User:Ashucky/Sketches/Laefevia

From Linguifex
Jump to: navigation, search

Template:Infobox Laefevia

Laefevia, (Template:IPAc-en or Template:IPAc-en; Laefêvëši: Laefêvitti Template:IPA-qlf), is a nation on Template:Eshar, located on the continent of Miraria. Part of the country leis on the Isthmus of Meliku on the Šarkunen peninsula. Laefevia borders on several countries; on land it borders on Edievia, Mereland, Nithalosia, Riyana, and Yerlan; and on sea it borders on Ohkoria and Xynderland. The country is among the most technologically advanced countries, and ranks as one of the richest countries on Ešgal. Laefevia is also a member of the Šarkunen cultural and historical region, and is a member of the Union of Šarkunen Nations (UŠN), along with other Šarkunen countries. As a result of its history and location, there are more than ten languages spoken in Laefevia, six of which are recognised regional languages - thus multilingualism is a major part of the education system, and most Laefevians are fluent in at least three languages.

Etymology

The native name of the country, Laefêvitti, is composed of two parts: the stem laefêv(i)- and the suffix -(i)tti. The suffix is used to indicate the name of a country, so it can be translated as “country” or “land” (the actual Laefevian words are šaíz and tjêr, respectively, and it is plausible that the suffix is derived from the latter). The first part of the name, laefêv(i)- is a compound by itself, namely from the word illáef “element” and [to come soon lol gotta find the notes]

History

Prehistory

The area of present-day Laefevia has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with central Laefevia (Irrésken Province) being the most important part, thanks to its low elevation, flat area and abundance of water (lakes and rivers). Evidence from excavations indicates that nomadic modern human hunter-gatherers settled in central Laefevia around 110,000 years ago.

Agricultural revolution

Around 9,000 years ago (approximately 7,000 BCE), the cultures living on the Greenwater Plain (Laefêvëši: Skauáili igés) along the rivers and lakes in central Laefevia transitioned from a hunter-gatherer society to an agricultural society - an event generally referred to as the Šarkunen Agricultural Revolution. From here on, agriculture slowly spread throughout the Šarkunen Peninsula and other nearby areas in Miraria. The first domesticated plants were emmer, einkorn, and barley.

First cultures

File:Vihtibili pottery.jpg
A red pot from the Vîhtib culture.

The 8th millennium BCE is the time when the first permanent settlements appeared on the Greenwater Plain. Several distinct cultures seem to have been present on the plain between approximately 7,500 BCE and 6,000 BCE. The pottery excavated at various sites throughout the plain comes in a variety of different coloured patterns, although the overall style is generally the same or similar, which possibly indicates a larger macro-culture that diversified into several smaller cultures. The macro-culture is often referred to as the Vîhtib culture (Laefêvëši: Vîhtibili jibíhd).

A smaller climate change seems to have taken place during the 6th millennium, consisting of two phases. The first phase is characterised by reduced rainfall between 6,000 BCE and 5,400 BCE. During this period, several long-lasting droughts took place, and the settlements moved closer to the rivers and lakes. Many settlements farther away from the main sources of water were abandoned, and remnants of possible early small-scale irrigation systems have been discovered as well. The overall population dwindled, and pottery remnants became scarce.

The second phase began sometime between 5,400 BCE and 5,350 BCE, and ended around 5000 BCE. It is characterised by a quick reversal of the climate conditions in the region; the persistent dry climate quickly became wetter as more rain started to fall in the Greenwater Plain and the surrounding areas. Since the weather conditions changed so rapidly over a geologically short period of time, the population decreased even further. This is attributed to increased rainfall, which caused crops to fail. Settlements moved farther away from the rivers, which may have flooded up to several times per year, thus reducing the habitability in the immediate vicinity of the rivers. Another cause for the decrease of the population can also be attributed to disease. Analyses of bones excavated from the graves around permanent settlements indicate shorter lifespan and an increase of various chronic diseases. Several communities seem to have practically disappeared, and pottery fragments became almost non-existent by the end of the 6th millennium.

File:Asadra pottery.jpg
A plate from the Asádra culture.

Once the climate became stable again, agriculture resumed and by 4,900 BCE the population mostly recovered. Around the same time, a new pottery style emerged, which is attributed to a new culture, as well as extensive cultivation of millet. The culture is referred to as the Asádra culture (Laefêvëši: Asádraili jubíhd), after the city of Asádra where it was first discovered. The northern Greenwater Plain, along the southern coast of Lake Altái (Laefêvëši: Altáili jêrs), is believed to be the origin of this culture, which gradually spread southward and by at least 4,600 BCE, the culture dominated the plain.

File:Yttysk pottery.jpg
Distinctly painted pottery jug from the Yttýsk culture.

Distinctly painted pottery appeared along the western coast of Lake Yttýsk (Laefêvëši: Yttýskili jêrs) in the Munkéd Plain (Laefêvëši: Munkédili igés) around 3,900 BCE, belonging to the Yttýsk culture (Laefêvëši: Yttýskili jubíhd). The distinct style of its pottery quickly spread throughout the plain, becoming the most important culture in the plain within a century or two. Additionally, Yttýsk pottery has been found in sites belonging to the Asádra culture, and vice versa, indicating a well-developed trade between the two cultures.

Both cultures came to an end sometime between 3,400 and 3,200 BCE. Pottery items from both cultures dropped significantly, and the cause of that is currently unknown. Analyses of lakebed sediments from the Greenwater Plain and the Munkéd Plain show pollen changes, indicating a possible climate change affecting the areas. Many settlements show sings of fire, and appear to be have become abandoned after that. A well-supported theory currently is that the changes were caused by the arrival of a people or peoples from Miraria's inland, which was possibly triggered by climate change. Another competing theory is that with the growing number of permanent settlements in the plains, along with a slight shift to a drier climate, some of the cultures began attacking other nearby cultures for resources, which escalated and spread throughout the region. A third theory is currently on the rise, which claims that the changes were caused by both internal strife between the settlements and arrival of a people from north-east.

Nonetheless, the inhabitants of the plains quickly recovered, and by 3,100 BCE, new kinds of pottery emerged, as well as first items made of bronze.

Early city-states

Pre-dynastic period

Early Dynastic period

Old Dynastic period

Middle Dynastic period

Late Dynastic period

Republic of Laefevia

Meritocracy of Laefevia

Modern history

Geography

Geology

Lakes and rives

File:Laefevian Hydronymy 01.png
Major lakes in Laefevia, along with names of the surrounding seas and bays.

Laefevia has a fair number of big lakes. The biggest lake is Lake Yttýsk (Yttýskili jêrs), not counting Lake Altái (Altáili jêrs) since it is shared with Mereland. Three other lakes are shared with Riyana: Lake Kíggičin (Kíggičinli jêrs), Lake Tônčin (Tônčinili jêrs), and Lake Peícus (Peícusili jêrs). Most of the lakes are located in the Greenwater Plain (Skauáili igés) and the Munkéd Plain (Munkédili igés).

Climate

The climate of Laefevia is diverse since the country is rather stretched. It ranges from warm sub-Mediterranean climate along the coasts of the Várta Sea and Árkilta Sea, and oceanic in western Laefevia, to continental in the majority of the continental part of the country, with mountain climate in highly elevated areas.

Biodiversity

Politics

Government

File:Aurolind Empress.jpg
Aurôlind Êriasont, the Laefevian empress.

Laefevia is a constitutional monarchy with the empress Aurôlind Êriasont (full name: Aurôlind Êriasont Saltíndirsent Ráskirinirsent Laefêvittinli (pronounced: Template:IPA-qlf)) as the head of the state. The role of the monarch (either an empress or an emperor) is mostly limited to ceremonial and representative functions, however, the monarch still has the power of veto when it comes to passing bills.

[[File:{{{1}}}]]
[[File:{{{2}}}]] [[File:{{{1}}}]]
[[File:{{{2}}}]]

The government is known as the Imperial Triad (Laefêvëši: Šáutrili ljánda), consisting of two main parts (discussed below).

Legislative power is vested in the bicameral Imperial Dyad (Laefêvëši: Šáutrili vránda. The Imperial Dyad consists of two chambers: Imperial Grand Council (IGC) (Laefêvëši: Šáutrili wámlos) and Imperial Wise Council (IWS) (Laefêvëši: Šáutrili ýmlos). The IGC consists of 40 people; 36 of which are elected representatives from each province (four per province), they are known as Provincial Representatives, and the other 4 people are called Perspectivists, who are tasked with providing a different point of view to any suggestion brought forward by the Provincial Representatives. The IWS consists of a variety of academics and experts from various fields, who provide the IGC with advice and recommendations regarding any proposed bills. Before a bill is passed, it needs to be approved by both councils.

File:Hwemni Lhathor.jpg
Archchancellor Hwemni Lathor.

Executive power is exercised by the Imperial Monad (Laefêvëši: Šáutrili sánda), which consists of the Imperial High Council (IHC) (Laefêvëši: Šáutrili dǿmlos), chaired by the empress, along with four chancellors, the latter having been elected from the Imperial Dyad councils, and known as the Grand Chancellors and the Wise Chancellors. Part of the IHC is also the Imperial Cabinet Council (ICC), which consists of ministers, who are appointed by the IHC from the members of the IWS. The IHC also has the final say in legislature - any bill, after being approves by the Imperial Dyad, is sent to the IHC, reviewed by it and then either approved or denied. The final decision is then upon the monarch, who needs to sign the bill for it to take effect. If the monarch does not agree with the bill, despite having been approved by the rest of the Imperial Triad, the monarch can veto the bill.

Laefevia is also one of the few meritocracies in the world. By that, all government positions, appointments and responsibilities are given based on demonstrated talent. The meritocratic power is exercised by the Imperial Merited Council (IMC). The IMC approves the candidates who want to become members of the IGC, and reviews applications of the candidates who want to become members of the IWC and later selects and appoints new members. The IMC is chaired by an elected arch-chancellor.

Laefevia is also a social democracy, providing free and universal welfare, healthcare and eduction.

Administrative divisions

[[File:{{{1}}}]]
[[File:{{{2}}}]]

Laefevia is divided into provinces (Laefêvëši: wíhd Template:IPA-qlf, plural: wída Template:IPA-qlf, which are further divided into prefectures (nýkset Template:IPA-qlf, plural nýkseta Template:IPA-qlf), these to counties, and further into municipalities and localities.

There are nine provinces, which generally correspond to historical kingdoms. There is a total of 65 prefectures. Each province is composed of a different number of prefectures, the lowest is two prefectures per province and the highest is 17 prefectures per province.

Laefevian provinces and prefectures
Provinces Number of
prefectures
Laefevian name Native name Native script
Ajlísken 6
Gaþínnel Gathrínel 6
Gúttisel Gutiskland 4
Irrésken 17
Ixéssem Wiḫedil Irǧerenti وخدل ئرغرنت 7
Sáelkem Saitlahör 사잍짜헐 8
Séttokem Settakes 2
Taérinel Tainirenda たいにれんだ 4
Unnésken 11

Foreign relations

Laefevia upholds a defence-only policy towards conflict, meaning it holds neutral relations with almost all countries and only acts with conflict in response to a necessity for defence.

Union of Šarkunen Nations

Laefevia is one of founding nations of the Union of Šarkunen Nations (UŠN) (Laefêvëši: Šárkaerittili máenda Template:IPA-qlf), along with Edievia, Nithalosia, Riyana, and Xynderland. The UŠN presently consists of other members as well, and Laefevia maintains peaceful and friendly relations with all member states.

Travelling abroad

[[File:{{{1}}}]]
[[File:{{{2}}}]] As per the policies of the UŠN, travelling to and from its member states is free and requires only a valid national ID card. This includes the following states: Edievia, Lesidea, Nithalosia, Ohkoria, Riyana, and Xynderland.

Citizens of Yoan Aruhu are allowed to enter Laefevia with only a valid passport. Citizens of the Fals Empire can enter the country with a passport, however, a Visa is required after 90 days. Similarly, citizens of Achiyitqana need a Visa after 70 days. The same applies to Laefevian citizens travelling to these two countries as well.

The citizens of Requi (which is only partially recognised by Laefevia) and the citizens of the Great Kaisen Empire cannot obtain pre-applied Visas before entry to Laefevia; instead, they need to apply for one at the border when entering the country. Due to the economic and political circumstances of the aforementioned countries, a medical examination is required. Should the examination produce negative results, Visas will be automatically denied. If the medical examination produces positive results, applicants may proceed with their Visa application. If an applicant cannot produce a valid identity document from their home country, they will be denied Visa as well. Citizens of Requi may therefore be granted a 7-day Visa (valid from and including the day of entry), and citizens of the Great Kaisen Empire may be granted a 15-day Visa (valid from and including the day of entry).

Citizens from all other countries not mentioned beforehand are required to have a pre-applied Visa, which is valid for 30 days (valid from and including the day of entry). Such Visas expire within one year from the day of application.

Military

Laefevia has a small army of highly-skilled professionals for defensive purposes only.

Economy

Time zones

File:Laefevian Timezones.png
Laefevian time zones: EŠT/VLJ is blue, CŠT/HLJ is green, and WŠT/SLJ is yellow.

Laefevia stretches through three times zones, which follow the provincial borders.

Time zones of Laefevia
International name Local name SCT offset Provinces
Time zone Abbreviation Time zone Abbreviation
Eastern Šarkunen Time EŠT or EST Vételaefêvili ját VLJ +1 Gútissel, Ixéssem
Central Šarkunen Time CŠT or CST Héjelaefêvili ját HLJ +0 Ajlísken, Gaþínnel, Irrésken, Unnésken
Western Šarkunen Time WŠT or WST Sálelaefêvili ját SLJ -1 Sáelkem, Séttokem, Taérinel

The local names of the time zones translate as "Eastern Laefevian Time", "Central Laefevian Time", and "Western Laefevian Time".

The prime meridian, according to which the international time zones, or the Sahar Coördinated Time, have been calculated, runs through Okállea, the capital of the Gaþínnel province.

Currency

The official currency of Laefêvia is called the Laefevian Sênam (Laefêvëši: sênam Template:IPA-qlf). The symbol of the currency is ß or Template:Unicode (the former is usually preferred due to coding issues with the latter symbol), and the code is SEN. The value of Sênam (against the US Dollar) is SEN 1 = USD 2.65 or USD 1 = SEN 0.38. An online currency converter is available on this page.

The Sênam is broken into 100 units called Essáms (singular: Essám) (Laefêvëši: essám Template:IPA-qlf), and the symbol used is ʃ. Natively, the Essám is delimited from the Sênam by a comma; for example, five Sênams and seven Essáms would be written as 5,07ß (the currency symbol follows the number), or as 5ß and 7ʃ. It should be noted that when only Essáms are used, they are usually written with both symbols, eg. 0,50ß would be written as 50ʃß.

There are seven banknotes with the following denominations: ß5, ß10, ß20, ß30, ß50, ß100, ß200, and ß500. In addition, there are also eight coins: 1ʃ, 2ʃ, 5ʃ, 10ʃ, 20ʃ, 50ʃ, ß1 and ß2. See the tables below for the specifications of both the banknotes and the coins.

Transport

[[File:{{{1}}}]]
[[File:{{{2}}}]]

The most important part of the Laefevian infrastructure system is a network of high-speed maglev trains, which connect the capitals of the provinces. The trains regularly exceed speeds of 500 km/h. Networks of slower trains, but still high-speed trains, connect other major cities in the country. These trains reach the speed of up to 300 km/h, although the actual speed is usually lower, around 200 km/h to 250 km/h, due to frequent stops between the departure station and the destination station.

A very well-developed network of motorways also exists in Laefevia, which connects all provincial and prefectural capitals. The network is part of a larger trans-Šarkunen motorway network. A bridge also connects Laefevia and Xynderland.

Laefevia also has a national airline, known as Laefark, which flies between all provincial capitals, and between a provincial capital and the prefectural capitals within that province. Laefeark also flies to various destinations worldwide. Several other private and semi-private smaller airlines exist in the country, which fly between various prefectural capitals and other cities.

Energy

Science and technology

Tourism

Demographics

Ethnic groups

Urbanisation

Language

Laefevia ranks as one of the most lingusitically diverse countries on Sahar. There are several languages spoken in the country, some of which have their own writing systems as well.

Languages of Laefevia

File:Laef languages.png
A map showing the languages spoken by more than half of the population in Laefevian prefectures.

The official language of Laefevia is Laefêvëši (or Laefevian). It is also the most widely spoken language in the country. The language is natively spoken in three provinces (Irrésken, Ajlísken, and Unnésken), and is the predominant language in Gaþínnel as well. There are six other native languages of Laefevia, which are also recognised as regional languages in the other six provinces.

Languages of Laefevia
Province Regional language
Ajlísken Laefêvëši
Gaþínnel Gathrírn
Gútissel Gutiskar
Irrésken Laefêvëši
Ixéssem Irǧeret (ئرغرت)
Sáelkem Saitlaa (사잍쨔)
Séttokem Settaka
Taérinel Tainiren (たいりねん)

Apart from the regional languages, there are other minority languages spoken in the country, usually close to the borders with other countries. The biggest recognised minority language is Ohkorian, which is spoken by more than half of the population in the prefecture of Hittowa (ひっととう, Hittotou), province of Taérinel (たいにれんだ, Tainirenda). Ohkorian is also spoken in the other three Taérinel prefectures but to a lesser extend, as well as in both Séttokem prefectures. Another minority language is Emawake (어마와커), which is spoken in the province of Sáelkem (사잍짜헐, Saitlahör) along the border with Riyana. Emawake and the regional language of Sáelekm, Saitlaa, also share the same script.

In southern Laefevia, in the province of Gaþínnel (Gathrínel), two minority languages are spoken: Edievian and Nithalos. However, only Nithalos is recognised as a minority language. The number of speakers of Edievian is too low to be granted official recognition.

In eastern Laefevia, there are two recognised minority languages - Xynder, in the westernmost prefecture of Gútissel province, and Yenä in eastern Gútissel along the border with Yerlan.

Names and surnames

Laefevians have a unique way of forming surnames. Instead of using a family name being inherited from a parent, a system of both patronymic and matronymic surnames - a child usually carries two given names and two surnames. Patronymic surnames are based on the first name of the father, while matronymic names are based on the first name of the mother. The matronymic surname comes first, followed by the patronymic; when shortened, only the matronymic surname is used.

The matronymic name is formed by using the possessive adjectival form of the mother's first name (ending in -iri or -ir- when shortened), and the patronymic name is likewise formed by the possessive adjectival form of the father's first name. Onto that, the suffix -nē is added for daughters (from inê “daughter”) and the suffix -nyl is added for sons (from nýl “son”). Recently, however, two gender-neutral suffixes have gained prominence and are increasingly used: -nir (from níor “child”) and -sent (from séint “descendant”).

Example:

  • mother's first name: Irói
  • father's first name: Éamlind
    • daughter's surname: Iróirnē Éamlindirnē
    • son's surname: Iróirnyl Éamlindirnyl
    • gender neutral: Iróirnir Éamlindirnir or Iróirsent Éamlindirsent

Once a child reaches adulthood, they usually pick yet another surname of their choosing. Toponymic surnames are among the most common types of such surnames. Toponymic surnames are typically formed by adding the suffix -(i)nli to a place name, eg. Solténna would become Solténninli. A surname like this is declined like a relational adjective (because the suffix -(i)nli comes form both the possessive suffix -iri and the relational suffix -ili, originally being -irili and then shortened to -irli, later becoming the current suffix).

Below is an example of the Laefevian naming system (shortened names are in bold): Template:Collapse

Education

Healthcare

Religion

Culture

Calendar

Skaljêrili trêat, or the Laefevian calendar, is the calendar used in Laefevia. It is a solar calendar with 365 days in a common year and 366 days in a leap year. There are 12 months of 30 days and one month of 5 days. Each of the twelve 30-day months consists of five 6-day weeks. The calendar is fixed on the spring equinox, or 20th March in Gregorian calendar. The calendar was created in 2359 BCE and took effect in 2357 BCE. Therefore, the current year is 4372 AT, which is also the 1061st leap year.

Heritage

Architecture

Literature

Art

Music

Theatre

Film

Cuisine

Sport

Symbols

See also