Thensarian (gaθvae θensārimae) is an ancient Talmic language and the ancestor of most living Talmic languages, including Xjiaolan, Anbirese, Nurian and Qazhrian. It is inspired by Proto-Celtic, Latin and Welsh. Important texts in Thensarian include ancient Talmic prose myths and some early scientific texts.
- 1 Todo
- 2 Background
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Orthography
- 5 Morphology
- 6 Syntax
- 7 Example texts
- 8 Other resources
- Make Proto-Talmic > Thensarian vowel changes mirror Pre-Celtic > Proto-Celtic changes
- Antraδēs = a place name
- lugoboe 'land'
- OEevo luġaḃ
- Eevo luav
- Nurian lugabui
- OEevo luġaḃ
- What to do with PTal ou and ō?
- nocterae = chain (got it by interpreting Noether as Welsh)
- Andaegōr = 'sun's perch'
- More u's - often gets umlauted in daughters
- Fossilized aspect distinctions for stative verbs vs active verbs
- hear vs. listen
- see vs. look
- seek vs. find - som for seek, ___ for find?
- See also: Talmic languages.
Thensarian used 17 consonants.
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/||[ŋ]|
|Plosive||voiceless||t /t/||c /k/||[ʡ]|
|voiced||b /b/||d /d/||g /g/|
|Fricative||voiceless||φ /φ~h/||θ /θ/||s /s/||ħ /ħ/|
|voiced||δ /ð/||[z]||ȝ /ʕ/|
|Approximant||v /ʋ/||l /l/||j /j/|
- Voiceless plosives /p t k/ are lightly aspirated in syllable onsets but are unaspirated after /s/. They're always unaspirated in certain areas.
- [ŋ] occurs as an allophone of /n/ before velars /k, g/.
- /r/ is an alveolar trill [r] or tap [ɾ].
- /l/ is dental [l̪].
- [z] occurs as an allophone of /s/ in /sb, sd, sg/.
- /ʕ/ is either a radical plosive [ʡ] or a radical approximant [ʕ]. The first realization is more common word-initially.
Thensarian had the following monophthongs:
|Close||i /i/||ī /iː/||u /u/||ū /uː/|
|Mid||e /ɛ/||ē /eː/||o /ɔ/||ō /oː/|
|Open||a /a/||ā /aː/|
The diphthongs are ae ao ei eo iu oe ui.
Stress is word-initial, ignoring some unstressed prefixes such as pronominal object prefixes.
Some allowed clusters
- R = resonant X = obstruent
- Clusters allowed word-initially are in bold.
- mm nn ll rr φφ tt cc ss θθ
- mn mr nl nv lm ln lv rl rm rn rv vl vr
- mφ ms nt nθ ns nc nħ
- mb nd nδ ng nȝ
- lφ lb lt ld ls lc lg lȝ lħ
- rφ rb rt rd rs rθ rδ rc rg rȝ rħ
- φn bn tn θn cn gn ȝn ħn
- sm sn sl sr sv
- φl bl tl dl cl gl ȝl ħl
- φr br tr dr θr δr cr gr ȝr ħr
- sφ st sc sȝ sb sd sg
- cs ct ħs ħt
- sφl sφr str scl scr sȝl sȝr
Alphabetical order: R D I A Ħ Φ L M G C B S V O J Ȝ Δ T N Θ E U
- Main article: Thensarian/Morphology
Like many of its descendants, Thensarian is almost completely head-initial (except for compounds).
Sequences of tenses are important in Thensarian grammar. The mood of a verb sometimes serves the same functions of subordinating conjunctions in English such as if. Sometimes it is erroneously said that Thensarian has no word for if; conjunctions meaning "if" exist (φīs, etc.) but they are not mandatory.