound, resound").

  1. it sounds me, utters me, speaks me, expresses me, calls me, rings me
  2. it cries me out, calls me; sings me, celebrates me, praises me, extols me


  1. I make a noise, sound, resound


  • S'entigneis: oyer, oyez, oizez
  • Tevrés: edár, edaz, idaz


[øːˈrɔlː.tʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG oerolïtī

From oelun + lotus, through medial **oelolotus. Alternate of oellïtus.

  1. worker, (manual) labourer


  • S'entigneis: erouz
  • Tevrés: erotos


[ˈɔ̃m.nɔr] v. neg.cop.
IMPF.INF ōsī; PFV.PTCP vuctus PFV.1SG vucō

Of uncertain origins, perhaps an extended version of PME interjection ono ("no!"). Perfective forms from ḫuec ("to lack, to miss").

  1. I am not, do not exists, I am not had


[ˈɔ̃n.dɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF ondēghan; PFV.PTCP ōnsus; OPT.1SG ōnsid; PFV.1SG ondēvī

From earlier ondejets, from PI ḥond-éie-ti, from PME ḥend “mind, thought, spirit, heart.”

  1. it alerts me, it advises me
  2. it reminds me, it tells me


[ˈɔ.pɨ.tat͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF opïtāghan; PFV.PTCP opïtātus; OPT.1SG opïtārid; PFV.1SG opïtāvī

From ops ("living place, abode"), possibly through intermediate augmentative oput.

  1. I live, I reside, I inhabit, dwell in, abide, I nest
    • opïtanquo ingabïnīsnē
      Do you still live in Gabinia?

Derived terms:

  • colipïtaç ("to cohabitate")
  • colïpïtāliō ("cohabitation")


[ɔˈpɪ̃] n. c.
GEN.SG opinnae

From ops + -inna.

  1. (small) house, domicile, abode, dwelling, hut


[ˈɔps] n. t.
GEN.SG opis

From PI ops, from PME ḫwep ("to hang over").

  1. (small) house, domicile, abode, dwelling, hut

Derived terms:

  • opïtaç ("I live, reside")
  • opüla ("hit, small house, hovel")
  • opur ("neighbourhood")
  • opërīnus ("common person; lower class person")


[ˈɔ.rɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF orëghan; PFV.PTCP ostus; OPT.1SG ossid; PFV.1SG ovī

From PI o(d)zets, from PME ḫwežž “to bend, to break.” Cognate with Dalitian óseis, Stiric ājati, Old Marian āǰatiy.

  1. it breaks me, fractures me, snaps me off, picks me (a flower)
    • nīrra tlāna criste pūtërenta nīrī ostō
      The beautiful vermillion flower resembles the person who picked it.
  2. it folds me, bends me
  3. (with mēs) it curls up with its legs pressed against the chest
    • ovis rhael menin sonçillō
      The child curled up next to the cat.

Derived terms:

  • ilöriç ("it breaks me off, breaks me away, snaps me off")


[ˈoː.tjɔr] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG ōtiōris; E.NOM.SG ōtiōre

From PI ōtujōr, from PME heťu “fast, swift."

  1. faster, swifter, quicker
  2. earlier
  3. rather, sooner, earlier
    • ved carmïnī ōtior et cōmō exed
      I’d rather go to the ocean than return home.



[ˈpa.cɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF pacīghan; PFV.PTCP pactus; OPT.1SG paxid; PFV.1SG pēcī

From PI pakjets, from PME peḥk “ to take, to grab, to grasp.”

  1. it takes me, grabs me, grasps me
    • predium pactus iovēva līrren ab
      They took a pen and wrote up a letter.
  2. it captures me, seizes me
    • pēcenda tibōrer murrae carpidïnīs
      The Tibori took the fortress at Carpider.
  3. it takes me in, it understands me
  4. it has me (a meal)
  5. it uses me, utilises me, takes me (for a purpose)


  • S'entigneis: pezir, pez, pachez
  • Tevrés: pazír, pazez, pezaz


[ˈpak.tʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG pacta; E.NOM.SG pactun

From PI paktos from PME phgw-tó- from root pehgw (“to grow, to be tall; high”). Hence also pālun ("tree") and pavus ("steep, lofty, tall").

  1. high, tall
  2. deep
  3. profound


  • S'entigneis: pechos
  • Tevrés: paiz


[ˈpaː.ɫũː] n. e.
GEN.SG pālī

From PI pakʷslom from PME phgw-š-ló from root pehgw (“to grow, to be tall; high”). Hence also pactus ("high, deep") and pavus ("steep, lofty, tall").

  1. tree, shrub
  2. wood, arbour
  3. something made of trees, of wood


  • S'entigneis: pal
  • Tevrés: pal


[ˈpãn.nũː] n. e.
GEN.SG pannī

From PI pennom from PME peť-nó from root peť “ to cook, to bake (in an oven), to boil, to make a stew, to ripen.”

  1. bread, pastries, pastry based products


  • S'entigneis: pan
  • Tevrés: paño


[ˈpãɴ.qʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG panquī

From PI paɴqʷos from PME peḥñ “head, horn, top.”

  1. horn, antler, tusk
  2. head, top, highest point, peak
  3. (of an non-horned wumbo) nose

Derived terms:

  • appenquaç


  • S'entigneis: pans
  • Tevrés: pangos


[ˈpa.ʋʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG pava; E.NOM.SG pavun

From PI pagwos, from PME pehgw ("to grow, to be tall, high").

  1. lofty, high, steep, tall, elevated
  2. hard to reach, difficult, laborious, arduous

Derived terms:

  • S'entigneis: pefs
  • Tevrés: pavos


[ˈpɛ.lɨ.dʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG pelïda; E.NOM.SG pelïdun

From peliun + -ïdus.

  1. of or pertaining to the ward, district, section; local

Derived terms:

  • pelïdīnus ("a person of a ward; a local")


[ˈpɛ.ljũː] n. e.
GEN.SG pelī

From PI peljon from PME péli-o- from root plei “to split, to divide”

  1. ward, district, section


  • peliaç ("to split into districts")
  • pelïdus ("of the ward, district; local")


  • S'entigneis: peil
  • Tevrés: pejo


[ˈpeː.ɫũː] n. e.
GEN.SG pēlī

From PI petslom from PME peť-šló- from root peť “ to cook, to bake (in an oven), to boil, to make a stew, to ripen.”

  1. kiln, oven, furnace


  • S'entigneis: peu
  • Tevrés: pel


[ˈpɛ̃m.mɛ̃n] n. e.
GEN.SG pemmïnis

From PI petmən from PME peť-mṇ- from root peť “ to cook, to bake (in an oven), to boil, to make a stew, to ripen.”

  1. food cooked by boiling or stewing
  2. pepper


[ˈpɛ.ra] n. c.
GEN.SG pera

From mimetic perper ("quick speech"). See also perpërīnus and periç. Can be traced to PME pṛpṛ ("to babble"), hence also Dalitian praphranós ("barbarian"), práphreis ("to babble").

  1. speech, word, chatter


  • S'entigneis: piere
  • Tevrés: piera


[ˈpɛr.sʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG persa;E.NOM.SG persun

From PI pressos from PME pred-tó-, from root pred “to join, to attach, to suit, to agree or be in unison with.”

  1. fair, appropriate, suitable
  2. just, equitable
  3. correct, right


  • S'entigneis: pes
  • Tevrés: piessos


[ˈpɪ.pɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF pipëghan; PFV.PTCP piptus; OPT.1SG pipsid; PFV.1SG pipuī

From PI pipets, from PME pei “to flap one's arms, to paddle, to wave.”


  1. it paddles me, it rows me (a boat)
  2. it waves me, it flaps me
    • oscī auctūnus pipuete voenun ubrō
      Seeing Oscus, I waved at him.


  1. I swim, I paddle
  2. I fly (a bird); I flap my wings and fly
  3. I flutter, I flap (in the wind)

Derived terms:

  • pipülun ("canoe, row-boat")


[ˈpiː.ra] n. c.
GEN.SG pīrae

From substrate loan. Hence also Dalitian phīrós.

  1. wax


[ˈpɫaː.kɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF plācāsī; PFV.PTCP plācātus; OPT.1SG plācārō; PFV.1SG plācāvō

From PI plākāōr, from PME pḷḥ-kéḫ-, from root pleḥ (“to be flat, smooth”).

  1. I am flat, even, level
  2. I am smooth, shaved, soft
  3. I am plain (speech, etc.), simple


[ˈpɫaː.ta] n. c.
GEN.SG plātae

From PI plātā, from PME pḷḥ-teḫ-, from root pleḥ (“to be flat, smooth”).

  1. plain, open field, prairie, flatlands

Derived terms:

  • applātiun ("village")
  • plātāghus ("rustic, rural")


  • S'entigneis: plée
  • Tevrés: llada


[plɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF plīghan; PFV.PTCP plītus; OPT.1SG plīrid; PFV.1SG plīvī

From PI plijets, from PME plei “to divide, to dissect.”

  1. it knows me, is aware of me
  2. it understands me, grasps me, comprehends me
  3. it notices me, feels me


[ˈpliː.nʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG plīnī

From PI pleinos, from PME plei ("to divide, dissect").

  1. twin, pair


[ˈprɪ.kat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF pricāghan; PFV.PTCP pricātus; OPT.1SG pricārid; PFV.1SG pricāvī

From PI prikāts, from PME pri-kéḫ-ti, from root prei (“to take, grad, grasp”).

  1. it clasps me, grasps me, grips me, clutches me
  2. it forms me, presses me into shape, it moulds me

Derived terms:

  • reprïcaç ("it squeezes me")


  • S'entigneis: precher, proichez, proiz
  • Tevrés: prigár, pregaz, preguez


[ˈpriː.mʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG prīmī

From PI preimos, from PME prei ("to have, to hold, to grasp").

  1. hand
  2. forepaw
  3. handwriting, penmanship


  • S'entigneis: prins
  • Tevrés: primos


[ˈpriːs.tʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG prīsta; E.NOM.SG prīstun

From PI prīsotos from old particle pri “before” (supplanted by pae) + -isotos (see -issïtus).

  1. (ordinal) first
  2. (with adj.) superlative, -est; the most


  • S'entigneis: prîz
  • Tevrés: pristos


[ˈprɔ.cɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF procēghan; PFV.PTCP proctus; OPT.1SG proxid; PFV.1SG procēvī

From PI prokēts, from PME proc-éie-ti, from root prec (“to linger, to stand, to stay”)

  1. it leaves me behind, over, it bequeaths me, it saves me, reserves me


[ˈproː.nɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF prōnëghan; PFV.PTCP prostus; OPT.1SG prossid; PFV.1SG prōrī

From PI proznets, from PME proš-né-ti, from root preš (“to be lying down, to be prone”).

  1. I lie down
  2. I go to bed, lie in bed
  3. I sleep (lying down)
    • iesū vōnībūns cenuī prostus
      I fell asleep reading last night.
  4. I sleep (with someone, i.e. have sex)


[ˈpuː.tɛr] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG pūtëra; E.NOM.SG pūtërun;

From PI pūteros from PME peuḥ “to shine, to sparkle, to glimmer.”

  1. pretty, lovely, beautiful, fair
  2. clean, clear, pure, tidy, neat
  3. completely, entirely


  • S'entigneis: pûre
  • Tevrés: pudre



[ˈqa.tɬuːs] n. t.
IMPF.INF qatlȳs

From PI qatɬus, from PME qeḥtł “nail (of the finger or toe).” Cognate with Dalitian khesýs, Stiric kiśraḥ, Old Marian qiça, Proto-Fyrdic χallaz.

  1. nail (fingernail, toenail), claw, talon, hoof
  2. hook, clasp
  3. the tip, the extremity


[quːs] n. t.
IMPF.INF qūris

From PI qūs, from PME qúḥ-š- “pig, swine.”

  1. pig, boar, pork



[qʷɔ] part.

From PI qʷe, from PME qwe “and.”


  1. and
  2. also, too, in addition, as well, even


  1. if, when



[ˈraː.de.aɫ] n. c.
IMPF.INF rādeālis

From rādeal + -al.

  1. fear, dread, dismay, terror, horror, panic


  • S'entigneis: royau, royal
  • Tevrés: rayo, rayál


[ˈraː.de.ɔr] v. tr.
IMPF.INF rādēsī; PFV.PTCP rāsus; OPT.1SG rāsō; PFV.1SG rādēvō

From PI xrādējōr, from PME yerḥ “to be strong, powerful, capable.” Hence also rāscus "strong."

  1. I am scary, frightening, eerie, dreadful
    • rādērra satercās tīrhaelī
      My child is afraid of the dark.

Derived terms:

  • rādeal ("fear, dread, horror")


[ˈraːs.kʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG rāsca; E.NOM.SG rāscun

From PI xrāskos, from PME yerḥ (“to be strong, powerful, capable").

  1. strong, potent, competent, domineering, tough
    • rāscārur hodō fos aptïbundī
      They're so strong they could lift a mountain
  2. strong, brawny, powerful, healthy, rugged


[ˈrɛ.ɣɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF regghan; PFV.PTCP rēctus; OPT.1SG rēxid; PFV.1SG rēghī

From PI reʁets, from PME ḫwregh (“to flow, to stream, to drift, to run").

  1. I stream, I flow, I run
  2. I am washed away, carried
  3. I drift, I float, wander, stray
  4. I spread, I circulate
  5. I pass, elapse, am transmitted
  6. I am exiled, called off, forfeited, disappeared, removed

Derived terms:

  • abrëghiç ("I overflow")
  • aurrëghiç ("I circulate, spread")
  • irrëghiç ("I flow in")
  • obrëghiç ("I am exiled")
  • reghiō ("flow, current")
  • sorrëghiç ("I wander, stray")


[ˈrɛ̃n.nũː] n. e.
IMPF.INF rennī

From PI rənnom, from PME rṇ-nó from root renḫw- “to lead, to rule, to be straight, to straighten.”

  1. kingdom


  • S'entigneis: ran
  • Tevrés: reño


[reːs] n. t.
IMPF.INF rēnis

From PI rēns, from PME rēnḫw-š from root renḫw- “to lead, to rule, to be straight, to straighten.”

  1. king, monarch, ruler, leader, sovereign


  • S'entigneis: res, rendre
  • Tevrés: res, rendre


[ˈrʊ.mʊs] n. t.

From PI romos, from PME rṓm “cow, cattle.”

  1. cattle, cow, bull, ox, calf
  2. beef



[ˈr̥ɛː.kʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG rhaecua; E.NOM.SG rhaecun

From PI r̥āikʷos, from PME ďéḫi-kʷo-, from root ďeḫi “small, few, little.”

  1. few, little, scarce, insufficient, seldom


  • S'entigneis: rieux
  • Tevrés: riegos


[r̥ɛːɫ] n. t.
IMPF.INF rhaelis

From PI r̥āil, from PME ďéḫi-li-, from root ďeḫi “small, few, little.”

  1. child, son or daughter
  2. person
  3. heir, prince


  • S'entigneis: rieu, riel
  • Tevrés: reu, riel


[ˈr̥aj.jʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG rhaia; E.NOM.SG rhaiun

From PI r̥ajjos, from PME ďḫi-ió-, from root ďeḫi “small, few, little.”

  1. small, little, tiny


  • S'entigneis: rais
  • Tevrés: reyos



[ˈsa.kuːs] n. t.
GEN.SG sacȳs

From PI sakus from PME žḥecu- “to be sharp, pointy acidic, bitter.”

  1. needle, pin, spike


  • S'entigneis: saux
  • Tevrés: sagos


[ˈsɛː.pɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF saepīghan; PFV.PTCP saeptus; OPT.1SG saepsid; PFV.1SG saepīvī

From PI saipjets from PME šḫeip “to cut, slice, cut through.”

  1. it cuts me, it cuts through me
  2. it severs me
  3. it terminates me
  4. it opens me (something sealed)
  5. it starts me
  6. it reduces me, decreases me
  7. it crosses me, traverses me
  8. it acts decisively towards me, it resolves me
  9. it dismisses me, it sacks me, lets me go
  10. it trumps me
  11. it finishes me, completes me
  12. it kills me (a human) with a sword


  • S'entigneis: sevir, siepz, sichez
  • Tevrés: sebír, siebez, sepaz


[ˈsaɫ.ʋa] n. c.
GEN.SG salvae

From PI salwā from PME šḫl-w-eḫ- from root šeḫl “to spin, to furl, to curl.”

  1. book, volume, script


  • S'entigneis: sauve
  • Tevrés: salva


[ˈsaɫ.ʋar] n. c.
GEN.SG salvāris

From collective form of salva.

  1. collection, cannon (literary, judicial, etc.), library (in abstract)


  • S'entigneis: sauvre, sauvere
  • Tevrés: salvra, salvarre


[saɫˈʋaː.rjũː] n. e.
GEN.SG salvārī

From salvar + iun.

  1. library (a physical location), bookshelf; any place for storing books
  2. shelf, shelves, ledge, rack


  • S'entigneis: sauvier
  • Tevrés: salver


[ˈsa.mʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG samī

From PI samos, from PME šeḫw ("to point, to lead, to direct").

  1. direction, way, side, area
  2. side (of an argument, etc.), one's part
  3. indicates one side of a comparison
    • hellërur tōrir prīste ostëntōbus samus avī et au aucellā
      The largest stars are more brighter than the sun than the sun is brighter than a bedside lamp.
    • filīrur oscī samus avīlī
      Oscus is taller than Avil.
  4. way, method, manner, means


[ˈsa.tɛr] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG satëra; E.NOM.SG satërun

From PI sateros, from PME tkḫw-tero-, from root tekḫw ("night"). Hence also tociun ("dawn").

  1. shining black (as opposed to dūbeus "dull black")

Derived terms:

  • satercās ("darkness, void, space")
  • saterna ("nightmare, bad dream")


  • S'entigneis: sère
  • Tevrés: sadre


[ˈsar.dʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG sarda; E.NOM.SG sardun

Of substrate origin.

  1. slow, sluggish, lethargic, time-consuming
  2. late, later, behind time, tardy


  • S'entigneis: sarz
  • Tevrés: sardos


[sɔːb] prep.

From PI sāuβ, from PME se-ḫubi.


  1. only, just, merely, simply, no more than, nothing but, alone
  2. (with -quo) even


  1. but, however, though, nevertheless, still, yet, even so


[ˈsɛ.kᶣɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF secuëghan; PFV.PTCP secuïtus; OPT.1SG sexid; PFV.1SG sēcuī

From PI sekwets from PME žḥecu (“to bite, to sting, to be bitter, sour, acidic”).

  1. it bites me, stings me
  2. it tastes bitter to me, sour to me
  3. it is disagreeable to me; I dislike it
    • sēcuī ubra salvaso īmā binnō
      I did not like that book one bit!


  • S'entigneis: sire, siez, siez
  • Tevrés: siegre, sieguez, siegaz


[ˈsɛ.rɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF serëghan; PFV.PTCP sestus; OPT.1SG sessid; PFV.1SG sevī

From PI sezets from PME še-šḫw-é-ti, reduplicated form root šeḫw "to point; ray." Cognate with Dalitian héois, Stiric sasati, Old Marian hahatiy.

  1. it pierces me, stabs me, prick me, sticks me, thrusts into me (see īnsëriç)
  2. it points to me, it identifies me, indicates me (axëriç)
  3. it nominates me, it selects me
  4. it shines on me (see apsëriç)
    • moeiç au carmen serentun
      I like to see the sun shining on the ocean.
  5. it holds me (an umbrella, flag, etc.) up, it raises me (see surrïdiç)
  6. it extend me (one's arm) forward (see collëriç)
  7. it wears me (a sword) at the waist (see illëriç)
  8. it pours me (liquid), it serves me (drinks) (see dērïdiç)


  1. it orders, directs, dictates it to do something
    • seva rēs turātārin soncarpidïnīs murrae façëghan
      The king ordered the army to erect walls around Carpidre.

Descendants: {{columns-list|2|

  • S'entigneis: siere, sierz
  • Tevrés: xerre, xerez


[stat͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF staghan; PFV.PTCP status; OPT.1SG starid; PFV.1SG staevī

From PI stats, from PME steḥ ("to pass").

  1. I pass (of time), I elapse


  1. it spends me (time)


[ˈstɛ.rʊs] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG stera; E.NOM.SG sterun

From PI steros from PME š-ťér-o- from root ťer “to hit down, to smack, to beat, to pack down.” Cognate with Stiric ṣṭaraḥ (Doti ṭharo).

  1. hard, solid, tough
    • se pannun fic sterun hicectequo
      This bread is hard and I cannot eat it.
  2. stiff, inflexible, rigid
  3. strong, firm


  • S'entigneis: êtiers
  • Tevrés: estieros


[ˈsiː.kat͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF sīcāghan; PFV.PTCP sīcātus; OPT.1SG sīcārid; PFV.1SG sīcāvī

From PI seikājō, from PME šeik “to taste, to try out, to notice.”

  1. it tastes me, savours me
  2. it experiences me, it undergoes me
  3. it attains me, earns me, wins me


  • S'entigneis: siger, sigez, siz
  • Tevrés: sigár, sigaz, siguez


[ˈsjɛ.dɛt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF siedēghan; PFV.PTCP siedïtus; OPT.1SG siedērid; PFV.1SG siedēvī

From PI sjeðēts, from PME šied (“to swirl, to spin, to turn”).

  1. it boils me, it warms me (water), heats me


[ˈsɔ.ɲja] n. c.
GEN.SG soniae

From PI somjā, from PME šem “to be, to exist.”

  1. presence of mind, mindfulness
  2. humility, modesty, being humble

Derived terms:

  • soniāghus ("humble, present, mindful")
  • soniāghō ("humble person, mindful person, sage")


  • S'entigneis: sogne
  • Tevrés: sueña


[ˈsɔ.pʊr] n. c.
GEN.SG sopris

From PI sopor, from PME šópr~šopnós (“snow”). Hence also sumnus (“wise, old, sage’ elder”) and supentus (“snowy, snow-covered”).

  1. snow

Derived terms:

  • soperna ("snowflake")
  • sopreun ("winter pine")


  • S'entigneis: seuvre
  • Tevrés: suevre


[ˈsuː.bɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF sūbëghan; PFV.PTCP sūptus; OPT.1SG sūpsid; PFV.1SG sūvī

From PI soiðets, from PME šeid “to drive, to push, to strike, to thrust.” β to ð perhaps occurred due to confusion between oi and ou. Found alongside dialectal sībiç. Cognate with Dalitian hídeis, Stiric sédhati. Hence also sillun "plow," simmus "strike."

  1. it pushes me, drives me, hurls me, compels me, propels me
    • s'oelun nemōnis nīrī mēgestum perre sūptū
      It is the job of the judge to compel people to tell the truth.
  2. it expels me, banishes me, ejects me, casts me out
    • sūvend rēs matërī audindërī
      The king banished the senate from the capital.
  3. it strikes me, it sets me in motion
  4. it moves me

Derived terms:

  • cērūbiç


  • S'entigneis: suvre, sufz, suvez
  • Tevrés: subre, subez, subaz


[ˈsʊ.mɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF sumissī; PFV.PTCP sumptus; OPT.1SG sumsid; PFV.1SG sūmō

From PI sumōr from PME šeum “to warm, hot.”

  1. I am warm, hot
    • sumerra prīste fac cās appū
      This month will be the hottest of the year.


  • S'entigneis: sombre, soma, sommez
  • Tevrés: sombre, somez, somaz


[sʊ̃nt͡s] cop.
IMPF.INF senghan; PFV.PTCP quitus; OPT.1SG sēsid; PFV.1SG quī

From PI sonts from PME šem “to be, to exist.”

  1. I am, I exist; the copula


  • S'entigneis: sevre, sonz, miet
  • Tevrés: siebre, son, mie



[ˈta.lɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF talīghan; PFV.PTCP taltus; OPT.1SG tallid; PFV.1SG taluī

From PI toliets, from PME tel ("to spring"). Cognates include Dalitian thálleis ("it runs me").

  1. it leaps (over) me, jumps me, bounds me, springs over me, hops over me
  2. it flies in me, it soars through me
    • talī aux cīlun
      A bird is flying in the sky.


[tĩːn] n. e.
GEN.SG tīnis

From PI tein, of unknown origins, probably a loan.

  1. tea; black tea


  • S'entigneis: tin
  • Tevrés: tin


[ˈtɛl.lɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF tellëghan; PFV.PTCP tulsus; OPT.1SG tulsid; PFV.1SG tolī

From PI telnets, from PME tedłḫw “to see, to know.” Originally meaning "to know, to learn," was shifted to replace the similar toleç "to tell, make known." Original meaning was then replaced by tesciç "to learn, grasp."

  1. it teaches me, it instructs me
  2. it tells me, it informs me

Derived terms:

  • abstelliç "It tells them about me"


  • S'entigneis: tellir, tieuz, teillez
  • Tevrés: tellir, tillez, tellaz


[ˈtɛ̃ɲ.ɟɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF tengëghan; PFV.PTCP tengïtus; OPT.1SG tengërid; PFV.1SG tenguī

From PI t̺eŋgets, from PME ťenḫw ("to taste, to experience")

  1. it feels me, it touches me


  • S'entigneis: teindre, teinz, teignez
  • Tevrés: teñir, tiñez, teñaz


[ˈtɛ.tɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF tetëghan; PFV.PTCP tessus; OPT.1SG tessid; PFV.1SG tetuī

From PI tetets, from PME teťḥ “to drink, to ingest.” Hence also tālun ("cup, bowl").

  1. it drinks me, ingests me, gulps me, swallows me
  2. (of medicine) takes me
  3. it engulfs me, overwhelms me


  • S'entigneis: tiedre, tiez, tiez
  • Tevrés: tiedre, tiedez, tiedaz


[ˈtoː.nʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG tōnī

From Old Aeranir tōmnos, PI towomnos ("verdict, decision, judgement"), from PME ḥtou-omno-š, from root ḥteu ("to sieve, to sift, to filter").

  1. crime, sin, wrongdoing, indiscretion
    • hicacendërāt' et oscus tōnun crūve
      I do not believe that Oscus has committed a crime.
  2. penalty, sentence, punishment
  3. fault, responsibility, culpability


[ˈtraː.ʋat͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF trāvāghan; PFV.PTCP trāvātus; OPT.1SG trāvārid; PFV.1SG trāvāvī

From trāva ("garden").

  1. I walk


  • S'entigneis: traver, trevez, trefz
  • Tevrés: travár, travaz, travez



[ˈtɬaː.na] n. c.
GEN.SG tlānae

From PI tɬaznā, from PME tłeḫš “to bloom, to blossom.”

  1. flower, blossom
  2. the best of something, the peak


  • S'entigneis: tlaine
  • Tevrén: tlana


[tɬaːˈnaː.rjũː] n. e
GEN.SG tlānārī

From tlāna + -āriun.

  1. flower garden


  • S'entigneis: tlanier
  • Tevrén: tlaner


[t͡ɬɪs] pro.
GEN.SG tleī

From PME tł- “what.”

  1. interrogative pronoun; what, which
  2. relative pronoun; that, which



[ˈʊ.ma] n. t.
GEN.SG umae

From PI omā, possibly from baby talk.

  1. mother (humble), my own mother


  • S'entigneis: omme
  • Tevrés: oma


[ˈuː.rʊs] n. t.
GEN.SG ūrī

From PI ouros, from PME ḥeuď ("to bend, bend over").

  1. back, behind, rear



[ʋat͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF vaghan; PFV.PTCP vatus; OPT.1SG varid; PFV.1SG vaevī

From PI wats, from PME weḫw “to go, to walk.”

  1. I go, I move (in a direction) I head (towards somewhere)
  2. (causative) it forgets me, overlooks me


[ˈʋaːs.cɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF vāscëghan; PFV.PTCP vassus; OPT.1SG vāsid; PFV.1SG vēdī

From PI waðskets, from PME weḥd (“to be wet”). Hence also varun ("dew"), çurvōdeç ("it wets me, moistens me, soaks me"), vador ("I am wet"), vēriç ("I sweat"), vadiëgaç ("I become wet, I get wet")

  1. it washes me, cleanses me, rinses me
    • vāscērur tīn ūlōs sōlōs iūs, saub crūs hic
      Tea should wash easily from these robes, but not blood.
  2. it inquires into me, investigates me (see sōvāsciç)
    • vāsca aecū gēn festiōnis matëris cibī
      I shall investigate the matter of the senator's murder myself.

Derived terms:

  • sōvāsciç ("it investigates me")
  • obvāsciç ("it washes me off; away")


[ˈʋɛ.kũː] n. e.
GEN.SG vecī

From PI wekom, from PME uekḫ “ illness, sickness, disease, disability, disfigurement, bad luck, curse.”

  1. poison, toxicant, venom
  2. harm, evil influence, curse
  3. ill will, spite, malice


  • S'entigneis: vieu
  • Tevrés: viego


[vɛˈɣẽː.sũː] n. e.
GEN.SG veghēnsī

From veghiç + -ēnsun.

  1. burden, load, responsibility
  2. trouble, nuisance, bother, worry
  3. care, support, kindness, obligation


[ˈʋɛ.ɣɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF vegghan; PFV.PTCP veqtus; OPT.1SG veqsid; PFV.1SG vevī

From PI weʁets, from PME uegh "to carry over one's shoulder, to sling over something."

  1. it carries me, transports me, moves me, conveys me
  2. it proceeds me, progresses me, chooses me, cultivates me
  3. it is responsible for me; it bears me (a duty)

Derived terms:


[ˈʋɛ.ljɔr] v. stat.
IMPF.INF velīsī; PFV.PTCP velïtus; OPT.1SG vellō; PFV.1SG veluō

From PI gʷeljōr, from PME ggweli "to be lying down on one side, to be resting, to be prone."

  1. I am sad, scared, dejected
  2. I am weak
  3. I am prone to, I am weak against

Derived terms:

  • verial ("sadness, sorrow, grief")


[ˈʋɛ.nɪt͡s] v. intr.
IMPF.INF venīghan; PFV.PTCP ventus; OPT.1SG veniërid; PFV.1SG venīvī

From PI gʷənjets, from PME ggw-ṇ-í-ti “I am victorious, I am winning, I win,” n-present of root ggwei “I am able, I have won.” Hence also voenun “arm, skill.”

  1. I win, I again victory, I prevail
    • ven hānō ēvecō veniendō
      You should go to the temple to prevail against the curse.


  • S'entigneis: venir, vienz, vignez
  • Tevrés: venír, vienez, vengaz


[ˈʋɛr.cɨ.pɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF vercipëghan; PFV.PTCP verceptus; OPT.1SG vercepsid; PFV.1SG vercūpī

From ver- + cupiç ("it buys me").

  1. it sells me


  • S'entigneis: verpoir, verpz, verpez
  • Tevrés: verpér, vierpez, verpaz


[ˈʋɛ.rjaɫ] n. c.
GEN.SG veriālis

Dissimilated from earlier velial, from velior + -al.

  1. sadness, grief, sorrow, gloom


[ˈvɪ.tɬɪt͡s] v. tr.
IMPF.INF vitlīse; PFV.PTCP vittus; OPT.1SG vissid; PFV.1SG vitluī

From PI witɬjets, from PME ueitł ("I rot, I decay").

  1. I live, I am alive
  2. I rot, go bad, decay, spoil, fester, decompose, turn sour

Derived terms:

  • vītla ("live, mortality")
  • vittaç ("I live")


[ˈʋøː.nũː] n. e.
GEN.SG voenī

From PI gʷoinom, from PME ggwoi-nó-m “strength, skill,” from root ggwei “I am able, I have won.” Hence also veniç “I win.”

  1. arm
    • hōsaeneso voenun. condērurso.
      Let go of my arm! It hurts!
  2. skill, effort, ability


  • S'entigneis: vein
  • Tevrés: ven


[ʋoːks] adj. n.
C.NOM.SG vōgis; E.NOM.SG vōge

From PI wōgs, from PME ueyyḫw ("able, suitable, comfortable; soft").

  1. suitable, acceptable, possible
  2. in line, general, gathered


  • S'entigneis: vois, voye, voi
  • Tevrés: vuis, vuya, vuy


[ˈʋoː.mɛ̃n] n. e.
GEN.SG vōmïnis

From PI weksmən, from PME ueggš- “ to stream, to flow, to run, to sweep, to spread; to drift, to float, to wander, to stray.”

  1. river, stream


  • S'entigneis: vomme
  • Tevrés: vombre




[ˈzɛf.fɔn~ˈzɛf.fõː~ˈsɛf.fõː] n. e.
GEN.SG zepphoi

Loaned from Dalitian zepphón from PME žḥecu- “to be sharp, pointy acidic, bitter.” Is often found in Aeranized form zepphun. Cognate with Stiric haśvam, Old Marian daspam. Doublet with earlier borrowing sippun ("lemonade, lemon juice").

  1. lemon, lime, citron

Derived terms:

  • zeppheus (“citric, citrus, lemony, sour”)
  • zepphïdiun ("citrus, citric acid")


  • Ilesse: sefu
  • S'entigneis: sèf
  • Tevrés: siefo