Solerian

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Solerian
Սօլէ́ր
Soler.png
Pronunciation /solˈeɹ/
Created by Newrhotic
Setting
Native speakers None  (2013)
Language family
Engineered language
  • Experimental language
    • Solerian
Writing system Armenian script
ISO 639-3 -

Solerian (Armenian: Սօլէ́ր, Latin: Soléṟ, /solˈeɹ/) is a highly alveolarized language, with a moderately large consonant inventory, and 15 grammatical cases. It is spoken by no one as it is still under construction and, for the same reasons, it has no native speakers. Its origin traces back to January 2013 and it still has a long way to go. Its bigger peculiarity might be the presence of speech function markers (statement/question/command/offer/irony) realized by click consonants.

Overview

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No Yes Yes
Nouns Yes No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No No No Yes No No No
Particle No Yes No No No Yes No No


Phonology

Consonants and semi-vowels

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Lateral
Nasal m n ɲ [ŋ]
Plosive p · b t ɟ k · g
Affricate t͡ʃ [ɟ͡ʝ]
Fricative f θ s · [z] ʃ x
Approximant w · [β̞] [ð̞] ɹ j [ɣ̞]
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l
Clicks ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ

Phonetic notes

The phonemes /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are realized as approximants (namely [β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞], hereafter represented without the undertack) or fricatives in all places except after a pause, after a nasal consonant, or —in the case of /d/— after a lateral consonant; in such contexts they are realized as voiced stops.

The phoneme /n/ is realized as a voiced velar nasal [ŋ] before velar /k/, /g/ and /x/.

The phoneme /ɟ/ is realized as an plosive in all contexts except after a pause, a nasal, or a lateral. In these environments, it may be realized as an affricate ([ɟʝ]).

Vowels

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i
u



ə
ɛ


ä
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open

Dipthongs

Falling
[äj] €€ '€' [äw] €€ '€'
[e̞j] sáṟdejp 'infinite' [e̞w] €€ '€'
[o̞j] naṙój 'sadness' [o̞w] '€'
[uj] €€ '€'
Rising
[jä] €€ '€' [wä] €€ '€'
[je̞] €€ '€' [we̞] €€ '€'
[wi] €€ '€'
[jo̞] €€ '€' [wo̞] €€ '€'
[ju] €€ '€'

Phonotactics

Onset Core Coda Coda II
(C1) (C2) (SV1) V (SV2) (C3) (C2) -(Vn)
b l/ṙ/ṟ j/w a/e/i/o/u j/w ɛ/ə
c
d l/ṙ/ṟ
f l/r/ṙ/ṟ
g l/n/ṙ/ṟ
k l/n/r/ṙ/ṟ
l
m l m
n n
ñ
p f/l/r/ṙ/ṟ/s/š
r
s l/p/ṟ/t
š l/r/ṙ/ṟ
t l/r/ṙ/ṟ/s t l/s
x
y
z

Orthography

Grapheme Ա ա Է է Ի ի Օ օ Ո ո Ե ե Ը ը Յ յ Ւ ւ
Name այբ ajb է e ի́նի íni օ o բո bu յէճ jec էտ et յի ji ւին win
Pronunciation /ä/ /e̞/ /i/ /o̞/ /u/ /ɛ/ /ə/ /j/ /w/
Transliteration A a E e I i O o U u Ɛ ɛ Ə ə J j W w


Grapheme Բ բ Ճ ճ Դ դ Ֆ ֆ Գ գ Կ կ Լ լ Մ մ Ն ն Ժ ժ Պ պ Ռ ռ Ղ ղ Ր ր Ս ս Շ շ Տ տ Խ խ Ջ ջ Ց ց
Name բէն ben ճէ ce դա da ֆէ fe գիմ gim կէն ken լյոն ljun մէն men նո nu ժէ ñe պէ pe ռա ra ղատ ṙat րէ ṟe սէ se շա ša տյոն tjun խէ xe ջա ya ցօ zo
Pronunciation /b/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /p/ /r/ /ɾ/ /ɹ/ /s/ /∫/ /t/ /x/ /ɟ/ /θ/
Transliteration B b C c D d F f G g K k L l M m N n Ñ ñ P p R r Ṙ ṙ Ṟ ṟ S s Š š T t X x Y y Z z


Grapheme Name Pronunciation Transliteration Use
ՙ պան
pan
/ʘ/ * Statement marker (emphatic)
՞ կլօն
klon
/!/ ? Question marker
 ՜ տէն
ten
/ǀ/ ! Command marker
՛ ճիմ
cim
/ǁ/ # Suggestion marker
 ՟  ջէն
yen
/ǂ/ Irony marker

Morphology

In Solerian, as well as in the rest of languages, there are different types of words: Nouns, adjetives, verbs…

Nouns

Nouns are words used to designate people, animals, ideas, concepts and so on. Some examples:

  • €€€: house
  • €€€: child
  • €€€: freedom

There are two kinds of names:

  • Common nouns: €€€
  • Proper nouns: €€€

Grammar

Gender and number

Nouns in Solerian can be abstract, inanimate, or animate.

  • Abstract gender englobes ideas, actions or abstractions: race, jump, freedom.
  • Inanimate gender refers to tangible non-living beings: stone, sun, window.
  • Animate gender unites living beings: bird, person, doctor.
    • Although it is not required, sex can be specified by adding to the noun the suffix for masculine, and for femenine nouns.

Regarding number, there are three categories nouns can fall in:

  • Singular, portraying only one entity: The car, a cat.
  • Dual, for natural pairs: eyes, the couple, a pair of trousers.
  • Plural, for two or more entities: The cars, four women.

Personal pronouns

Singular personal pronouns
Abstract Inanimate Animate
Unspecified Gender
Masculine Femenine
Zero person Lo - - - -
First person - - Ale Alə Alɛ
Second person - - Bale Balə Balɛ
Third person Calo Cali Cale Calə Calɛ
Fourth person - - Dale - -


Dual personal pronouns
Abstract Inanimate Animate
First person - - Alele
Second person - - Balele
Third person Calolo Calili Calele


Plural personal pronouns
Abstract Inanimate Animate
First person Exclusive - - Aleßv
Inclusive - - Abaleßv
Second person - - Baleßv
Third person Caloßv Calißv Caleßv

Numerals

Solerial numeral system is heavily decimal. Numbers are arranged in sets:

  • Pom: numbers from 0 to 9.
  • Daki: sets of ten, or denaries (all the x*10 numbers).
  • Fentv: sets of hundred (all the x*102 numbers).
  • Иare: sets of thousand (all the x*103 numbers).
  • Xvsti: sets of million (all the x*106 numbers).
  • Яaze: sets of trillion (all the x*1012 numbers).


Pom numbers Cardinals Ordinals Daki numbers Cardinals Ordinals Fentv numbers Cardinals Ordinals
0 ṙajni - - - - - - -
1 tṙepye(pom) tṙepyepono 10 tṙepyedaki tṙepyedakigi 100 tṙepyefentv tṙepyefentvdv
2 ganse(pom) gansepono 20 gansedaki gansedakigi 200 gansefentv gansefentvdv
3 likli(pom) liklipono 30 liklidaki liklidakigi 300 liklifentu liklifentvdv
4 flastez(pom) flastezpono 40 flastesdaki flastesdakigi 400 flastezfentv flastezfentvdv
5 bostaṙ(pom) bostaṙpono 50 bostaṙdaki bostaṙdakigi 500 bostaṙfentv bostaṙfentvdv
6 kortet(pom) kortetpono 60 kortetaki kortetakigi 600 kortetfentv kortetfentvdv
7 иvsi(pom) иvsipono 70 иvsidaki иvsidakigi 700 иvsifevtv иvsifentvdv
8 lolto(pom) loltopono 80 loltodaki loltodakigi 800 loltofentv loltofentudv
9 nuarif(pom) nuarifpono 90 nuarifdaki nuarifdakigi 900 nuarifentv nuarifentvdv


Иare numbers Cardinals Ordinals Xvsti numbers Cardinals Ordinals Яaze numbers Cardinals Ordinals
1 000 tṙepyeиare tṙepyeиareṙe 1 000 000 tṙepyexvsti tṙepyexvstidi 1012 tṙepyeяaze tṙepyeяazese
2 000 ganseиare ganseиareṙe 2 000 000 gansexvsti gansexvstidi 2*1012 ganseяaze ganseяazese
3 000 likliиare likliиareṙe 3 000 000 liklixvsti liklixvstidi 3*1012 likliяaze likliяazese
4 000 flastezиare flastezиareṙe 4 000 000 flasteßvsti flasteßvstidi 4*1012 flastezяaze flastezяazese
5 000 bostaṙиare bostaṙиareṙe 5 000 000 bostaꝛxvsti bostaꝛxvstidi 5*1012 bostaяaze bostaяazese
6 000 kortetиare kortetиareṙe 6 000 000 kortetxvsti kortetxvstidi 6*1012 kortetяaze kortetяazese
7 000 иvsiиare иvsiиareṙe 7 000 000 иvsixvsti иvsixvstidi 7*1012 иvsiяaze иvsiяazese
8 000 loltoиare loltoиareṙe 8 000 000 loltoxvsti loltoxvstidi 8*1012 loltoяaze loltoяazese
9 000 nuarifиare nuarifиareṙe 9 000 000 nuarifxvsti nuarifxvstidi 9*1012 nuarifяaze nuarifяazese

Numbers are arranged in order, from bigger to smaller (a*10i + b*10i-1 + … + w*103 + x*102 + y*10 + z).

Some examples:

  • 23: gansedaki likli(pom)
  • 749: иvsifentv flastezdaki nuarif(pom)
  • 184922: tṙepyefentv loltodaki flastesиare nuarifentv gansedaki ganse(pom)
  • #18 : tṙepyedakigi loltopono

Grammatical cases

Case (particle) Usage Solerian English
Nominative (·aяa) agent
Accusative (·bяe) patient
Dative (·kuя) recipient
Genitive (·eя) relationship, possession
Benefactive (·foя) beneficiary
Instrumental (·axra) instrument
Privative (·tix) lacking something
Essive-Modal (·ux) manner of doing something
Commitative (·ex) accompanied by sth/sb
Causal-final (·ox) efficient or final cause
Ablative (·af) movement away from something
Lative (·if) movement to something
Locative (·duf) location
Partitive (·ef) used for amounts
Temporal (·of) specifying a time


Syntax

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