Ròmnica

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Ròmnica
Ròmnica
Progress: 87%
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Verb-subject-object
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Animate/Inanimate
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Background

Ròmnica was originally meant to be a Romance language, which would borrow greatly from Spanish. In the end, the language became more of an experiment of a conlang with a large number of phonemes. Later on, more and more experimental ideas for my conlang designs were integrated into it. Then on, it was taken for translating poems and for using those Ròmnica lyrics for short songs.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç x ɣ h
Approximant ɹ j
Flap or tap ɾ
Trill ʙ r
Lateral Fric. ɬ
Lateral App. l ʎ
Affricate p̪͡f t͡θ d͡ð t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Lateral Aff. t͡ɬ
Click ʘ ǀ  !
Lateral Click ǁ
Implosive ɓ ɗ
Ejective p' t'
Aff. Ejective p̪͡f' t͡θ' t͡s' t͡ʃ'
Continuant w

Vowels

Front Back
Close i y u
Close-mid e ø o
Open a ɶ

Orthography

Letter IPA Notes
a /a/
ä /ɶ/
b /b/
bh /β/
bhr /ʙ/
b! /ʘ/
c /k/ /s/ /k/ before a, o, and u; /s/ before e and i
ch /ç/
ç /s/ Used as /s/ before a, o, and u
d /d/
dh /ð/
dg /d͡ʒ/
d! /!/
e /e/
ø /ø/
f /f/
g /g/
gh /ɣ/
h n/a Silent in all cases
ħ /h/
i /i/
ü /y/
j /j/
jh /ʎ/
k /k/
kh /x/
/kʰ/
l /l/
lh /ɬ/
l! /ǁ/
m /m/
mh /ɱ/
n /n/
nh /ɲ/
ng /ŋ/
o /o/
p /p/
ph /ɸ/
pf /p̪͡f/
/pʰ/
q /k/ Used with u before e and i
r /ɾ/
rh /r/
s /s/
t /t/
th /θ/
tl /t͡ɬ/
ts /t͡s/
tsh /t͡ʃ/
/tʰ/
t! /ǀ/
u /u/
v /v/
w /ɰᵝ/
x /ʃ/
z /z/
zh /ʒ/
' /ʔ/

Stress

The stress pattern of Ròmnica is a very simple one. The stress falls on the penultimate syllable, with the only exception being when the word ends with an "r", so the stress falls on the last syllable. Accent marks are used for when the stress pattern is irregular. The acute accent (´) is used with unrounded vowels [a, e, i], while the grave accent (`) is used with rounded ones [ɶ, ø, y, o, u].

Grammar

Pronouns

Nominative Singular Plural
1st Person Xo Nos
2nd Person Tħu Bhus
3rd Person Il Ils

Nominative pronouns can be omitted, since the conjugated verb contains them.

Accusative Singular Plural
1st Person Me Nhe
2nd Person Tħe Ve
3rd Person Le Les

The accusative is present when added at the end of the conjugation of the verb.

Dative Singular Plural
1st Person Em Ens
2nd Person Et Ev
3rd Person El Els

Dative pronouns are added with a dash at the end of the conjugated verb.

Verbs

Ròmnica verbs are conjugated by adding the personal pronoun to the beginning of the verb stem. An example is the verb "to be" which is "caiser" in Ròmnica. The conjugations for the present tense would be:

Caiser Singular Plural
1st Person Xocáis Noscáis
2nd Person Tħucáis Bhuscáis
3rd Person Ilcáis Ilscáis

When conjugating verbs to the present tense, the stress changes to the stem. In most cases, this means that the stem takes an accent.

When conjugating a verb that affects an accusative and/or a dative object, their pronouns are added to the end of the verb. Like, when expressing the phrase "I throw the ball to him", the verb "tracar" is used. (Ball is pol). This phrase would be "Xotrácle-el lø pol.", where the accusative is added to the end of the verb, and the dative is added after a hyphen.

Morphology

Syntax