Umbrean

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Umbrean
Ömjytsia
Progress: 55%
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Subject-object-verb
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
4
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

History

Fantasy History

Acctual history

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L. S. L.
Plosive Unvoiced Plain p
(p)
p:
(pp)
t
(t)
t:
(tt)
k
(k)
k:
(kk)
Lab. tw
(tw)
tw:
(ttw)
kw
(kw)
kw:
(kkw)
Plat. pj
(pj)
tj
(tj)
tj:
(ttj)
kj
(kj)
kj:
(kkj)
Lab-Pal tɥ
(tjw,twj)
tɥ:
(ttjw,ttwj)
kɥ
(kj)
kɥ:
(kkj)
Voiced Plain b
(b)
b:
(bb)
d
(d)
d:
(dd)
g
(g)
g:
(gg)
Lab. bw
(bw)
dw
(dw)
dw:
(ddw)
gw
(gw)
gw:
(ggw)
Plat. dj
(dj)
dj:
(ddj)
gj
(gg)
gj:
(ggj)
Lab-Pal dɥ
(dwj, djw)
dɥ:
(ddwj, ddjw)
gɥ
(gwj,gjw)
gɥ:
(ggwj,ggjw)
Affricative Unvoiced Plain t͡s
(ts)
t͡ʃ
(tš)
Lab. t͡sw
(tsw)
t͡ʃw
(tšw)
Plat. t͡sj
(tsj)
Lab-Pal t͡sɥ
(tsjw,tswj)
Voiced Plain d͡z
(dz)
d͡ʒ
(dž)
Lab. d͡z w
(dzw)
d͡ʒ w
(džw)
Plat. d͡zj
(dzj)
Lab-Pal d͡zɥ
(dzjw,dzwj)
Fricative Unvoiced Plain f
(f)
f:
(ff)
s
(s)
s:
(ss)
ʃ
(š)
ʃ:
(šš)
x
(ǧ)
x:
(ǧǧ)
Lab. sw
(sw)
sw:
(ssw)
ʃw
(šw)
ʃw:
(ššw)
xw
(ǧw)
Plat. fj
(fj)
fj:
(ffj)
sj
(sj)
sj:
(ssj)
Lab-Pal sɥ
(swj,sjw)
sɥ:
(ssjw,sswj)
Voiced Plain v
(v)
v:
(vv)
z
(z)
z:
(zz)
ʒ
(žž)
ʒ:
(žž)
ɣ
(ǧ)
ɣ:
(ǧǧ)
Lab. zw
(zw)
zw:
(zw)
ʒw
(žw)
ʒw:
(žžw)
ɣw
(ǧw)
Plat. vj
(vj)
vj:
(vvj)
zj
(zj)
zj:
(zzj)
Lab-Pal zɥ
(zwj,zjw)
zɥ:
(zzjw,zzwj)
Nasal Plain m
(m)
m:
(mm)
n
(n)
n:
(nn)
ŋ
(ŋ)
ŋ:
(ŋŋ)
Lab. nw
(n)
ŋw
(ŋw)
Plat. mj
(mj)
ŋj
(ŋj)
ŋj:
(ŋŋj)
Glides Lateral Appr. Plain l
(l)
l:
(ll)
Lab. lw
(lw)
Plat. lj
(lj)
Lab-Pal lɥ
(lwj,ljw)

Vowels

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close i (i) y (y) ɨ (i) ʉ (u) u (ü)
Near-close e (e)
Close-mid ɛ (ë) ɵ (ö) o (o)
Mid
Open-mid ɛ (ë) œ (ö) o (ɔ)
Near-open
Open a (a) ɑ (a) ɒ(a)

Pitch-Accent

Primary stress[*] is realised with an increase in the pitch[*], while secondary stress has a decrease in the pitch.

Primary and secondary stress are both predictable accoridng to these rules and Primary stress always goes before secondary, that is if primary stress and secondary stress were to overlap the primary stress will be the one that is realised.

Primary

  • Monosyllabic
  • Ultima - Consonant ending
    • Penult - Vowel Ending

Secondary

  • First - Consonant begining
    • Second - Vowel begining
  • Ultima - Vowel Ending
1 Syllable
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1
2 Syllables
C- -C
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2
2 Syllables
V- -C
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2
2 Syllables
C- -V
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2
2 Syllables
V- -V
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2
3 Syllables
C- -C
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3
3 Syllables
V- -C
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3
3 Syllables
C- -V
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3
3 Syllables
V- -V
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3
4 Syllables
C- -C
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3 4
4 Syllables
V- -C
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3 4
4 Syllables
C- -V
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3 4
4 Syllables
V- -V
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3 4
n>4 Syllables
C- -C
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3->n-2 n-1 n
n>4 Syllables
V- -C
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3->n-2 n-1 n
n>4 Syllables
C- -V
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3->n-2 n-1 n
n>4 Syllables
V- -V
Pitch High
Normal
Low
Syllable 1 2 3->n-2 n-1 n

Phonotactics

The syllable structure is decently complex where the onset[*], the consonants prior to the vowel, and the coda[*], consonants after the vowel, both can take two consonants. The onset and coda acts both independed of each other and can take the following forms.

Syllable Structure
General
C C V C C
Possible
Onset Core Coda
Initial Vowel Final
Consonant Vowel Consonant
Nasal Affricative Vowel Nasal Nasal
Nasal Fricative Vowel Affricative Nasal - n
Nasal Nasal Vowel Plosive Fricative
Nasal Plosive Vowel Plosive Plosive
Affricative Nasal Vowel Fricative Fricative
Plosive Nasal Vowel Fricative Nasal
Plosive Fricative Vowel Fricative Lateral
Plosive Plosive Vowel Lateral Fricative
Fricative Fricative Vowel Latera Affricative
Fricative Plosive Vowel Affricative Lateral
Plosive Lateral Vowel Nasal Lateral
Fricative Lateral Vowel Plosive Lateral
Affricative Lateral Vowel Affricative Fricative
Nasal Lateral Vowel Affricative Plosive
Lateral Nasal Vowel
Affricative Fricative Vowel

Verbs

For more information on Verbs see Umbrean/Verbs

Conjugation

Perfective Retrospective Prospective Inceptive Continuative Pausative Terminative Genericative
Past Aortis Historal Causum Consequentum Past Initio Ingressus Finitum Plerum
Present Causum Initio Present Pausa
Future Futurum Futurum Consequenta Futurum Initio Initio Futurum Termius


The umbrean verbs are conjugated for tense, aspect, mood and voice mainly. There is a residual conjugation for person and the grammatical gender of items but much of it has been lost. The conjugation is done by a primary vowel first followed by some sounds. The primary vowel is depended on which tense, mood and which gender and or person of the subject, agent or object noun is, which of the three depends on the verb.. The vowel comes in three classes, First, Second and Third kind. The vowel table tells which vowel is used while the Voice-Aspect-Tense, VAT, table tells which set to use on which VAT combination along with the remaining sounds around.


Negation:

Negation is done though the VAT vowel, it changes from the +, positive or affirmative coloumn, to the -, negative or negation coloumn of the same sort along with agreeing like the vowel normally is, along with a suffix prior to it. -ŋ- prior to the VAT vowel, unless the final consonant prior is plosive velar, k or g, in which it is -m- instead.

Vowels
Indicative Optative Subjunctive
V1 V2 V3 V1 V2 V3 V1 V2 V3
Person + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + -
First -oo -e -u -yy -e -e -u -i -u -aa -u -i -öö
Second -ëë -ii -uu -a
Third Liv -üü -e -y -i
Art -ii -e -ii -üü -e -üü -öö
Non -o -a -aa
Mag -u -aa -ëë -aa -ëë
Perfective Prospective Retrospective Inceptive Continuative Pausative Terminative Genericative
Active Past -V1ssw
(Aortis)
-V2v
(Historal Causum)
-V1mjël
(Consequentum)
-V3b
(Past Initio)
-V1tsjm
(Ingressus)
-V1kws
(Finitum)
-V2lwm
(Plerum)
Present -V1zw
(Causum)
-V2ll
(Initio)
-V1
(Present)
-V2s
(Pausa)
Future -V2ŋŋl
(Futurum)
-V3tswf
(Futurum Consequenta)
-V1sn
(Futurum Initio)
-V2ll
(Initio)
V3tj
(Futurum Termius)
Perfective Retrospective Prospective Inceptive Continuative Pausative Terminative Genericative
Anti-
Passive
Past -V1zvj
(Aortis)
-V1vv
(Historal Causum)
-V2muf
(Consequentum)
-V1tff
(Past Initio)
-V1ffm
(Ingressus)
-V3kwf
(Finitum)
-V2lm
(Plerum)
Present -V3ssf
(Causum)
-V2llf
(Initio)
-V2ts
(Present)
-V1f
(Pausa)
Future -V1
(Futurum)
-V3tsfj
(Futurum Consequenta)
-V1fn
(Futurum Initio)
-V2llf
(Initio)
-V2twf
(Futurum Termius)
Perfective Retrospective Prospective Inceptive Continuative Pausative Terminative Genericative
Passive Past -V1ššw
(Aortis)
-V2
(Historal Causum)
-V2müš
(Consequentum)
-V1
(Past Initio)
-V3tšm
(Ingressus)
-V3kwš
(Finitum)
-V2leeš
(Plerum)
Present -V3žž
(Causum)
-V2šl
(Initio)
-V1šš
(Present)
-V2š
(Pausa)
Future -V2šŋ
(Futurum)
-V3tšf
(Futurum Consequenta)
-V1šn
(Futurum Initio)
-V2šl
(Initio)
-V2džw
(Futurum Termius)
Perfective Retrospective Prospective Inceptive Continuative Pausative Terminative Genericative
Circumstantial Past -V3ǧw
(Aortis)
-V1 vvn
(Historal Causum)
-V1dwamj
(Consequentum)
-V2
(Past Initio)
-V2tff
(Ingressus)
-V3tswëm
(Finitum)
-V1ljë
(Plerum)
Present -V1ssǧ
(Causum)
-V2ǧl
(Initio)
-V1m
(Present)
-V2nn
(Pausa)
Future -V2ǧm
(Futurum)
-V3tšǧ
(Futurum Consequenta)
-V2šn
(Futurum Initio)
-V2ǧl
(Initio)
-V1džm
(Futurum Termius)


See Verb Examples


Mood

The mood is conjugated on the VAT vowel, the front where a prefix is placed depending on the mood and a suffix prior to the VAT vowel.

Mood Prefix Suffix
Optative a- -l
Subjunctive uu- -lj
Imperative i- -lw

See Examples


Circumstantial Voice

The circumstantial voice is the oddball of the voices, to mark it one has to first mark it on the verb but it requires the postposition it is forcing into the subject position to act as a particle infront of the verb itself with some modifications. The modification is depended upon which case one would use with the postposition

Pst (ë)lj- PP
Int tlj(ë)- PP
Erg slj(ë)- PP
Acc mlj(ë)- PP

the initial ë disappears if it begins with a vowel.

See Examples

Participle

Adjectival

In umbrean participles serves three purposes, the first one is similar to english where it takes on an adjective characteristic describing a noun, "The walking man", but with the differens of having one for every tense.

The second is for relative clauses, "The man whom I like" where the verb is turned into a participle but the sentence itself remains otherwise the same, and is like unlike english placed infront of the noun it describes.

And thirdly they are used to modify the verb in the phrase.

To get the subject or object back into the clause one simply puts the noun infront of the participle in postpositional case, similar to "The man eating woman".

Active voice cannot be used in participles.

To form a participle the conjugated verb is taken with the addition of a vowel which is depended on the tense in question and a consonant which depends on the gender of the subject that is being relativized, doesn't matter which of the two uses, and the voice in question. The vowel may be omitted when phonotactics allows it.

Participle Tense Vowels
Positive / Negative
Affirmative / Negation
Perfective Retrospective Prospective Inceptive Continuative Pausative Terminative Genericative
Past -e / -üü
(Aortis)
-a / -ii
(Historal Causum)
-ë / -ö
(Consequentum)
-a / -ii
(Past Initio)
-e / -üü
(Ingressus)
-e / -üü
(Finitum)
-ë / -ö
(Plerum)
Present -e / -üü
(Causum)
-oo / -e
(Initio)
-ë / -ö
(Present)
-e / -üü
(Pausa)
Future -oo / -e
(Futurum)
-a / -ii
(Futurum Consequenta)
-ë / -ö
(Futurum Initio)
-oo / -e
(Initio)
-ë / -ö
(Futurum Termius)


Number Gender Voice
Anti-Passive Passive Circumstantial
int / acc erg pst int / erg acc pst int / pst erg/acc
Sg Liv -vj -zzj -bb -žw -nn -dw -dž -šw
Mag -zz -ǧw -mj -ttw -šš
Art -nn -džw -ššw
Non -ff -zw -žw
Pc Mag/Liv -vvdj -zwd -ddw -žwdj -m -dj -dž -tš
Art/Non -dzj -tj -tšw
Plural -vm -zzjn -sn -žn -mm -sjn -džm -šn

See Examples

Adverbial

The adverbial participle is formed in a similar manner to the adjectival participle but there are differenses.

The verb is conjugated but the VAT vowel is replaced with a different set. and the ending changes only according to the voice.

Indicative Optative Subjunctive
+ - + - + -
V1 -e -üü -ii -u -o -ee
V2 -e -aa -yy -i -öö
V3 -e -ii -o -a


+ -
Passive -(y)n -(aa)m
Anti-passive -(im) -(ë)n
Circumstantial -(y)ŋ -(ii)ŋ

The vowel in the voice-polarity suffix is not used in present tempus or where phonotactics allows it's omition

The adverbial participle can be used in several manners and each manner usually requires a specific set of tempuses to be used

  1. Causual
    • H. Causum or Causum is used
    • Answers "Why?" the verb occures
  2. Temporal
    • Present, Aortis & Futurum is used
    • Answers "When" The verb happened
  3. Locational
    • Ingressus, Pausa & Futurum Termius
    • Answers where it occured.
  4. Manner
    • Present is used alone, is always contemporary.
    • Answers "how" a verb was done.
  5. Result
    • Consequentum or F. Consequenta is used
    • Tells what outcome the verb has.
  6. Concession
    • Ingressus, Present & Initio, Futurum Termius
    • The verb happened despite the action or state of the participle.


See Examples

Supine

The supine describes actions done for the purpose of something or a result of the action. In english it is often the infitive form of the verb, "We walked over to Ronald To help him". Important to notice is that the supine, unlike adverbial participles, can inherently take an object if it neccesitates it.

Can also mark the purpose of a noun if used infront of them.

Supines don't take conjugational affixation but rather these to mark positive or negative, to do or not to do it.

Positive Negative
-lii -lüü

See Examples

Gerund

The gerund form of the verbs are used to create noun clauses similar to english "That" clauses. "I know that he is a nice guy"

The gerund is formed by adding these endings to the conjugated form and is depended on case and the polarity of the verb.

Case Suffix
+ -
Int -ël -öl
Erg -ëssl -ösl
Acc -ëml -öml
Pst -ëtšwl -ötšwl

See Examples

Infinitives

Modal Forms

Umbrean verbs can take on 8 modal forms which is used for both modality purposes as a verb but can also function as adjectives on their own.

Verb form

The verb form is used along as any normal verb, the positive form and negative form refers to the polarity of the modality. While there is general derivation of each of the three forms some verbs do not follow it and have other forms in the quadrouplet. This infix is often placed between the vowel and the final consonants in the last syllable of the root.

Adjectival form

The adjectival form works as the name itself suggests like an adjective, the suffixes are put onto the verb and then treated like a normal adjective that has to take on adjectival affixes. The anti-passive form focuses on the subject while the passive one focuses on the object.


Adjectival Modality
Verb form Adjective Form
Positive Negative Passive Anti-passive
Base -žžw(y)1-
-ššw(y)1-
- -
Gerundive -ssj(o)-
-zzj(o)-
-dzw(ëë)-
-tsw(ëë)-
Abilitative -v(e)-
-f(e)-
-p(u)-
-b(u)-
Hypothetical -nj(y)- -m(üü)-
  • Gerundive: Marks that the noun it modifies is needs or ought to be the object or subject of the verb
  • Abilative: Marks that the noun it modifies is can or is able to be the object or subject of the verb
  • Hypothetical: Marks that the noun it modifies could be the object or subject of the verb

1 vowels are omitable if the phonotactic allows it

See Examples

Sequence of tenses

Umbrean uses Relative Tenses[*] meaning subclauses are put into present tense if they happened at the sametime as the main verb, past if it occured before the verb and future if it occured after the main verb.

Nominalization

Ditransitive Verbs

For more information on Ditransitive verbs see Umbrean/Ditransitive verbs


Ditransitive Verbs[*] in the umbrean language are arranged in the fashion of SO1VO2. The first object is the theme, indirect object, and the second object is the recipient (direct object) and the Subject is the Donor.

SOTVOR.

English Examples: "I give him a book" vs "I gave a book to him", "He asked me a question" vs "He asked a question to me"

Donor: The donor is the one that does verb, in case of the verb "give" it gives something. "I gave him a book" "He asked me a question."

Theme: The theme is the object which is transferred or undergoing the verb directly, like a book in giving. "I gave him a book" ""He asked me a question"

Recipient: The recipient recieves the Theme in some manner in an indirect manner, it is common for the recipient to be said by a prepositional phrase in english. "I gave him a book" "He asked me a question".

Cases

The donor takes on the Ergative case, Theme takes the accusative case and Recipient takes on postpositional case.

Nouns

For more information on nouns see Umbrean/Nouns

Declension

Umbrean nouns are declined according to 4 things, Gender (Magical, Living, Articial and Non-moving), Case (Intransitive, Ergative, Accusative And Postpositional), State (Indefinate, Definate, Constructive) and Number (Plural, Singular and Paucal).

Suffixes are used to mark the declension and the declension paradigms differs mostly by vowels and are hence named after the 3 main vowels that are changed within the given paradigm.


Case Desription:
Ergative Ref The grammatical case that identifies the subject of a transitive verb in ergative-absolutive languages
Accusative Acc The grammatical case used to mark the direct object of an transitive verb
Intransitive Int The grammatical case used in some languages to mark the subject of an transitive verb
Postpositional Pst The grammatical case primarely used for postpositional phrases
Name Amount
Singular 1
Paucal 2-6
Plural 6<
General declension
State→ Indef. Def. Const.
Number→
Case↓
Sg. Pc. Pl. Sg. Pc. Pl. Sg. Pc. Pl.
Int -V -V -Vv -Vlw -Vll -Vvjl -Vtl -Vtl -Vtl
Erg -Vss -Vsw -Vsw -Vsl -Vzwlj -Vlz -Vtsw -Vdzw -Vsswëtl
Acc -Vm -Vmjy -Vnw -Vlwmj -Vljym -Vnl -Vtlom -Vmlw -Vsn
Pst -Vts -Vdzm -Vdzv -Vtsl -Vdzl -Vdzv -Vttw -Vtlö -Vtwlj


Declensions
Dec Gender
Mag Liv Art Non
1st a-ee-u y-o-öö ee-i-ë ü-uu-e
2nd ii-o-e o-a-üü
3rd y-uu-o

See Examples

Possession

For more information on Possession see Umbrean/Possession

In umbrean the possession of something differ on wether it is alienable or inalienable possession.

Alienable possession refer to a possession that can change in the course of time, a coin can switch owners over time and hence is alienable. In alienable possession the noun that is possessed, the coin in "my coin" is put into construct state while the possessor, me/my, is in ordinary indefinate state, both having the same case to match their grammatical position.

Inalienable possession refer to possession that is static through time, your arm will always be your arm, parents will always be parents even if disowned. In this case both are in indefiniate state but the same case.

In both cases the possessed comes after the possessor in the word order.

See Examples

Adjective

Declension

Base form
Singular Paucal Plural
Mag Liv Art Non Mag/Liv Art/Non
Int -t -s -tt -t -t -d -dz
Erg -sj -s -sj -ssw -ssw -ts -dz
Acc -mj -m -m -m -mm -mm -mj
Pst -tsw -tsw -tt -sw -tsj -tsj -ssw

See Examples

Predicate

Postposition

For more information on Postpositions see Umbrean/Postpositions

Being a head final language the Umbrean language utilizes postpositions rather than prepositions and adpositional phrases would come before the noun. "On the table" would be said as"The table on" and a noun phrase like "The cat on the table" is said "The table on the cat", in an essence the opposite of english. Similar to greek and other languages the case of the noun that is within its phrase affects often the acctual meaning of the postposition.

Postpositions are inflected according to Gender and Case of the noun within its phrase, if it is first or second person it is inflected according to the living gender.

If the postposition does not get an inflection on it, it is a particle used for the circumtational voice for verbs.

Inflection

Sg Pc Pl
3rd Mag -a -ëssw -eŋj
Liv
Art -y -os
Non -o
2nd -itw -osw -enw
1st -itj -osj -ymj

See Examples

Word Order

Deixis, Proforms & Anaphora

Umbrean Deixis[*], anaphora or pro-forms, are numerous and quite sensitive to alot of grammar and pragmatic situations.

Determiner[*]: They occure before the noun and refers to the noun somehow. "This hat" "That hat" "Some hats"

Demonstratives: These are diectic in their nature, refers to a noun by context. "This hat" "That hat" "yon hat" "This is fun" "That was fun"

Quantifiers: These refer to most often an unfixed quantity, with the exception of "All" or "no", "All men" "no men" "Some men" "few men"

Quantifiers
Quantifier English
Elective Any
Whichever
Existensial Some
Universal All
Every
Most Most
Negative No
None
Collective as a group
Togather
Distrubutive Each individually
Each
Each on their own


Discourse

Discourse Deixis are used to refer to entire segments of an utterence or even the utterence itself. Examples, "This is fun", "That way of looking at it is wrong"

  • Mlje: That, a segment that was mentioned prior to now
  • Mle: This, Refers to the utterence itself
  • Mlwe: This, refers to a segment that is about to be uttered or will be in a short time

Mlwe may be used to mark objects, like a demonstratives, that one is about to explain. "Walking I saw this dog"

Interrogative

Interogative forms are used to ask for questions. While english makes no distinction between Determiner form, what animal ate those?, and Pro-noun form, What fell on him?, Umbrean does and heavily so.

Interrogative Determiner

These are the determiner forms, Magical and Living gender, along with Artificial and Non-moving, have identical forms within their own gender due and it changes according to number and case.

Interrogative Determiners
Mag / Liv Art / Non
Number→
Case↓
sg. pc. pl. sg. pc. pl.
Int kwiv kwav kwëëv gjiv gjav gjëëv
Erg kwizj kwazj kwëëzj gjizj gjazj gjëëzj
Acc kwim kwam kwëëm gjim gjam gjëëm
Pst kwits kwats kwëëts gjits gjats gjëëts

Interogative Pronouns

The pronouns are similar to english with a few addition, it distinguishes between an item, a living thing, an animal and a sapient being.

Interrogative pronouns
What thing?
Number→
Case↓
sg. pc. pl.
Int zo zjo zwa
Erg zos zjos zwas
Acc zom zjom zwam
Pst zot zjot zwat
What Person? Who?
Number→
Case↓
sg. pc. pl.
Int dzëë dzjëë dzwëë
Erg dzëës dzjëës dzwëës
Acc dzëëm dzjëëm dzwëëm
Pst dzëët dzjëët dzwëët
What Animal?
Number→
Case↓
sg. pc. pl.
Int ta tja twa
Erg tas tjas twas
Acc tam tjam twam
Pst tat tjat twat
What living thing?
Number→
Case↓
sg. pc. pl.
Int fla flja flwa
Erg flas fljas flwas
Acc flam fljam flwam
Pst flat fljat flwat

There is a hierarchy of choice which you ask for depending on level of knowledge, the higher it is in the hierarchy the more specific it must be that kind of entity.

High > Person > Animal > Living > Thing > Low

Demonstratives

Demonstratives are highly contextual. They refer to a specific entity of some sort that is deduced from what is said and done around.

  • This: Refers to an entity close to the speaker
  • That: Refers to an entity close to the listener
  • Yon: Refers to an entity neither close to the speaker nor listener

Demonstratives Determiner

Demonstrative Determiner
mag - liv - art - non
mag - liv - art - non
Case↓ This That Yon
Sg. Pc. Pl. Sg. Pc. Pl. Sg. Pc. Pl.
Int tlet
tlež
tlezj
tledj
tljëv
tlwëv
tliizz zzliit
zzliž
zzliizj
zzliidj
tslyt
tslyž
tslyzj
tslydj
Erg tletsw
tležžw
tlezzw
tledzw
tljëz
tlwëz
tliizw zzliitsw
zzliižžw
zzliizzw
zzliidzw
tslytsw
tslyžžw
tslyzzw
tslydzw
Acc tlesn
tležwn
tlezjn
tlezn
tljëvm
tlwëvm
tliizn zzliisn
zzliižwn
zzliizjn
zzliizn
tslysn
tslyžwn
tslyzjn
tslyzn
Pst tletsw
tledžw
tledzw
tledzw
tljëdw
tlwëdw
tliidz zzliitsw
zzliidžw
zzliidzw
zzliidzw
tslytsw
tslydžw
tslydzw
tslydzw
Affection

Determiners don't only refer to physical distance but can refer to emotional distance.

  • This: Refers to an entity the speaker is very affectionate toward, children, close family, good friends typicly. May include things one has laboured for long and developed emotional attatchment to.
  • That: Refers to an entity the speaker is neutral toward. Such Possessions, bought items, distant family members, general people.
  • Yon: Refers to an entity the speaker is emotional distant to or even disdain, people one dislike or items of bad association.


Definiteness

Nouns can occure definite and indefinite form with a determiner with slight meaning

Definite Indefinete
This The thing close to me that can be seen or whichs location is well known The thing that is somewhere near me but cannot be seen by you or both of us
That The thing close to you that can be seen or whichs location is well known The thing that is somewhere near you but cannot be seen by me or both of us
Yon The thing far from us that can be seen or whichs location is well known The thing that is far from us and beyond sight or The thing that is somewhere around and cannot be seen by us

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns
mag - liv - art - non
mag - liv - art - non
This That Yon
Number→
Case↓
sg. pc. pl. sg. pc. pl. sg. pc. pl.
Int lmet
lmežw
lmezj
lmedw
lmeeddj
lmeevj
llmjy šwllët
šwllëžw
šwllëzj
šwllëdw
šwlladdj
šwllavj
šwly džlat
džlažw
džlazj
džladw
džljeeddj
džljeevj
džlwi
Erg lmets
lmež
lmezz
lmedz
lmeedzj
lmeevz
lmjys šwllëts
šwllëž
šwllëzz
šwllëdz
šwlladzj
šwllavz
šwlys džlats
džlaž
džlazz
džladz
džljeedzj
džljeevz
džlwis
Acc lmesn
lmevm
lmezjm
lmezn
lmeezzjn
lmeevmj
lmjym šwllësn
šwllëvm
šwllëzjm
šwllëzn
šwllazzjn
šwllavmj
šwlym džlasn
džlavm
džlazjm
džlazn
džljeezzjn
džljeevmj
džlwim
Pst lmetw
lmedž
lmedz
lmedzw
lmeedw
lmeedvj
lmjyts šwllëtw
šwllëdž
šwllëdz
šwllëdzw
šwlladw
šwlladvj
šwlyts džlatw
džladž
džladz
džladzw
džljeedw
džljeedvj
džlwidts

Compound demonstratives

There exist also compound demonstratives, they are composed of demonstrative pronoun + postposition. Key thing to remember is that the demonstrative pronoun takes the gender of the noun it acts upon, wether determiner or pronoun, and the postposition takes the same gender, but the demonstrative pronoun takes the neccisery case marking of the postposition

Determiner Demonstrative
Pronoun
Postposition

This only expands the determiners and not the pronouns except a few handful cases

See Examples

Gender mixture

Umbrean does not allow gender mix in the singular forms ever. One cannot say like "this hat and dog" to mean this for both the dog and the hat as they are different genders. In paucal magic and livinng can be used togather and artificial and non-moving can be togather, but those two groups cannot be used togather. In plural gender matters none and it can mix togather.

The gender of the deixis is picked by the closest word or the one wishes to focus on more.

Quantifiers

Determiner

Personal Pronouns

Umbrean pronouns makes distinctions according to the 5 cases, 3 numbers, 4 genders, T-V[*], Collective vs Distributive and Inclusive vs exclusive.

Cases: Intransitive, Ergative, Accusative, Postpositional and Reflexive

Numbers: Singular, Paucal and Plural, Same number must be used as the noun that it replaces.

Genders: The genders are noticible only in third person where the pronoun with a gender matching the noun it replaces must be used.

T-V: This distinction is a politeness distinction that only occures in second person, One is polite that is used to be polite or people of higher rank while the other is impolite, lower ranking or someone you are close to.

Coll vs Distr: This distinction only occures in Paucal and Plural and tells if the group did it individually (Distributive) or as a group (Collective). "The five of us ate 3 kg of apples togather" (No more than 3 kg was used, Collective) vs "The five of us ate 3 kg of apples each" (A grand total of 15 kg of apples were eaten then, Distributive)

Inclusive vs Exclusive: Occures only in first person paucal and plural where it distinguisher if the one spoken to, second person, is included (Inclusive) or not (Eclusive)

Case Intransitive Ergative Accusative Postpositional
sg. pc. pl. sg. pc. pl. sg. pc. pl. sg. pc. pl.
coll. distr. coll. distr. coll. distr. coll. distr. coll. distr. coll. distr. coll. distr. coll. distr.
1st inc. tswë dže džle dzjü dzjlü tšees dzes dzles džliis džlwiis tsümj džüm džlüm dzjëëm dzjlëëm tswit džot džlot dzjiit dzjlwiit
exc. džettj džlettj dzjüttj dzjlüttj dzetsj dzletsj dzliitsj dzlwiitsj džüsjm džlüsjm džëësjm džlëësjm džottj džlottj džiittj džlwiittj
2nd Common vjuu vljuu blü füss vjuus vljuus büss büss füm vjuum vljuum büm büm füt vjutt vljutt büt blüt
Respect dy tju tjlu tšwa tšwla dys tjus tjlus tšwas tšwlas dym tjum tjlum tšwam tšwlam ddy twutj tlutj tšwat tšwlat
3rd Object Animal
Magical tsjaš dzwaš dzwlaš džwaš džwlaš tsjasj dzwasj dzwlasj džwasj džwlasj tsjašm dzwašm dzwlašm džwašm džwlašm tsjašt dzwašt dzwlašt džwašt džwlašt
Living tsjaf dzwaf dzwlaf džwaf džwlaf tsjafs dzwafs dzwlafs džwafs džwlafs tsjafm dzwafm dzwlafm džwafm džwlafm tsjafp dzwafp dzwlafp džwafp džwlafp
Artificial tsjavj dzwavj dzwlavj džwavj džwlavj tsjavjz dzwavjz dzwlavjz džwavjz džwlavjz tsjavjm dzwavjm dzwlavjm džwavjm džwlavjm tsjavjd dzwavjd dzwlavjd džwavjd džwlavjd
Non-Move tsjaz dzwaz dzwlaz džwaz džwlaz tsjass dzwass dzwlass džwass džwlass tsjazm dzwazm dzwlazm džwazm džwlazm tsjazd dzwazd dzwlazd džwazd džwlazd
Person General ŋŋo ŋii ŋlii ŋŋa ŋŋla ŋŋos ŋiis ŋliis ŋŋas ŋŋlas ŋŋom ŋiim ŋliim ŋŋam ŋŋlam ŋŋot ŋiit ŋliit ŋŋat ŋŋlat
Male no nii nlii nna nnla nos niis nliis nnas nnlas nom niim nliim nnam nnlam not nii nliit nnat nnlat
Female mo mii mlii mma mla mos miis mliis mmas mlas mom miim mliim mmam mlam mot miit mliit mmat mlat
Sick one
General
First person inclusive dual
Case Pro-noun
Int
Erg
Acc
Pst

abdefgǧhijklmnŋñoprsštstuvyzžüëö

Conditional Sentence

For more information on Conditional Sentence see Umbrean/Conditional sentence


Generalizations Conditional sentences expresses factual things that always occur, "If water is heated to 10 degrees it boils" and the If can be replaced with "when" or "whenever".

Hypothetical Conditional sentence expresses a hypothetical situation that could be possible

Factual Conditional sentence states it as factual that the result will occur if condition is meet. It may also be used to express that if the condition had been meet result should also have occurred but didn't.

Contra-factual sentence expresses a situation against known facts.

Kind Condition Result
Tempus Mood Modality Tempus Mood Modality
Generalizations Causum Indicative Base Plerum Indicative Base
Hypothetical Any but H.Causum, Causum
Consequenta, F.Consequenta
Subjunctive Base Futurm Consequenta Optative Abilative
Factual Likely Causum Indicative Base Futurm Consequenta Optative Gerundive
Unlikely Causum Indicative Abilative Futurm Consequenta Subjunctive Hypothetical
Contra-Factual Historal Causum Subjunctive Base Consequentum Subjunctive Hypothetical

Accusative Absolute

Accusative Absolute is similar to latins Ablative Absolute[*], a participle plus a noun describing things around the verb. It always occure in the begining before the subject or agent.

See Examples

Modality

For more information on Modality see Umbrean/Modality


Copula Usage

There exist technicly no copula in umbrean, they have other methods of achiving it.

Noun Predicate

Example: He is an idiot

This is achived by putting the noun into intransitive construction state with the proper number vowel and then use it as an ordinary verb.

Adjectives for noun predicates, "He is a green dog", is used like an adjective predicate present adverbial participle.

Relative clause for noun predicates, "He is the man that I saw yesterday", is used adverbial participle.


See Examples

Adpositional Predicate

Example: We are with him

Adpositional predicates are constructed by taking the adposition and add the proper Circumfix and then use it as a verb where the object that was being modified by it is the agent while the object in the adpositional phrase is treated as an ordinary object. the ë in the ëlj- prefix is ommited if the postposition begins with a vowel.

Case Prefix
Int (ë)lj- -(i)f1
Erg (ë)lj- -(o)s1
Acc (ë)lj- -(a)m1
Pst (ë)lj- -(v)2
  • 1: Vowels can be excluded if phonotactics allows it
  • 2: is only used if it ends in a vowel

See Examples

Locative Predicate

Example: We are at the store

See Adpositional Predicate


Adjectival Predicate

Example: We are blue

Adjectival predicates are achived through using the adjective as a verb all on its own and have it declined according to the noun.

See Examples

Existential

Example: I am


tswümj: v.t.a

See Examples

Question

Polarity questions

Polarity

Content Question

Questions are formed by inverting the position of the Agent and the Object if its transitive, otherwise it remains the same with the Subject. The question word and particles does the rest to signify it is a question.

Yes or no question

A particle is placed before the part one desires to place emphesis on or behidn the verb if no emphesis is desired

Yes: Swom

No: Zy


General Question

General questions uses no particle and you simply uses the question word in their appropiate spot, no Fronting[*]

Dictionary

See a verb list here

Open or Closed

Class Open/Closed
Adjectives Open
Nouns Open
Pro-nouns Closed
Postpositions Open
Pro-Forms Closed
Verbs Open

Polarity

A common way to negate or inverse a words meaning is to change the polarity vowel within it to its opposite, though which vowel is the polarity vowel is individual to each word.

Short vowel Long vowel
+
Positive
-
Negative
+
Positive
-
Negative
a ii aa a
e üü ee y
i u ii uu
o ë oo e
u aa uu a
y ëë yy ii
ü i üü ee
ë ö ëë u
ö öö öö ë

Direction

Directions are divided on from whos perspective it is, first, second or third person.

Directions
Person
First Second Third
Right Pjodwia Amodwia Migna
Left Bjana Bjuma Bfignina
Up [[Contionary:|]] [[Contionary:|]] [[Contionary:|]]
Down [[Contionary:|]] [[Contionary:|]] [[Contionary:|]]
Forward [[Contionary:|]] [[Contionary:|]] [[Contionary:|]]
Backward [[Contionary:|]] [[Contionary:|]] [[Contionary:|]]

Verbs of motion

Motion
By own means By animal By Machine By Magic
Slow Medium Fast Slow Medium Fast
Land Travel Toward Ot
(Walk toward)

(Jog toward)

(Run toward)

(Ride/Walk toward)

(Ride/Trott toward)

(Ride/Gallop toward)
Ëššw
(Drive toward)
Away From Sitw
(Walk away from)

(Jog away from)

(Run away from)

(Ride/Walk away from )

(Ride/Trott away from )

(Ride/Gallop away from )

(Drive away from)
In Mëǧ
(Walk into)

(Jog into)

(Run into)

(Ride/Walk into)

(Ride/Trott into)

(Ride/Gallop into)

(Drive into )
Out
(Walk out of)

(Jog out of)

(Run out of)

(Ride/Walk out of)

(Ride/Trott out of)

(Ride/Gallop out of)

(Drive out of )
Across
(Walk across)

(Jog across)

(Run across)

(Ride/Walk across)

(Ride/Trott across)

(Ride/Gallop across)

(Drive across)
Arrival
(Walk and arrive at)

(Jog and arrive at)

(Run and arrive at)

(Ride/Walk and arrive at)

(Ride/Trott and arrive at)

(Ride/Gallop and arrive at)

(Drive and arrive at)
Multi
Directional

(Walk around)

(Jog around)

(Run around)

(Ride/Walk around)

(Ride/Trott around)

(Ride/Gallop around)

(Drive around)
Climb Upward
(Climb upward)

(Climb upward while
riding an animal
)

(Climb upward while
using a machine
)
Downward
(Climb down)

(Climb down while
riding an animal
)

(Climb down while
using a machine
)
Along
(Climb along the side)

(Climb along the side while
riding an animal
)

(Climb along the side while
using a machine
)
Water In water
(Swim)
Toward
(Swim toward)
(Swim fast toward)
(Swim toward with
an animal
)
(Swim fast toward with
an animal
)

(Swim toward with
an machine
)
Away from
(Swim away from)
(Swim fast away from)
(Swim away from with
an animal
)
(Swim fast away from with
an animal
)

(Swim away from with
an machine
)
Upward
(Swim up)

(Swim up with
an animal

(Swim up with
an machine
)
Downward
(Dive)

(Dive with
an animal
)

(Dive with
an machine
)
On water
(Sail)
Toward Ø
Away from
Float Toward
(Float aimlessly)
Away from
Air Fly
Float

Kinship

Kinship
Grandmother Grandfather Grandmother Grandfather
 
 
 
Uncles Wife Uncle Uncles Wife Uncle Uncles Wife Uncle Aunts husband Aunt Aunts husband Aunt Aunts husband Aunt Kjymmösj
(Father)
Kjynnösj
(Mother)
Uncles Wife Uncle Uncles Wife Uncle Uncles Wife Uncle Aunts husband Aunt Aunts husband Aunt Aunts husband Aunt
 
 
 
Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin Male Cousin Female Cousin
 
 
Twin Sisters Husband Twin Sister Little Sisters Husband Little Sister Big Sisters Huband Big Sister Wife Self Husband Big Brother  Big Brothers Wife Little Brother Little Brothers Wife Twin Brother Twin Brothers Wife
 
 
 
Niece Nephew Niece Nephew Niece Nephew Son Daughter Son Daughter Niece Nephew Niece Nephew Niece Nephew

Derivation

To Noun

To Adjective

To Verb

Numbers

Number Cardinal Ordinal Fractal Collective Distributive Multiple Additional Subtractal Power Root
English Umbrean English Umbrean English Umbrean English Umbrean English Umbrean English Umbrean English Umbrean English Umbrean English Umbrean English Umbrean
0 Zero Osŋ Zeroth One Zeroth All Zero Zero
1 One First Whole All One One
2 Two Ëëzw Second Half All Two Two
3 Three Yvv Third One Third All Three Three
4 Four ets Fourth One Fourth Four
5 Five ellts Fifth One Fifth Five
6 Six atsm Sixth One Sixth Six
7 Seven ydj Seventh One Seventh Seven
8 Eight dël Eighth One Eighth Eight
9 Nine atlit Nineth One Nineth Nine
10 Ten ekkim Tenth One Tenth Ten
11 Eleven slletw Eleventh One Eleventh Eleven
12 potens
Potense 12^x Cardinal Ordinal Fractal Collective Distributive Multiple Additional Subtractal Power Root
Suffix Word Suffix Word Suffix Word Suffix Word Suffix Word Suffix Word Suffix Word Suffix Word Suffix Word Suffix Word
1 12 (10) -üt / -tl ütl
2 144 (100)
4 20736 (10000)
8 429981696 (100000000)

Numbers in umbrean has to agree by gender to the noun and changes wether it is ordinal, cardinal, fractal or multiple

  • Cardinal: Normal number, One, Two, Three, Four, Five
  • Ordinal: in order, First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth
  • Fractal: Division, Half, One third, One fourth, one fifth
  • Multiple: Multiple of a number, Twice, Trice, Four times, Five times
  • Additional: Plus it. Plus one, plus two, plus three, plus four, plus five
  • Subtractional: Minus it, Minus one, minus two, minus three, minus four, minus five
  • Collective: Counting as a single unit, All four, All five
  • Distributive: Singly, Twicly, answers "how many at a time?)
  • Power: to the nth power
  • Root: the nth root of something

Rational Numbers

To express a rational like "Two and two thirds" one would do this for the general "n and p q's" (n+p/q)

n and p q's
n + 1 p q
Ordinal Multiple Fractal

Compound words

Compound words are formed by taking the original stem, lacking grammatical genders, conjugations or declensions.

Umbrean has a fondness of Portmanteau[*] in compounding.

)
Class Structure
Verb-Verb Modifying-Head
Noun-Verb Object-Verb
Noun-Noun Modifying-Head
Adjective-Noun
Postposition-Verb
)
Type English Umbrean Parts
Verb-Verb
Noun-Verb
Adjective-Noun
Postposition-Verb

Word Classes

While english division here is shown the umbrean language divides its own words a bit differently

  • Nouns ()
    • Items, objects, concepts and ideas
  • Adjectives ()

Sentence Order

Intransitive
Noun
Phrase
Postpositional
Phrase
Supine
Phrase
Verb
phrase
Intransitive
case
Transitive
Noun
Phrase
Noun
Phrase
Postpositional
Phrase
Supine
Phrase
Verb
phrase
Ergative
case
Accusative
case
Ditransitive
Noun
Phrase
Noun
Phrase
Postpositional
Phrase
Supine
Phrase
Verb
phrase
Noun
Phrase
Ergative
case
Accusative
case
Postpositional
case


Noun Phrase
Postpositional
Clause
Number Determiner Adjective Relative
Clause
Noun
Noun
Phrase
Noun
Phrase
Postpositional
Phrase
Supine
Phrase
Verbgerund Noun
Phrase
Ergative
case
Accusative
case
Postpositional
case
Infinitive


Relative Phrase
Noun
Phrase
Noun
Phrase
Postpositional
Phrase
Supine
Phrase
Verbparticiple Noun
Phrase
Ergative
case
Accusative
case
Postpositional
case


Postpositional
Phrase
Noun
Phrase
Postpostition