From Linguifex
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Varangian (Native: Verinskă /ˈverinskə/) is a North Germanic language that is part of the Balkan sprachbund.

Verinskă tungă
Веринскъ тунгъ
Pronunciation[ˈverinskə ˈtuŋɡə]
Created byShariifka
Early forms
Old Norse
  • Old Varangian




Varangian orthography
Letter IPA Remarks
Latin Cyrillic
A a А а a
Ă ă Ъ ъ ə
 â Ы ы ɨ Generally used when /ɨ/ is derived from earlier /a/.
B b Б б b, p¹
C c Ц ц ts, dz²
Č č Ч ч tʃ, dʒ²
D d Д д d, t¹
Ð ð Ԁ ԁ ð, θ¹
Dz dz Ѕ ѕ dz, ts¹
Dž dž Џ џ dʒ, tʃ¹
E e Е е e
F f Ф ф f, v³
G g Г г ɣ, ɡ, k¹, x¹ Pronounced /ɡ/ (devoiced: /k/) initially and after /ŋ/; /ɣ/ (devoiced: /x/) otherwise.
Gg gg Ґ ґ ɡ, k¹ Not used initially or after /ŋ/.
H h Х х x ~ h, ɣ² /h/ can be used in free variation with /x/, but it is most often used word-initially before vowels.
I i И и i
Î î Ы ы ɨ Generally used when /ɨ/ is derived from earlier /e/ or /i/.
J j Й й (Ј ј) j Й and ј are considered variants of the same letter.
Ь ь After consonants except /l, n, r/.
K k К к k, ɡ²
L l Л л l Can be syllabic.
Ľ ľ Ль ль (Љ љ) ʎ Љ is a ligature of ль.
M m М м m
N n Н н n, ŋ Pronounced /ŋ/ before velars; /n/ otherwise.
Ň ň Нь нь (Њ њ) ɲ Њ is a ligature of нь.
O o О о o
P p П п p, b²
R r Р р r Can be syllabic.
Ř ř Рь рь rʲ ~ r̝ ~ ɻ⁴ Рь may be written as a ligature which looks roughly like R with a loop on the right leg.
S s С с s, z³
Š š Ш ш ʃ, ʒ³
Št št Шт шт (Щ щ) ʃt, ʒd² Щ is considered a ligature of the cluster шт.
T t Т т t, d²
Þ þ Ѳ ѳ θ, ð³
U u У у u
V v В в v, f¹
Z z З з z, s¹
Ž ž Ж ж ʒ, ʃ¹


¹ Voiced obstruents are devoiced before voiceless consonants.

² Voiceless stops and affricates are voiced before voiced consonants except /v/.

³ Voiceless fricatives are voiced when they occur between voiced sounds (including vowels). To remain unvoiced in such environments, they can be written doubled.

⁴ Free variation (depending on speaker and dialect).








The following phonological transformations occur in certain environments:

First palatalization

  • t > c
  • d > dz
  • þ > s
  • ð > z
  • s > š
  • z > ž
  • k > č
  • g (as /ɡ/) > dž
  • g (as /ɣ/) > ž

Second palatalization

Includes all mutations under the first palatalization as well as:

  • n > ň
  • l > ľ
  • r > ř


  • a > o
  • ă, â > u


  • a > e
  • ă, â, î > i
  • After consonants: jo, ju > i
  • After palatalized consonants: o > i
  • Otherwise: o > e
  • u > i

Disappearing -g-

  • Some verbs have a stem-final -g- that appears in certain morphological environments and disappears in others.

Disappearing -j-, -v-, and palatalization

  • Some consonant-final verbs, nouns, and adjectives have a final -j- or -v- or a palatalization of the final consonant which appear before vowels but are lost in other environments.

Dental past suffix

The dental past suffix varies between -t-, -d-, and -ð- depending on the context.

  • -t- > after orthographic voiceless consonants, and after disappearing -g- (which is dropped in this environment)
  • -d- > after nasals and l
  • -ð- > otherwise



Personal pronouns

Varangian personal pronouns
Number Case 1st 2nd 3rd person
Masc. Fem. Neut. Refl.
Singular Nom. jek þu hân hână þat
Acc. mik sik hân hîn hână hîn þat hîn šik šă
Gen. mer ser hâns hiňi þes šer
Dat. mer ser hâns hîn hiňi hîn þes hîn šer šă
Poss. adj. min sin šin
Plural Nom. ver jer þir þer þau Same as singular.
Acc. os ăs iðr îr þir þîr þer þîr þau þîr
Gen. os iðr þem þem þem
Dat os ăs iðr îr þem þîm þem þîm þem þîm
Poss. adj. vor iðr


Constituent order

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses


Example texts

Other resources