From Linguifex
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Created byUser:Eshaan011
SettingAlt-history Roman Empire, India
Native toIndia
Early form
Standard form
Ṭhārī dialect
  • Somnāthī dialect
  • Bombeyī dialect
Official status
Official language in
Regulated byUnstandardized
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Khyili (Khyili: ख्यिल्ली "Khyillī"; IPA: [kʰjilˈli]) is a Romance language, with strong influence of Gujarati and light influence from Sindhi and English. It gradually began to take place after the exile of the inhabitants and burning down of the Roman village of Aquivia due to the many people who had committed treason from there.
After many, many years of travelling, the people of India welcomed the Exiles, whose language had began to change drastically due to a lack of contact with the Romans. Eventually, their dialect of vulgar Latin had begun to pick up more and more features from languages such as Greek, Gujarati and Sanskrit and later Hindi.


The name of the language is derived from the words "colloquium exsilliī", vulgar classical Latin for "talk of the Exiles". As is retained into the language today, the singular-plural distinction from Latin in the genitive case has been lost. After numerous sound shifts, the word "exsilliī" had evolved into "khyillī", giving the language its modern name.


Khyili can be written using either the Devanagari or the Latin scripts.

Letters of the Khyili Latin alphabet
Aa Āā Bb Cc Dd Ḍḍ Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Īī Jj Kk Ll Ḷḷ Mm Nn Ṇṇ Oo Pp Qq Rr Ṛṛ Ṝṝ Ss Tt Ṭṭ Uu Ūū Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
  • The letter Cc is retained from its original use in Latin.
  • Īī and Ūū exist only due to Gujarati spelling conventions.
  • Khyili's digraphs are: Bh, Ch, Chh, Dh, Ḍh, Gh, Jh, Kh, Ph, Sh, Shh, Ṭh
  • Qq, Ww, and Zz only exist due to Gujarati romanisation conventions.



Consonant phonemes
Labial Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ (ŋ)
Plosive voiceless p t ʈ t͡ʃ k
aspirated ʈʰ t͡ʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ d͡ʒ g
murmured () (ɖʰ) d͡ʒʰ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʂ h
Approximant l j
Flap ɾ


Vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i (y) u
Close-mid e o
Open a


  • /y/ is native to the Burgundian dialects. See §Dialects below.
  • /e, o/ may be realized as [e̞, o̞].


Avendonian is strictly paroxytonic, meaning words always receive stress on their second-to-last syllable.

spraca (spra‑ca) /ˈspra.ka/, ordo (or‑do) /ˈ, bucaria (bu‑ca‑ria) /buˈka.ri̯a/, etc.

Monosyllabic words like blio have the stress in their only syllable, but it is weaker than those in polysyllabic words unless emphasized. Enclitic and other unstressed personal pronouns do not affect stress patterns:

elpare-te, /elˈ‿te/ and not /el.paˈre‿te/

Longer words (four or more syllables) may receive secondary stress in the fourth-to-last syllable (i.e. two syllables before the main or primary stress):

sobgrundsporvego /sobˌgrund.sporˈve.go/, surstopitio /ˌsur.stoˈpi.t͡si̯o/


Avendonian grammar is relatively straightforward and akin to the grammar of other Romance languages, due to the influence of Latin.

  1. Two sets of articles, indefinite and definite, preceding the noun.
  2. Gender and number inflection in nouns, adjectives, and pronouns. Articles and adjectives must agree inflection-wise with the noun or pronoun they modify.
  3. Twofold gender system, masculine and feminine. Loss of Latin neuter gender.
  4. Fusional verb inflection for person, number, mood, and tense.

However, noun and adjective declension endings, along with the ablaut in strong verbs are elements derived from Germanic.


Both definite and indefinite articles have four distinct forms, for number and gender:

Avendonian articles function similarly as English a and the, but gender and number of the following noun determine the form that must be used. For example:

buce m sgel buce (“the book”), uno buce (“a book”).
frage f plle frage (“the questions”), une frage (“some questions”).

The definite article el forms a contraction with prepositions a and de, using an apostrophe: a'l, d'el. These are the only standard contractions; other contractions like Ca ga't? from ga + et (“How goes it?”, greeting) are permissible but discouraged in formal writing.


In Avendonian there are two sets of demonstratives, which can be used either as determiners or pronouns: proximal and distal. As adjectives, the stem may be suffixed with -ie to form adverbs, ecie ‘here’ and elie ‘there’.


Avendonian noun declensions
A-stem O-stem E-stem U-stem
singular -a -o -e -o
plural -e -i -u

Nouns in Avendonian fall in one of the following almost fully regular declensions:

Notable exceptions are the productive suffix -tio, which forms feminine o-stem nouns from verbs, and the -ista suffix forms epicene a-stem nouns. Other words have no distinctive feature in the modern language, i.e. differences are etymological.

Personal pronouns

Avendonian personal pronouns
personal pronouns possessive
subjective objective
singular eo me mede
plural vi nos nosde
singular default tu te tede
formal Si Side
plural i vos vosde
singular masculine e si side
feminine si
neuter et
plural si

Personal pronouns in Avendonian have the following forms:

  • Avendonian is not a pro-drop language, like other Romance languages. In other words, the subject, which may or may not be a personal pronoun must appear in every sentence, except in relative clauses where the subject of both statements is the same.
Eo spreco avendoniano. “I speak Avendonian.”
El hundo ce (et) va mudio asatui. “The dog which was tired sat down.”
  • Objective pronouns act as the direct object of a sentence. If the verb is an infinitive or an imperative, the pronoun is attached to it with a hyphen; otherwise, it precedes the verb.
E me gavo uno scenco en el burddago mede. “He gave me a present for my birthday.”
Bido, sende-me uno posrito cando si encumen. “Please, send me a message when they arrive.”
  • Possessive pronouns can function as determiners and pronouns, i.e. my and mine. Possessives
    must be written in the form of [article] + [noun] + [possessive]. The article still agrees in gender and number with the noun.
El vagno mede. ‘My car’

Le sceiate side. ‘His/Her/Their stories’

Pergatasti tu el buce tede? Eo cuno liare el mede. “Did you forget your book? I can lend you mine.”
  • Avendonian has, as in the Romance languages, T–V distinction. This distinction is lost in the plural. Formal second-person pronouns are always capitalized, in all forms, no matter the environment.
Bido ero, ce bi el name Side? “Excuse me, sir, what is your name?” (formal)
Si Si bi perlisato, vi cunamos ledere-Si. “If you are lost, we can guide you.” (formal)


As said above, adjectives agree in gender and number with the noun, and are placed after them. They exist in three degrees: positive, comparative, and superlative. All three degrees have an adverbial form, using the suffix -ie. In other words, every adjective can be morphed into an adverb.

Positive degree

The positive degree is the default form of Avendonian adjectives, which simply describes the noun. It is also the only degree subject to declensional variation. The declension patterns are exactly as those of nouns, although porpora is considered irregular, not a-stem.

Uno vagno roto. ‘A red car’
La dotre sciia mede. ‘My shy daughter’
Li landi fere. ‘The distant/far countries’

The same forms can also be used predicatively. Thus: La dotre mede bi sciia. “My daughter is shy.”, Li landi bin fere. “The countries are far (away).”, etc. Passive participles can function as regular adjectives, and active participles (or gerunds) result in undeclinable adjectives. An example of an adjective of each declension is given:

Comparative degree

Avendonian comparative adjectives can establish three sorts of comparison: equative (X is as Y as Z), superior (X is more Y than Z), and inferior (X is less Y than Z). Fusional endings are only used in
equative comparatives. Consider the following example:

  • Iane is shorter than Vilelmo. Iane bi curtior ce Vilelmo.
  • Iane is as short as Vilelmo. Iane bi ta curto ca Vilelmo.
  • Iane is “less short” than Vilelmo. Iane bi minire curto ca Vilelmo.

Notice the use of different prepositions in each comparison. Both X and Z can be personal pronouns, only in the subject form.

  • You are shorter than me. Tu bis curtior ce eo.

Superlative degree

Superlatives are always preceded by a definite article, and both must agree with the noun they are modifying. Thus:

  • Iane bi el curtesmo. “Iane is the shortest.”
  • Iane e Vilelmo bin li curtesmi. “Iane and Vilelmo are the shortest.”

Indeclinable adjectives

Some adjectives have a single form for all degrees, but the same effect is achieved by placing before them the adverbs mere and mesto. Some of these adjectives are indeclinable for etymological reasons (e.g. na) or because of their nature as active participles (e.g. denemanti). Mesto however does inflect for gender and number, like a regular adjective.

na (“near, close”)
positive comparative superlative
na mere na mesto na


Verbs are the part of speech that exhibits the most morphology in Avendonian. There are ten main tenses, three moods, six persons, and two numbers—passive participles inflect for gender too. Verbs in Avendonian are, in general, very regular except for a small set of verbs, which includes the copula sire.

Avendonian classifies both weak and strong verbs in two conjugations, -are (first conjugation) and -ere (second conjugation). The former are the most prone to have ablaut, which changes the vowel of the stem in the perfect tenses.

Weak verbs


  • The only difference between active and passive participles, present indicative, future, and conditional of each conjugation is the thematic vowel. E.g. 2sg prs ind ladas vs. lades.
  • Perfect subjunctive forms are perfect indicative forms with a -se suffix.
  • If the thematic vowel is -a-, then the vowel in the present subjunctive endings is -e-, and vice versa.
  • The personal endings in their most basic form are , -s, , -mos, -tes, -n.
  • Imperative forms are exactly as singular and plural third-person present indicative forms. Formal imperatives are formed similarly with present subjunctive forms.

Strong verbs

Strong verbs are conjugated as weak verbs, but the main stem vowel undergoes a phonological process known as ablaut. This is present in the indicative and subjunctive perfect tense. In the following example, the tenses that remain unchanged are omitted.

strong 1st conjugation example paradigm — scedare (“to separate”)
first singular
second singular
third singular
e, si, et
first plural
second plural
third plural
indicative present scedo scedas sceda scedamos scedates scedan
perfect scide scidasti scido scidamos scidastes scidaron
subjunctive perfect scidase scidases scidase scidasemos scidasetes scidasen
strong 2nd conjugation example paradigm — evere (“to lift”)
first singular
second singular
third singular
e, si, et
first plural
second plural
third plural
indicative present evo eves eve evemos evetes even
perfect uvui uvuis uvui uvuimos uvuites uvuin
subjunctive perfect uvuise uvuises uvuise uvuisemos uvuisetes uvuisen

Second-conjugation strong verbs are much less common than first-conjugation. They are derived from Proto-Germanic j-present strong verbs, which were already scarce.

Irregular verbs

Besides the copula, there are only two irregular verbs: duere and friiere—and derivatives thereof. In the perfect tenses, duere uses -v- instead of the expected -u-: eo davi, not *eo daui, tu davis, not *tu dauis, etc.; eo davise, tu davises, etc.

friiere, on the other hand, has an irregularity in the imperfect indicative tense. The expected *eo friiia, *tu friiias, etc. is rendered as eo frigia, tu frigias, etc.

sire, to be

Like many other languages, including Romance and Germanic, the verb to be is very irregular. The copula is suppletive, meaning the stem changes between tenses. A full conjugation paradigm is given.

tense forms etymology
infinitive sire [1]
active participle vesanti [2]
passive participle
masculine feminine
singular sito sita
plural siti site
first singular
second singular
third singular
e, si, et
first plural
second plural
third plural
indicative present bi bis bin bimos bites bin [3]
perfect va vas va vamos vates van [2]
imperfect era eras era eramos erates eran [4]
future sirabo sirabes sirabe sirabemos sirabetes siraben [1]
conditional siraba sirabas siraba sirabamos sirabates siraban
subjunctive present si sis si simos sites sin
perfect vari varis vari varimos varites varin [2]
imperative   si   sin   [1]
  1. ^ a b c d Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁es-. Cognate with German sein and Dutch zijn.
  2. ^ a b c From Proto-Germanic *wesaną.
  3. ^ From Proto-Germanic *beuną.
  4. ^ From Latin sum.

Periphrastic forms