- բրաղա, ող-մօն բոնին-ղոնի!
- pranga, áng-mon pánin-ngáni!
- Remember: You walk with your feet!
|Spoken natively in||Azerbaijan, Russia; Republic of Dagestan|
|Native speakers||301,486 (2012)|
|Regulated by||Ahrasú rám amúng nánshi|
Hrasú múng, Հրասվ մվղ /ˈχrʌsɯ ˈmɯŋg̚/, Hrasú or Hrasic /ˈkɹæzɪk/ is a language spoken in the Eastern Caucasus, by the Hrasú people. The population is dispersed over an area covering the Eastern parts of Dagestan in Russia, as well as the area around Baku in Azerbaijan. The number of speakers were in 2012 estimated to be about 300,000, and increasing.
The language is a language isolate, and is thus not known to be related to any extant language. Hrasic has a normal-sized inventory of consonants and a fair amount of allophony. It is a fusional language and is morphosyntactically nominative-accusative. The morphology is evenly split between nominal and verbal inflections.
- 1 Background
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Grammar
- 4 Morphology
- 4.1 Nominal
- 4.2 Pronominal
- 4.3 Verbal
- 5 Sample phrases
The Hrasic language, or Hrasú, is a constructed language, but does have a fictional background set in the real world.
The following is the inventory of consonants in the Hrasú language. There are 20 contrastive consonants.
|Nasals||plain||m /m/||n /n/||ng /ŋ/|
|Plosives||aspirated||bh /pʰ/||th /t̺ʰ/||ch /kʰ/|
|unvoiced||p /p/||t /t/||c /k/|
|voiced||b /b/||d /d/||g /g/|
|Fricatives||unvoiced||sh /s̺ʰ/||s /s/||h /ç ~ x ~ h/|
|voiced||z /z/||y /ʝ/|
|Laterals||l /l ~ ɬ/|
The glottal fricative
The phoneme /h/, the so called glottal fricative, is in free variation with the unvoiced palatal fricative /ç/ as well as the unvoiced velar fricative /x/.
The velar fricative is the most common one, but the phones are all affected by palatalisation, producing the palatal fricative [ç]. If followed by a rhotic trill /r/, the pronunciation becomes uvular.
The uvularisation of the glottal fricative is included in broad transcriptions, as such, it is enclosed by slashes, //. The palatalisation is not.
Palatalisation occurs due to many factors:
- The phonemes /ʝ/ and /ɪ/, the voiced palatal fricative and the near-close near-front vowel, tend to palatalise adjacent consonants internally.
- Externally, a final voiced velar stop, /g/, palatalises the initial consonant of the following word.
All post-bilabial consonants are affected, except the rhotic /r/ and the aspirated apical fricative /s̺ʰ/. As such, the allophony is rather extensive:
- Realised as /ŋg/ when non-initial. This grants /ŋg/ → [ɲd͡ʒ].
|spider, hand||friend||now.int||to go.subj.|
Some phonemes are susceptible to voicedness sandhi. These are the sibilants and the voiced lateral approximant /l/. When preceded by a phoneme differing in voicedness, the above mentioned phonemes assimilate.
|good; well; happy||to say.subj-you.1.p.pl.acc.inf||now.int||to dance.subj.caus|
The voicedness assimilation is included in broad transcriptions, as such, it is enclosed by slashes, //.
|Close||é /i/||í /ɨ/||ú /ɯ/|
|Near-close||i /ɪ/||u /ʊ/|
|Open-mid||ó /ɞ/||a /ʌ/ · o /ɔ/|
Open mid-back vowel
The allophony of the open mid-back vowel is included in broad transcriptions, as such, it is enclosed by slashes, //.
It is a long distance metaphony which affects the preceding vowels in a whole word.
|CVbCVbCVa||→||CVaCVaCVa||(Va = type-a vowel, Vb = type-b vowel, C = consonant)|
In the diagram above, the Va (type-a vowel) causes the preceding Vb (type-b vowel) to assimilate and become the same type of vowel (and thus they become, metaphorically, "in harmony").
In Hrasic, these types of vowels are defined by their frontness. There are three different types; ming, rán and bhún, where the rán vowel is neutral and can appear with both front and back vowels.
- ming - narrow, meaning front vowel.
- rán - perfect, signifying the mid-central /ə/, the schwa.
- bhún - broad vowels are back vowels.
|i /ɪ/||e /ə/||í /ɨ/|
|á /æ/||a /ɑ/|
|u /ʊ/||ú /ɯ/|
|ó /ɞ/||o /ɔ/|
As it happens, ming-mutation, or front mutation, is much more common than the bhún-mutation. Please note that the orthography is highly arbitrary, and the accent marks do not reflect frontness.
Hrasú has three numbers, all of which are equally common in the language. The Hrasic numbers are different to those of English, instead using a so-called collective-singulative distinction.
The distinction infers that the basic form of a noun is the collective, which is indifferent to the number and unmarked. However, in Hrasú, the collective form has an additional meaning, and can also signify duals. It is thus the singulative that most often goes unmarked.
|Tingi-thau yáni?||Ángi hínga-yi?||Thún rápi.|
|/tɪŋgɪ t̺ʰaʊ ʝænɪ/||/æŋgɪ hɨŋga ʝɪ/||/t̺ʰʊn ræpɪ/|
|Do you see a corpse?||Pigs (as a race)
Pigs (as a group)
The dual-collective number (dc) is a special number to the Hrasic language. The dual-collective primarily marks the collective sense, whereas English uses the plural. It does however also signify two nouns, a pair, in certain contexts.
The plurative (pl) marks when there are multiple nouns, but more than two. It does not have the collective sense that the English equivalent does.
There are two genders in the Hrasic language, the animate (an) and inanimate (inan). The animate gender includes only living animals and insects, as well as supernaturals like spirits and deities. The inanimate gender mainly denotes non-living objects, abstractions as well as flowers and microorganisms.
In the 3 person singular personal pronouns, the animate splits into a feminine (f.an) and masculine (m.an) animate gender.
|Cases and usage|
|Nominative||The independent form of nouns; the lemma.||The dog|
|Subject of high-control intransitive verbs; without a patient.||The dog bites.|
|Subject of high-control intransitive verbs; without a patient.||The man fell.|
|Subject of a transitive verb; with a patient.||The dog bit the man.|
|Accusative||Object or patient of a transitive verb.||The dog bit the man|
|Indicates a duration of time.||I did it for many years|
|In indirect statements.||He said I was ugly.|
|To mark location.||I am at home.|
|After certain prepositions.||Between one and ten; near you.|
|Dative||Indirect object of a ditransitive verb.||He gave the man a pen|
|Dativus finalis; dative of purpose.||I fight for the king! Call for help!|
|Dativus commodi; dative of benefit or malefic.||Open the door for him; this one is not for children.|
|Dativus lativus; dative of movement.||I'm going to Siberia; I come from home.|
|Dativus modi; dative of manner and cause.||He died from a disease.|
|Dativus possessivus; dative of possession.||There is a book to me; I have a book.|
|After certain prepositions.||Get away from me.|
|Instrumental||Instrumentalis instrumenti; the means of the action.||He writes with a pen.|
|Instrumentalis auctoris; the performer of actions.||Opened by the mayor; caught by a net.|
|Instrumentalis modi; the manner of means of an action.||Go by the short cut.|
|Genitive||Symbolises ownership||The dog's bone|
|Marks objects related to the subject in composition||The group member|
|Symbolises lacking||Go without me|
|Marks origin of nouns.||I moved from the house|
|Marks origin of nouns||It is from France|
|Marks concerned, associated nouns||On the Origin of Species.|
|Marks concerned, discussed nouns.||Talking about films.|
|Indicates cause||It's because of the snow.|
|Marks abstract cause||Thanks to/despite him.|
|Semblative||For comparations, and semblatives.||It is like a fish.|
|For comparative adverbials.||I dance like a god; I dance godly.|
|Vocative||Direct address.||Hey, John!|
|Disjoint address.||You are right, Mary.|
|Exclamation.||Poor me! Wretched life!|
There are a multitude of declensional classes in the Hrasic languages, below are the four most common ones. These decline with either a marked dual-collective or a marked singulative number.
Animate unmarked collective
In the animate gender (an), most of the times the collective goes unmarked. Nouns in this class are called "animate unmarked collectives" (unm.an).
Animate marked collective
Not all animates have a marked singulative, however. The second class of animate nouns (ma.an) has a marked collective instead.
Inanimate unmarked collective
The first class of inanimates (unm.inan) has an unmarked collective. Nouns in this class are often collective nouns.
Inanimate marked collective
Amongst the second class of inanimate nouns (ma.inan), the singulative most often goes unmarked, just like the second class of animates.
The Hrasic system of pronouns is vast and irregular, but easily understood. It is split into four parts: The singular, plural, dual, and reflexive. The dual has lost some popularity lately, but it is still used.
- The reflexives are equivalent to English "myself, himself, itself" et cetera. The nominative reflexive on the other hand is an impersonal subject like English "one, they" or "you".
|Case ↓||Register↓||Animate||Inanimate||Animate masculine||Animate feminine||Inanimate||Exclusive||Inclusive|
The Hrasic verbal morphology is restricted, yet extensive. Simple, but versatile. Verbs do not conjugate according to person, number or tense. However, there are a number of grammatical aspects, moods and evidentials.
The active conjugation inflects verbs according to the active grammatical voice. Active voice is used in a clause whose subject expresses the agent of the main verb. That is, the subject does the action designated by the verb
The passive is a conjugation in the passive voice. In a clause with passive voice, the grammatical subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb – that is, the person or thing that undergoes the action or has its state changed.
|Perfective||-nda /- ndi||-ndar /-ndir||-ndat||-nda|
The reciprocal conjugation and voice marks subjects and objects in reciprocity. In the reciprocal construction, each of the participants occupies both the role of agent and patient with respect to each other.
The reciprocal conjugation is technically merely an infix. It is formed by infixing -ya- before the active conjugational ending.
- Thún sóm hyó-ác?
- Thún ác gyáng-sóm téngi!
- Men gyáng-tum ác ráráchu bhángi, dánin huéng-tu tugángi at.