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Proto-Rathmosian

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Verbs
==Verbs==
Verbal conjugation is agglutinative and verbs may be marked for aspect (imperfective, perfective), valency (transitive, intransitive, passivemedial, causative, reflexive, ...), and argument (absolutive, ergative).  ===Aspect===Verbal aspect is marked by altering the form of the root itself or by adding suffixes to the primary root:* The primary root is considered to be '''generic''' or gnomic in aspect, describing states or actions without regard to their state of completeness, e.g. ''ker-'' "rule", ''mlak-'' "be dead"* The lengthened root is '''imperfective''', describing ongoing actions, e.g. ''keer-'' "rules, ruling".* The reduplicated root is '''perfective''', describing completed actions, e.g. ''keker-'' "ruled"* The addition of ''-n-'' to the root creates the '''inchoative''' aspect, describing the beginning of actions or 'becoming' a state, e.g. ''kern-'' "begin to rule", ''mlagn-'' "die"* The addition of ''-tsat-'' to the root creates the '''frequentative''' aspect, describing repetitive events or habitual states, e.g. ''kertsat-'' "rules (often)", ''kuktsat-'' "eats often, grazes", ''plustsat-'' "often be sick".* The addition of ''-t-'' to the root creates the '''intensitive''' aspect, describing more severe forms of the action or state, the latter equivalent to "very ...", e.g. ''kert-'' "tyrannise, subjugate", ''plust-'' "be very sick".  ===Voice===Voice is marked exclusively by suffixes, which follow the root or aspectual suffixes. * '''''-a-''''' is used to mark verbs where the subject is not the semantic agent, i.e. is not considered to have control over the action of the verb. This includes intransitive verbs of actions and states, or verbs with a passive meaning, e.g. ''plusa-'' "is sick", ''kekera-'' "was ruled"* '''''-i-''''' is used with transitive verbs, where both the subject and object are stated, e.g. ''keri-''* '''''-u''''' is used with intransitive verbs where the subject is considered to have control over the action, or with transitive verbs where the object of the verb is not stated, e.g. ''yuru-'' "run", ''kuku-'' "eats"* '''''-e-''''' is used to give the verb a '''reciprocal''' or '''reflexive''' meaning, e.g. ''sape-'' "wash oneself".* '''''-im-''''' is a '''causative''' suffix, meaning "cause to do", e.g. ''kukim-'' "feed s.o.", ''mlagnim-'' "kill".* '''''-am-''''' is an '''anticausative''' suffix, describing an action forced upon someone or something, e.g. ''kukam-'' "force feed"* '''''-em''''' is an '''autocausative''' suffix, describing an action in which the subject of the sentence causes an action that effects themselves, e.g. ''mlagnem-'' "kill oneself"
The primary division in verbal morphology is made between '''dynamic''' ('''Class I''') verbs and '''stative''' ('''Class II''') verbs. Dynamic verbs denote actions and verbs of motion while stative verbs refer to states of being and include the large class of adjectival verbs, such as ''dreh-'' "to be red", ''mlak-'' "to be dead". A verbal stem belongs primarily to one or other class, depending on its semantics but the boundaries are not inflexible.
| Prefixes || '''Root''' || Derivation || Aspect Marker || Valency Marker || Absolutive || Ergative
|}
 
The aspect markers are ''-n-'' for the imperfective and ''-k-'' for the perfective in Class I. Class II verbs are not marked for aspect.
 
The valency markers are ''-a-'' for intransitive verbs, ''-i-'' for antipassive verbs and ''-u-'' for transitive verbs.
The absolutive markers agree with the subject of a intransitive verb or the direct object of an transitive verb. The 3rd person may be animate or inanimate. The 1st and 2nd person forms differ depending on whether they are followed by an ergative marker.
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