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p ph b bh t th d dh c ch g gh mm m mh nn n ll l rr r f fh s sh h (mh only in Camalanàbha loans)

Old Bhadhaghanábha was notable for having the cross-linguistically very rare aspirated fricative /fʰ/.

all the literally read Irish vowels + eao which only occurs in CN loans. Unlike in Irish, Vi vowels and ao can occur in open syllables.


Marked nominative le

Possessive suffixes: -an, -adh, -sha, -aine, -aidhe, -ama


  • present indep -an, -adh, -0, -aine, -aidhe, -ú
  • past: -ta, -tha, -sa + pres indep suffixes
  • present dep -ar (sometimes related to PIE *-ōr)
  • past dep -mann

Gen+noun, adj+noun, noun+complementizer, construct state

The relativizer is an. The complementizer is ann, with construct state form anna. Ann is used when the complement clause has the same subject as the main clause.

Old PN has no definite article unlike Modern PN.

In independent clauses with 3rd person subjects, Old Padmanábha is V2. In dependent clauses it's SOV.

Dóish an athall-gha teola = The tree which knows everything (lit. the edge of the world)

Le Praimhín larbha séicthe reiste. - Praimhín's dog ate the bone.

Rinbhrainnean Praimhín larbha anna reiste séicmann. - I believe Praimhín's dog ate the bone. (séicmhann = "gegessen hat" but no person inflection)

Fhas blaoighte annan lorsafhaodh séicmann. - He explained that I ate the salad.

Rinbhrainnean ann/annan lorsafhaodh séicmann. - I believe that I ate the salad.


animal: sraim
arm: teanf
asafoetida: lorsa
back: míolbh
bark: cior
belly: tái
big: stéith
bird: chuar
blood: shóbha
bone: reist
breast: srofht
brother: feadhan
child: stíotha
dog: larbh
ear: dígh
east: néil
egg: nosha
elbow: úraifh
end: gleibh
endless: gleibhúdh
eye: éidhme
fat: suille
father: aithnidh
fear: faoithe
feather: gcoít
fingernail: sciofhth
fish: déimme
flower: leog
fly (insect): gofhd
foot: reithe
forest: ríne
frost: seoraí
fruit: thama
grass: rúiche
guts: dlinneach
hair: núcha
hand: flúi
head: snith
heart: luisce
heat: paeth
horn: nairth
human: ládhan
husband: sleith-beathra
illness: mhúr
in (preposition): la
infinity: gleibhúcht
island: misheafh
knee: lionn
leaf: aisc
leg: deocha
liver: steói
long: maol
louse: h-úmdha
man: beathra
meat: ceith
mother: eimnidh
mouth: iacha
narrow: cuacharta
neck: laoiphe
night: ífh
north: uibhre
nose: gíne
plough: charth (<- Proto-Semitic ḥrθ)
red: símm
ride: roghbha
river: gangá (from Camalanàbha)
root: dhóife
rope: bhuaid
seed: páilbh
shadow: lunasf
short: tlám
sister: saon
skin: geabh
small: mionn (<- Latin minimus)
snake: fhaost
snow: seor
soul: neafhsh (<- Proto-Semitic nps)
south: teashamm
star: seall
stick: cuath
tail: haoi
thick: scúil
thin: h-áfhl
to (preposition): eis
to come: eiseoth
to live: chaíofh (<- Proto-Semitic ḥyw); seir
to rise: gaom (<- Proto-Semitic qwm)
to sleep: huaileas
to smell: muir
to stand: eobhan
tongue: dhúra
tooth: steang
tree: dóish
west: spargh
wide: rao
wife: sleith-fháishe
wind: sithfhe
wing: cheam
with (preposition): ro
woman: fháishe
word: aimhreas
worm: gán

swan: lúibhean

neábha 'to drink'
séic 'to eat'
tumhadh 'to bite'
scéim 'to suck'
fiara 'to spit, to eject'
fiara néitheasach 'to vomit'
fíosha 'to blow'
stúime 'to breathe'
sraoth 'to laugh'
bhfeirthe 'to see'
diodh 'to hear'
teola 'to know'
bhrainne 'to think'
bhlaoigh 'to illuminate, to explain'