User:Waahlis/Hrasic

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բրաղա, ող-մօն բոնին-ղոնի!
pranga, áng-mon pánin-ngáni!
Remember: You walk with your feet!


Hrasic
Hrasú múng
Hrasic.png
Pronunciation /ˈχrʌsɯ ˈmɯŋg̚/
Created by
Setting
Spoken natively in Azerbaijan, Russia; Republic of Dagestan
Region Caucasus
Native speakers 301,486  (2012)
Language family
Menmer languages
Early forms:
Proto-Men
  • Hrasic
Writing system Latin
Official status
Regulated by Ahrasú rám amúng nánshi
ISO 639-3 qhr

Hrasú múng, Հրասվ մվղ /ˈχrʌsɯ ˈmɯŋg̚/, Hrasú or Hrasic /ˈkɹæzɪk/ is a language spoken in the Eastern Caucasus, by the Hrasú people. The population is dispersed over an area covering the Eastern parts of Dagestan in Russia, as well as the area around Baku in Azerbaijan. The number of speakers were in 2012 estimated to be about 300,000, and increasing.

The language is a language isolate, and is thus not known to be related to any extant language. Hrasic has a normal-sized inventory of consonants and a fair amount of allophony. It is a fusional language and is morphosyntactically nominative-accusative. The morphology is evenly split between nominal and verbal inflections.

Background

The Hrasic language, or Hrasú, is a constructed language, but does have a fictional background set in the real world.

Phonology

Consonants

The following is the inventory of consonants in the Hrasú language. There are 20 contrastive consonants.

Hrasú consonants
Consonants
Bilabial Denti-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
apical laminal
Nasals plain m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Plosives aspirated bh /pʰ/ th /t̺ʰ/ ch /kʰ/
unvoiced p /p/ t /t/ c /k/
voiced b /b/ d /d/ g /g/
Fricatives unvoiced sh /s̺ʰ/ s /s/ h /ç ~ x ~ h/
voiced z /z/ y /ʝ/
Trills r /r/
Approximants hu /w/
Laterals l /l ~ ɬ/

Consonant allophony

Allophony is common to many consonants, and sandhi forces them to be realised different in different environments.

The glottal fricative

The phoneme /h/, the so called glottal fricative, is in free variation with the unvoiced palatal fricative /ç/ as well as the unvoiced velar fricative /x/.

խլո
h
hɬæ/ = xɬæ/ = çɬæ/
good; well

The velar fricative is the most common one, but the phones are all affected by palatalisation, producing the palatal fricative [ç]. If followed by a rhotic trill /r/, the pronunciation becomes uvular.

խևյ խրասվ
hyó hrasú
ə/ çə] hrɑsɯ/ χrʌsɯ/
to leave.subj pride


The uvularisation of the glottal fricative is included in broad transcriptions, as such, it is enclosed by slashes, //. The palatalisation is not.

Palatalisation

Palatalisation occurs due to many factors:

  • The phonemes /ʝ/ and /ɪ/, the voiced palatal fricative and the near-close near-front vowel, tend to palatalise adjacent consonants internally.
  • Externally, a final voiced velar stop, /g/, palatalises the initial consonant of the following word.

All post-bilabial consonants are affected, except the rhotic /r/ and the aspirated apical fricative /s̺ʰ/. As such, the allophony is rather extensive:


Plain /n/ /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ /l/ /ŋ/ /k/ /g/ /kʰ/ /t̺ʰ / /h/
Palatalised [ɲ] [t͡ʃ] [d͡ʒ] [ʃ] [ʒ] [ʎ] [ɲ]1 [t͡ʃ] [d͡ʒ] [k] [t] [ç]
  1. Realised as /ŋg/ when non-initial. This grants /ŋg/ → [ɲd͡ʒ].


խրոնի դիան ոդզի; մյղի
hráni tian átzi? ngi
/ˈhrænɪ/ [ˈχræɲɪ] /ˈtɪɑn/ [ˈt͡ʃɪan] /ˈætzɪ/ [ˈætʃɪ] /ˈməŋgɪ/ [ˈməɲd͡ʒɪ]
spider, hand friend now.int to go.subj.
Voicedness

Some phonemes are susceptible to voicedness sandhi. These are the sibilants and the voiced lateral approximant /l/. When preceded by a phoneme differing in voicedness, the above mentioned phonemes assimilate.

hlá gyáng-sóm átzi? méngshi
/ˈçlæ/ /ˈçɬæ/ /ˈgʝæŋgsəm/ /ˈgʝæŋgzəm/ /ˈætzɪ/ /ˈætsɪ/ /ˈmiŋɡs̺ʰɪ/ /ˈmiŋɡz̺ʱɪ/
good; well; happy to say.subj-you.1.p.pl.acc.inf now.int to dance.subj.caus


The voicedness assimilation is included in broad transcriptions, as such, it is enclosed by slashes, //.

Vowels

There are 10 vowel phonemes in the Hrasic language. In addition to these, the open mid-back unrounded vowel, /ʌ/, is an allophone of /ɑ/.

Hrasú vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close é /i/ í /ɨ/ ú /ɯ/
Near-close i /ɪ/ u /ʊ/
Close-mid
Mid e /ə/
Open-mid ó /ɞ/ a /ʌ/ · o /ɔ/
Near-open á /æ/
Open a /ɑ/


Vowel allophony

Open mid-back vowel

The open mid-back unrounded vowel, /ʌ/, is an allophone of /ɑ/ when it precedes the close back unrounded vowel, /ɯ/, or the open mid-back rounded vowel, /ɔ/.

gahuo hra
/ˈgɑwɔ/ /ˈgʌwɔ/ /ˈhrɑsɯ/ /ˈχrʌsɯ/
bush pride


The allophony of the open mid-back vowel is included in broad transcriptions, as such, it is enclosed by slashes, //.

Morphophonology

Metaphony

Hrasic has a system of regressive metaphony similar to the I- and U-mutation in the Germanic languages. It is a kind of vowel harmony, rather than mutation.

It is a long distance metaphony which affects the preceding vowels in a whole word.

pre-assimilation   post-assimilation
CVbCVbCVa CVaCVaCVa   (Va = type-a vowel, Vb = type-b vowel, C = consonant)

In the diagram above, the Va (type-a vowel) causes the preceding Vb (type-b vowel) to assimilate and become the same type of vowel (and thus they become, metaphorically, "in harmony").

In Hrasic, these types of vowels are defined by their frontness. There are three different types; ming, rán and bhún, where the rán vowel is neutral and can appear with both front and back vowels.


Front Neutral Back
i /ɪ/ e /ə/ í /ɨ/
á /æ/ a /ɑ/
u /ʊ/ ú /ɯ/
ó /ɞ/ o /ɔ/
é /i/


As it happens, ming-mutation, or front mutation, is much more common than the bhún-mutation. Please note that the orthography is highly arbitrary, and the accent marks do not reflect frontness.

Grammar

Morphology

Nominal

Number

Hrasú has three numbers, all of which are equally common in the language. The Hrasic numbers are different to those of English, instead using a so-called collective-singulative distinction.

The distinction infers that the basic form of a noun is the collective, which is indifferent to the number and unmarked. However, in Hrasú, the collective form has an additional meaning, and can also signify duals. It is thus the singulative that most often goes unmarked.

Singulative

The singulative (sg) denotes one, single noun, and roughly corresponds to the English equivalent of singular. A singulative noun is a single item, either of a collective noun or even a mass noun.

Tingi-thau yáni? Ángi hínga-yi? Thún rápi.
/tɪŋgɪ t̺ʰaʊ ʝænɪ/ /æŋgɪ hɨŋga ʝɪ/ /t̺ʰʊn ræpɪ/
gur -a gur -∅ gur -an
pig.unm.an -nom.sg. pig.unm.an -nom.dc. pig.unm.an -nom.pl.
Do you see a corpse? Pigs (as a race)
Pigs (
as a group)
Two pigs
Pigs; several
Dual-collective

The dual-collective number (dc) is a special number to the Hrasic language. The dual-collective primarily marks the collective sense, whereas English uses the plural. It does however also signify two nouns, a pair, in certain contexts.

Plurative

The plurative (pl) marks when there are multiple nouns, but more than two. It does not have the collective sense that the English equivalent does.

Gender

There are two genders in the Hrasic language, the animate (an) and inanimate (inan). The animate gender includes only living animals and insects, as well as supernaturals like spirits and deities. The inanimate gender mainly denotes non-living objects, abstractions as well as flowers and microorganisms.

In the 3 person singular personal pronouns, the animate splits into a feminine (f.an) and masculine (m.an) animate gender.

Case

There are 7 grammatical cases in Hrasú. Most of these are rather common to the Indo-European languages.

Hrasic cases
Cases and usage
Case Usage Example
Nominative The independent form of nouns; the lemma. The dog
Subject of high-control intransitive verbs; without a patient. The dog bites.
Subject of high-control intransitive verbs; without a patient. The man fell.
Subject of a transitive verb; with a patient. The dog bit the man.
Accusative Object or patient of a transitive verb. The dog bit the man
Indicates a duration of time. I did it for many years
In indirect statements. He said I was ugly.
To mark location. I am at home.
After certain prepositions. Between one and ten; near you.
Dative Indirect object of a ditransitive verb. He gave the man a pen
Dativus finalis; dative of purpose. I fight for the king! Call for help!
Dativus commodi; dative of benefit or malefic. Open the door for him; this one is not for children.
Dativus lativus; dative of movement. I'm going to Siberia; I come from home.
Dativus modi; dative of manner and cause. He died from a disease.
Dativus possessivus; dative of possession. There is a book to me; I have a book.
After certain prepositions. Get away from me.
Instrumental Instrumentalis instrumenti; the means of the action. He writes with a pen.
Instrumentalis auctoris; the performer of actions. Opened by the mayor; caught by a net.
Instrumentalis modi; the manner of means of an action. Go by the short cut.
Genitive Symbolises ownership The dog's bone
Marks objects related to the subject in composition The group member
Symbolises lacking Go without me
Marks origin of nouns. I moved from the house
Marks origin of nouns It is from France
Marks concerned, associated nouns On the Origin of Species.
Marks concerned, discussed nouns. Talking about films.
Indicates cause It's because of the snow.
Marks abstract cause Thanks to/despite him.
Semblative For comparations, and semblatives. It is like a fish.
For comparative adverbials. I dance like a god; I dance godly.
Vocative Direct address. Hey, John!
Disjoint address. You are right, Mary.
Exclamation. Poor me! Wretched life!

Classes

There are a multitude of declensional classes in the Hrasic languages, below are the four most common ones. These decline with either a marked dual-collective or a marked singulative number.

Animate unmarked collective

In the animate gender (an), most of the times the collective goes unmarked. Nouns in this class are called "animate unmarked collectives" (unm.an).

gúra gur gúran
/ˈgɯrɑ/ /ˈgʊr/ /ˈgɯrɑn/
gur -a gur -∅ gur -an
pig.unm.an -nom.sg. pig.unm.an -nom.dc. pig.unm.an -nom.pl.
A pig Pigs (as a race)
Pigs (
as a group)
Two pigs
Pigs; several
Declension of nara
Animate unmarked collective
unm.an nara - lord
singulative dual-collective plurative
Nominative nara nár naran
Accusative naram nárim narama
Dative náriy nári náriyin
Instrumental náriyin nárin náriyin
Genitive ínara náru ínaran
Semblative nayar náyir nayaran
Vocative anar inár naran


Animate marked collective

Not all animates have a marked singulative, however. The second class of animate nouns (ma.an) has a marked collective instead.

tiánu etiánu tiánun
/ˈtɪænʊ/ /əˈtɪænʊ/ /ˈtɪænʊn/
tiánu -∅ e- tiánu tiánu -n
man.ma.an -nom.sg. nom.dc.- man.ma.an man.ma.an -nom.pl
A man Man (humanity)
Men (
as a group)
Two men
Men; several
Declension of máng
Animate marked collective
ma.an máng - mother
singulative dual-collective plurative
Nominative máng emáng manga
Accusative mángim imángim mángim
Dative mángi emángi mángin
Instrumental mángin emángin mángin
Genitive imáng emángi imángin
Semblative mángir emángir mángánir
Vocative emáng emáng emanga


Inanimate unmarked collective

The first class of inanimates (unm.inan) has an unmarked collective. Nouns in this class are often collective nouns.

hara hár haran
/ˈhɑrɑ/ /ˈhær/ /ˈhɑrɑn/
hár -a hár -∅ hár -an
wheat.unm.inan -nom.sg.


wheat.unm.inan -nom.dc. wheat.unm.inan -nom.pl
A grain of wheat Wheat (as a cereal)
Two grains of wheat
Several grains of wheat
Declension of pana
Inanimate unmarked collective
unm.inan pana - foot
singulative dual-collective plurative
Nominative pana pán panan
Accusative panam pánim panama
Dative pániy páni pániyin
Instrumental pániyin pánin pániyin
Genitive ípana pánu ípanan
Semblative panar pánir pánánir
Vocative apan ipán panan


Inanimate marked collective

Amongst the second class of inanimate nouns (ma.inan), the singulative most often goes unmarked, just like the second class of animates.

chac achac chacú
/ˈkʰɑk̚/ /ɑˈkʰɑk̚/ /ˈkʰɑk̚ɯ/
chac -∅ a- chac chac
box.ma.inan -nom.sg. nom.dc.- box.ma.inan box.ma.inan -nom.pl
A box Boxes (as a group)
Two boxes
Boxes; several
Declension of hrasú
Inanimate marked collective
ma.inan hrasú - pride
singulative dualcollective plurative
Nominative hrasú ahrasú hrasún
Accusative hrasúm ahrasúm hrasúm
Dative hrási ehrási hrásin
Instrumental hrásin ehrásin hrásin
Genitive ihrási ehrási ihrásin
Semblative hrasúr ahrasúr hrasúnir
Vocative ahrasú ahrasú ahrasún


Pronominal

The Hrasic system of pronouns is vast and irregular, but easily understood. It is split into four parts: The singular, plural, dual, and reflexive. The dual has lost some popularity lately, but it is still used.

  • The reflexives are equivalent to English "myself, himself, itself" et cetera. The nominative reflexive on the other hand is an impersonal subject like English "one, they" or "you".

Formality register

Singular

Plural

Dual

Reflexive

Number→ Singular Plural Reflexive
Person→ 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Case ↓ Register↓ Animate Inanimate Animate masculine Animate feminine Inanimate Exclusive Inclusive
Nominative Informal ác tou ta guo gi muo yeu sóm gán áng
Formal eu thau tha hám eun yám than
Accusative Informal me tum tam gum gám gin muon áyim tám hám ngám
Formal eumi thaun thumá gihám eun yeumi thaun
Dative Informal áci tei gei gi moi yi sói gái ángi
Formal eumi thaun thumá gihám eun yeumi thaun hám
Instrumental Informal min toun tin guon gán gin muon yan sómin ginin ngán
Formal eun thaun than gihin nin yeun thán hámin
Genitive Informal áci ti íguo igá gi mi yáni sómi gáni ngáni
Formal máni tuni táni gáni móni tháni
Semblative Informal ar tur tar guri gári giri muri yári sómir gánir ngánir
Formal eur tháci hómir hámir gimir eunir yeuri thánir gánir
Vocative Informal áhac atuo ata aguo aga ági amuo áyim ásóme ágáne áng
Formal heu ehtau ehta heguo hegá hegi heun heu ehtan hegán


Verbal

The Hrasic verbal morphology is restricted, yet extensive. Simple, but versatile. Verbs do not conjugate according to person, number or tense. However, there are a number of grammatical aspects, moods and evidentials.

The conjugation is split into three parts - the active, passive, and the reciprocal conjugations.

Active

The active conjugation inflects verbs according to the active grammatical voice. Active voice is used in a clause whose subject expresses the agent of the main verb. That is, the subject does the action designated by the verb


Active
Aspect Mood
Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative
Perfective -n -ngi -at -nga
Inceptive ha- há-ngi ha-at
Cessative nge- ngi- -ngat -ngas
Causative -shi -ngzi -it
Imperfective -nguo -ngi -nguat -nguas
Iterative Reduplication


Passive

The passive is a conjugation in the passive voice. In a clause with passive voice, the grammatical subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb – that is, the person or thing that undergoes the action or has its state changed.


Passive
Aspect Mood
Indicative Subjunctive Jussive Imperative
Perfective -nda /- ndi -ndar /-ndir -ndat -nda
Inceptive hua- huá-ndir hua-at
Cessative ye- yua- -ndat -ndas
Causative -iy -nthi -ndit
Imperfective -nduo -iy -mbat -mbas
Iterative Reduplication

Reciprocal

The reciprocal conjugation and voice marks subjects and objects in reciprocity. In the reciprocal construction, each of the participants occupies both the role of agent and patient with respect to each other.

The reciprocal conjugation is technically merely an infix. It is formed by infixing -ya- before the active conjugational ending.

Sample phrases

  • Thún sóm hyó-ác?
  • Thún ác gyáng-sóm téngi!
  • Men gyáng-tum ác ráráchu bhángi, dánin huéng-tu tugángi at.