Umbrean/Examples

From Linguifex
Jump to: navigation, search

Verb

VAT

Active - Example of active voice where the wolf is in ergative case and the speaker is in accusative case. Notice how the verbs VAT vowel is conjugated according to the object/Patient and not the subject.

"fššedyss tsümj ǧlovëssw"

/fʃ:edys: t͡sumj xlovɛsw:/

fššed-yss tsümj ǧlov-ëssw

wolf-erg.s.indf.liv 1s.acc bite-1.aff.ind.act.pst.prf

"A wolf bit me"


Anti-Passive - Anti-passive voice, notice how the VAT vowel conjugates into a negative sense and only goes with the subject but also that it can take on a general or undefined meaning.

"fššedy ǧlovŋets"

/fʃ:edy xlovŋet͡s/

fššed-y ǧlov-ŋ-ets

wolf-int.s.indf.liv bite-neg-1.neg.ind.antip.prs.cont

"A wolf is not biting"
"wolves don't bite"


Passive - Passive voice, notice positive VAT and subject agreement

"tswë ǧlovukwš"

/t͡swɛ xlovʉkwʃ/

tswë ǧlov-ukwš

1s.int bite-1.aff.ind.pas.past/prs.term

"I stopped being bitten"
"I am stopping being bitten"

Mood

Indicative - Notice that there is no additional marking on the verb itself

"Tšees fššedylw vvidjooll"

/t͡ʃe:s fʃ:edylw v:ɨdjo:l:/

Tšees fššed-ylw vvidj-ooll

1s.erg wolf-acc.sg.def.liv see-ind.aff.ind.3.liv.prs.incep

"I will see the wolf now/soon"

Optative - Notice the frontal vowel, inter-L of the verb but also the vowel change on the last vowel

"Tšees fššedylw avvidjliill"

/t͡ʃe:s fʃ:edylw ɒv:ɨdjlɨ:l:/

Tšees fššed-ylw a>vvidj<l-iill

1s.erg wolf-acc.sg.def.liv <opt>see-opt.aff.ind.3.liv.prs.incep

"I want to see the wolf now/soon"

Subjunctive - Notice the frontal vowel, inter-L of the verb but also the vowel change on the last vowel

"Tšees fššedylw uuvvidjljaall"

/t͡ʃe:s fʃ:edylw ʉ:v:ɨdljɒ:l:/

Tšees fššed-ylw uu>vvidj<lj-aall

1s.erg wolf-acc.sg.def.liv <sjv>see-sjv.aff.ind.3.liv.prs.incep

"I probably will see the wolf soon"

Circumstantial Voice

Normal

"Tšees Žžötwolwmj kwëltjom ëŋŋy tsmaakë"

/t͡ʃe:s ʒ:ɵtwolwmj kwɛltjom ɛŋ:y t͡smɒ:kɛ/

Tšees Žžötw-olwmj kwëltj-om ëŋŋ-y tsmaak-ë

1s.erg meat-acc.sg.def.liv knife-acc.sg.indf.art with-sg.art.3 cut-ind.aff.1.prs.ctn

"I'm cutting the meat with a knife"

Circumstantial

"kwëltjii mljëŋŋ tsmaakiim"

/kwɛltjɨ: mljɛŋ: t͡smɒ:kɨ:m/

kwëltj-ii mlj-ëŋŋ tsmaak-iim

knife-int.sg.indf.art acc.crcv-with cut-ind.crcv.aff.3.prs.ctn

"With a knife, cutting is being done"
"Cutting is being done with a knife"

Participles

Adjectival Participles

"Tsmaakëzvjevj žžötwiilw"

/t͡smɒ:kɛzvjevj ʒ:ɵtwɨ:lw/

Tsmaak-ëzvj-evj žžötw-iilw

Cut-ind.1.pst.pfv.antip.aff-pst.pfv.antip.pcp.aff.int.liv meat-sg.liv.int.def

"The cut meat"

Adverbial Participles