Sixth Linguifex Relay/Kandi

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The Kandi (or Tsan) language is spoken by a people of former nomads in the world of Onahar. Their culture is split between the natures of deserts and the seas. Their culture is defined by the concept of the basi, spirits, which reside in all things living or dead. The human spirit is called the ǧay, and is shared with the self. When we die, both the self and the ǧay leave the body, but the spirit lives on.

Kandi is a language with a few notable features - it has no marking for number, tense or even a distinction between nouns and verbs. The key of Kandi is its predicate-argument flexibility, where any word may act as both a predicate and an argument to one.

The Kandi grammar is not yet updated on Linguifex, but a link is available here.

Relay Text

Awí akuráttu; mahakkúri ina
on Páysi Diparéyi aksam ǧamannunur,
amínda on onaharsišawattunur.
ikka tuwat kakanum, am undan awí akusatšanattu
Hamáni sonnátunur ya waki hánǧar sirayunnur.

Interlinear Gloss

Awí akuráttu; mahakkúri ina
awí ak=wura=attu mah=akkúri ina
happy.PRED D.this=1P=say.PRED=APP.INSTR, D.many=night.PRED-SPEC previous.PRED

on Páysi Diparéyi aksam ǧamannunur,
on Páysi Diparéyi ak=ksam ǧam=annu-nur

amínda on onaharsišawattunur.
amínda on onahar=si=šaw=attu-nur
thankful.PRED then world=D.prev=save=APP.INSTR-EVID.HEAR

ikka tuwat kakanum, am undan awí akusatšanattu
ikka tuwat ka-kan-um am unda-n awí akusatšan-attu
maybe_not need.PRED-APP.GEN 2P=see.PRED=APP.GEN-SPEC, but arm.PRED-SPEC happy.PRED this=place-cut-APP.INSTR

Hamáni sonnátunur ya waki hánǧar sirayunnur.
hamán-i son=nát-nur ya wak-i ha=anǧar si=ra=yum-nur
man.PRED-SPEC live=INCH-EVID.HEAR and rain.PRED-SPEC 3P.OBV=fall D.prev=tell=APP.GEN-EVID.HEAR


Grammar concerning the core Kandi grammar is found in the pdf added on this page (to be added to Linguifex). However, a few things are still missing from the current draft:

  • The Kandi word order is not strict, but in this text predominantly SOV.
  • Kandi has a number of evidential suffixes, one of which is the evidential hearsay, denoting actions only heard of in third person or myths.

They say he knows all.


  • Adverbial constructs are often produced with the instrumental applicative
Awí wuhahaktunattu
/a'wi: wuha'haktunat:u/
awi wu-ahak=tun=attu
happy.PRED 1P-D.that=do=APP.INSTR

I happily do that.


  • The benefactive applicative often has an allative or dative meaning.


PRED - predicative
SPEC - specifier
D - deictic
D.prev - the one previously mentioned
PN - proper noun (name)
1P, 2P, 3P, 3P.OBV - 1st, 2nd, 3rd person, 3rd person obviative
APP - applicative
GEN - general
INST - instrumental
BEN - benefactive
EVID - evidential
HEAR - hearsay