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Sharqi (native: Af Sharqi) is an Ethio-Semitic language.

Af Sharqi
Pronunciation[ǽf ʃɑ́rqɪ]
Created byShariifka


Sharqi is an Ethiopian Semitic language heavily inspired by Somali.




Af Sharqi consonant phonemes
Labial Dental/
Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m n (ny /ɲ/)
Stop consonant voiceless t /t̪/ k q ' /ʔ/
voiced b d /d̪/ dh /ɖ/ ɡ
Affricate voiceless
voiced j /dʒ/
Fricative f s sh /ʃ/ kh /x̠~χ/ x /ħ/ h
Approximant l y /j/ w c /ʕ/
Trill r /r~ɾ/









Personal Pronouns

Af Sharqi personal pronouns
Independent Clitic Possessive
Stressed Unstressed Subject Object
1S aní(ga) an(i) aan ni káy(ga)/táy(da)
2S adí(ga) ad(i) aad ki kaág(a)/taág(a)
3SM nusú(ga) nus(u) aw kaẃ(ga)/taẃ(da)
3SF nisá(da) nis(a) ay kaád(a)/taád(a)
1P inná(ga) inna ayna/aan na kaán(a)/taán(a)
2P idín(ka) idin aydin/aad kin kiín(a)/tiín(a)
3P nisín(ka) nisin awn/aw kuún(a)/tuún(a)

Additionally, there is an impersonal subject pronoun sow used to form the pseudopassive, and a reflexive object pronoun nis used to form the reflexive and reciprocal.

Nis can also be used emphatically, in which case it takes possessive suffixes - e.g. niskayga "myself".


Stem 1

Stem 1 is the base form of a verb.

  • F-C-L is used as the generic verb stem (with qadal "kill" as the example verb).
    • F: first root consonant
    • C: second root consonant (for geminated or quadriliteral verbs, this represents the middle two consonants)
    • L: third root consonant
    • (vowel): vowel that is usually dropped unless it violates phonotactics. Sometimes unpredictable.
  • The (a/i) after F is dropped if possible, even if phonotactics require the F to be changed - e.g. katab "he wrote", ay tigtib "do not write". On the other hand, the (a/i) or [a] after C is generally dropped only if that will lead to no consonant changes - e.g. yikatabúun "they write" (not *yikadbúun).
  • If the vowel in the bracket has an acute accent, that means it takes the accent if it is present, otherwise the preceding vowel (indicated with a grave accent) takes the accent.
  • Some verbs have aa after the first root consonant instead of a - e.g. baarag "bless". In this case, it is never dropped. Any high tones that would apply to a are applied to the second a of aa (i.e. ).
  • The infinitive takes the form FáCL(i) if the cluster CL is not forbidden (with the -i inserted if C is not y or w). If it is forbidden, the infinitive takes the form FáCaL.
  • In the second person plural imperfect, sandhi applies to -k-.
Stem 1
Infinitive (m.)
Verbal Noun (f.)
Agent (m.)
Agent (f.)
Imperfect Subjunctive Perfect affirm. Perfect neg. Imperative Jussive
1S iFaCaL iqadal iF(i)CiL iqdil FaC(a)Lay qadlay FaC(a)Lan qadlan ìF(á)CaL íqdal ìF(á)CaL íqdal
2S tiFaCaL tiqadal tiF(i)CiL tiqdil FaC(a)Lag qadlag FíCaL qídal tìF(á)CaL tíqdal
3SM yiFaCaL yiqadal yiF(i)CiL yiqdil FaC(a)Law qadlaw yìF(á)CaL yíqdal yìF(á)CaL yíqdal
3SF tiFaCaL tiqadal tiF(i)CiL tiqdil FaC(a)Lad qadlad tìF(á)CaL tíqdal tìF(á)CaL tíqdal
1P niFaCaL niqadal niF(i)CiL niqdil FaC(a)Lan qadlan nìF(á)CaL níqdal nìF(á)CaL níqdal
2P tiFaC(a)Lúun tiqadlúun tiF(i)CiLúun tiqdilúun FaCaLkúun qadalkúun FìC(á)Lo qídlu tiF(a)CaLúun tiqdalúun
3P yiFaC(a)Lúun yiqadlúun yiF(i)CiLúun yiqdilúun FaC(a)Lúun qadlúun yiF(a)CaLúun yiqdalúun yiF(a)CaLúun yiqdalúun

There are various modifications depending on the root consonants:

  • If F is:-
    • w:
      • i becomes u before w, with uw becoming uu before a consonant. If the following syllable has the vowel i, it also becomes u - e.g. al yuudud "he does not love" (from *yiwdid).
      • The sequence uwa is further simplified to oo - e.g. yoodad "he loves" (from *yuwadad < *yiwadad).
    • y:
      • iy becomes ii before a consonant - e.g. al tiibis "she/it does not dry" (from *tiybis).
      • The sequence iya is simplified to ee - e.g. teebas "she/it dries" (from *tiyabas).
    • Ø: preceding i becomes a in the imperfect and lengthened in the subjunctive/jussive - e.g. yaahal "it is enough" (from *yiØahal), ay yiíhal "let it not be enough" (from *yíØhal).
    • A guttural letter (G: ', h, c, x): when intervocalic, a preceding short vowel assimilates to following vowel - e.g. yaxamal "he carries" (from *yixamal).
  • If C is:-
    • y, yC, or Cy:
      • ay(a)/ya becomes ee - e.g. keedaw "he walked/went" (from *kaydaw).
      • yi(i) becomes ii - e.g. al tikiid "you do not walk/go" (from *tikyid).
    • w, wC, or Cw:
      • aw(a)/wa becomes oo - e.g. koonaw "he was/became" (from *kawnaw).
      • wi(i) becomes uu (and makes preceding i into u) - e.g. al tukuun "she does not become" (from *tikwin).
    • Ø, ØC, or CØ:
      • aØ(a)/Øa becomes aa - e.g. laagay "I sent" (from *laØgay).
      • Øi(i) becomes ii - e.g. al tiliig "she doesn't send" (from *tilØig).
      • When intervocalic, a preceding short vowel assimilates to following vowel.
  • If L is:-
    • y:
      • (a)ya(y) becomes ay - e.g. sallayd "she prayed" (from *sallayad)
      • (a)yaw becomes aw - e.g. sallaw "he prayed" (from *sallayaw).
      • Final iy becomes i (ii before a consonant) - e.g. silli "pray" (from *silliy).
      • yu(u) becomes u(u) after a consonant - e.g. yinasúun "they forget" (from *yinasyúun).
    • w:
      • (a)wa(w) becomes aw - e.g. cafawd "she forgave" (from *cafwad).
      • (a)way becomes oy - e.g. cafoy "I forgave" (from *cafway).
      • Final iw becomes u (uu before a consonant) and makes preceding i into u - e.g. cufu "forgive" (from *cifiw).
      • wu(u) becomes u(u) after a consonant - e.g. yacafúun "they forgive" (from *yicafwúun).
      • awu(u) becomes ow - e.g. yiqandhówn "they get a fever" (from *yiqandhawúun).
      • iwuu becomes uu e.g. ay ticfúun "do not forgive (pl.)" (from *ticfiwúun)
    • Ø:
      • aØ(a)/Øa becomes aa - e.g. nashaad "she took/lifted" (from *nashaØad).
      • Final becomes i (ii before a consonant) - e.g. níshi "take/lift" (from *níshiØ).
      • Øu(u) becomes u(u) after a consonant - e.g. yinashúun "they take/lift" (from *yinashØúun).
      • aØu(u) becomes ow - e.g. yooddówn "they finish" (from *yiwaddaØúun)
      • iØuu becomes uu e.g. al tinshúun "you (pl.) do not take/lift" (from *tinshiØúun)
    • G: Preceding short vowel assimilates to following vowel.
  • Normal sandhi rules apply - e.g. sallaygúun "you (pl.) prayed" (from *sallay-kúun).
  • For quinquiliteral verbs, replace C with CaCC/CiCC (with the vowel corresponding to the bracketed one) - e.g. dhamastar, yidhamastar, yidhimistir "complete". If one of the consonants is w or y, the aforementioned simplifications apply and the unnecessary a/i is not added - e.g. targoon, yitargoon, yuturguun, targoomaw "translate" (from *taragwam, *yitaragwam, *yitirigwim, *taragwamaw). In forms where no simplifications can take place, however, the extra vowel is added - e.g. taragwaámi "translator".


Simple tenses
Compound tenses
  • Present progressive: Imperfect (minus suffixes and with final accent) + Perfect of -(ah)alaw - e.g. yikeéd(ah)alaw "he is walking/going".
    • This is derived from the defective verb halaw "he is present".
    • Halaw (stem: h-l-w) is conjugated as a perfect verb, but has present meaning. Its past equivalent is nabraw (stem: n-b-r).
  • Past progressive: Imperfect (minus suffixes and with final accent) + Perfect of nabraw "he was present" - e.g. yikeéd nabrúun "they were walking/going".


Constituent order

Primarily SOV. However, clitic object pronouns follow the verb.

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1)

Other resources