Difference between revisions of "Togarmite"

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(Sample texts)
(Newton's laws of motion)
Line 1,360: Line 1,360:
 
I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.
 
I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.
  
''II: Yn šanuj fy þyȝþik lid gaf še myþxøni l' øþisin yn møþyfacar ȝal yn gaf; w' yn šanuj kėrė darxan yn kau þykin žė ži øþisin še møþyfacar ȝal.''
+
''II: Yn šanuj fy þyȝþik lid gaf še myþxøni ly 'n øþisi møþyfacar ȝal yn gaf; w' yn šanuj kėrė darxan yn kau þykin žė ži øþisi še møþyfacar ȝal.''
  
 
II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.
 
II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.

Revision as of 18:31, 13 September 2019

Togarmite/Lexicon
Togarmite
Þėgamiþ
Pronunciation /θegamiθ/
Created by IlL
Setting Lõis
Language family
Afro-Asiatic
ISO 639-3

Togarmite (Þėgamiþ /θegamiθ/ or yn lysėn Þėgami) is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. It is inspired by Lithuanian, Germanic languages (particularly Icelandic) and the Semitic conlang Alashian.

Modern Togarmite retains the Semitic root-and-pattern morphology of Old Togarmite, but has undergone some phonological and grammatical restructuring, taking features of the Turkey-Northern Levant-Iranian sprachbund, in common with L-Persian, Padmanābha and English:

  • Grimm's law: The Old Togarmite aspirated stops φ θ χ (from Proto-Semitic *p t k) generally become spirants /f θ x/.
  • loss of grammatical gender
  • loss of the passive binyanim
  • loss of the suffix conjugation except in a few verbs
  • the use of the w-form (inherited from the Old Togarmite waw-consecutive future) for the present progressive, mirroring English -ing < PIE *-nd-kwe
  • the development of a productive concatenative verb paradigm used to form new verbs, analogous to Germanic weak verbs

Todo

  • Gzarot
  • Syntax
  • Declensions

History

The Old Togarmite name for the language, Θėgammīθ, is thought to have been borrowed from a pre-Togarmite source *Tāgarma. The name Togarmah from the same source is also attested in the Hebrew Bible. (The Greeks and the Romans called the Togarmite people Θηγαρμικοί and Thegarmici respectively.) The name of the language shows the Togarmite shift of Proto-Semitic ā to ė /e:/, mirroring the Canaanite shift ā > ō occuring in its close relative Hebrew.

Phonology

Consonants

Togarmite has 23 consonants, 22 of them inherited from Proto-Semitic. It gained /p/ during the Old Togarmite stage from adapting loans from Greek, Aramaic and Persian, e.g. parkes 'to act', from Ancient Greek praxis. It also merged Old Togarmite ħ /χ/ and h /h/ into h /h/.

  • m n /m n/
  • p t c k ' /p t ts k ʔ/
  • b d g /b d g/
  • f þ s š x h /f θ s ʃ x h/
  • w z ž ȝ /v z ʒ ɣ/
  • l r j /l r j/

Vowels

Modern Togarmite has 9 vowels in stressed syllables, possibly the largest vowel inventory of any Semitic language.

a e ė i o ø u y /ɑ ɛ e i o ø u (ə)/

ei au /ai øy/

ei and au are often merged to /e ø/. Some dialects pronounce au as /y/.

Stress

Stress is always penultimate.

Orthography

Togarmite uses an abugida based on the Phoenician alphabet, called yn albėþ (after the first 2 letters).

The abjadi letter names: al, bėþ, gam, dal, hė, wau, zėn, žėn, tėþ, jød, xaf, lam, mėm, nun, ȝėn, fė, pė, cad, køf, rėš, sin, šin, þau

Dialects

Pronouns

Personal

Modern Togarmite pronouns work very similarly to English pronouns. The accusative pronouns derive from inflected foms of Old Togarmite ʔiθ (emphasis particle and accusative, related to Hebrew et and Arabic iyya-). The possessive pronouns are derived from inflected forms of Old Togarmite la-. Other inflected prepositions don't survive, except in fixed expressions such as slėm ȝalėxøm 'hello (formal)' (lit. peace be upon you).

I thou (m.) thou (f.) he she it we you (pl.) they
Nominative/Conjunctive nėx hu hi že nan aþøm høm
Objective/Disjunctive þi þax þex þau þa þež þanė þaxøm þaum
Possessive li lax lex lau la lež lanė laxøm laum
Reflexive/Intensive afi afax afex afau afa afež afnė afxøm afaum

The plural pronouns aþøm and høm can be used as gender-neutral pronouns in the singular, like English they.

Demonstrative

who? what? which? where? whither? whence? when? how? why? how much?
this žini (sg); elini (pl) hen heno me hen ȝeþo xė; xamxė šøm; me hen xėrab
that ži (sg); eli (pl) šam šamo me šam
what mi ma ėjo ein eino men ein møran xeix lama xma, marby
all; every xøl bašar; xølhad xøl dbar xøl xølein xøleino me xølein xølam xølad darxy - -
any nux bašar nux dbar nux nuxein nuxeino me nuxein xølam nux darxy my nux sebt -
some bil bašar bil dbar bil bilein bileino me bilein ly zman; bil zman bil darxy my bil sebt -
none lėm bašar lėm dbar lėm lėmein lėmeino me lėmein lėfȝam lėm darxy my lėm sebt -

Demonstratives come before nouns as in Arabic.

  • žini beiþ 'this house'
  • eli beiþi 'those houses'

Nouns

In some ways declension has simplified: Like Knánith, Modern Togarmite has lost grammatical gender. The construct state has been lost, and the Old Togarmite definite state ʔan- has been reanalyzed as a separate definite article yn.

However, declension has become more complicated in other ways. For example, Modern Togarmite has innovated more declension paradigms.

Regular declension

Most nouns have a regular plural in -i.

Example: ȝėlam 'world'

ȝėlam 'world'
singular plural
indefinite ȝėlam ȝėlami

Segolates

These nouns come from CVCC nouns in Proto-Semitic and thus are related to segolates in Hebrew.

xalby 'dog'
singular plural
indefinite xalby xlabi

Nisba nouns

An important declension class is comprised of nouns or adjectives with the nisba suffix -i:

þėgami 'Togarmite'
singular plural
indefinite þėgami þėgamije

Singulative-collective nouns

These nouns have a marked singular in -t.

šeȝart '(strand of) hair'
singular plural
indefinite šeȝart šeȝar

Former feminines/body parts

This class consists of a small number of nouns that were feminine in Old Togarmite, such as many body parts, which take a plural in -ėþ:

øžny 'ear'
singular plural
indefinite øžny øžnė
lysėn 'tongue; language'
singular plural
indefinite lysėn lysėnėþ

-a nouns

These are mainly Greek words:

apoloža 'excuse (pretext)'
singular plural
indefinite apoloža apoložes
definite apoložan apoložėþil

Greek ending in -ma can have a plural in -mata:

þėma 'topic'
singular plural
indefinite þėma þėmes / þėmata
definite þėman þėmėþil / þėmataþil


By analogy, even some native words are declined this way:

heta 'sin'
singular plural
indefinite heta hetes
definite hetan hetėþil

Adjectives

Adjectives have the same declension patterns as nouns.

Degree

Adjectives do not have separate degree forms, unlike in Indo-European languages. A dedicated particle šøm is used for 'than'.

Verbs

TODO: an n-stem binyan?

  • Past = (eroded) suffix conjugation that became analogized with the prefix present
    • The y- prefix is not used when the verb is negated: nėx yxėþøb 'I write', nėx lė xėþøb 'I don't write'.
  • Present = from the Proto-Semitic L-stem, via analogy
  • Imperative
    • The imperative is negated with alt: Xøþøb! 'write!', Alt xøþøb! 'don't write!'
  • w-form = w + stem from the 3ms suffix conjugation in the f3øl binyan, past tense but with w- for the prefix in other binyanim
  • Infinitive
  • Participles

The suffix conjugation does not survive unlike in most other Semitic languages, except in certain irregular verbs like hwė 'to be'.

The citation form is the 2nd person singular imperative.

Binyanim

Modern Togarmite inherits all 7 binyanim of Old Togarmite. The þy- of Binyan 6 (þyfaȝel) verbs has become a productive derivational prefix, however, so some analyze Binyan 6 as a result of þy- added to faȝel verbs, rather than as a binyan in its own right.

Binyan 1: føȝøl

This binyan can take -ø- (e.g. xøþøb 'to write'), -e- (sen 'to sleep') or -a- (tøȝam 'to choose') as the theme vowel.

Binyan 1 conjugation: xøþøb 'write'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yxþøb aþ/eþ yxþøb hu/hi xþøb nan xþøb aþøm xþøb høm xþøb
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyxþab fit wyxþab fė wyxþab finė wyxþab fitøm wyxþab fu wyxþab
present nėx yxėþøb aþ/eþ yxėþøb hu/hi xėþøb nan xėþøb aþøm xėþøb høm xėþøb
present progressive nėx še wyxþab aþ/eþ še wyxþab hu/hi še wyxþab nan še wyxþab aþøm šu wyxþab høm šu wyxþab
present subjunctive nėx yxþøban aþ/eþ yxþøban hu/hi xþøban nan xþøban aþøm xþøbun høm xþøbun
future ėbe xþėb tėbe xþėb jėbe xþėb nėbe xþėb tėbu xþėb jėbu xþėb
perfect li myxþub lax/lex myxþub lau/la myxþub lanė myxþub laxøm myxþub laum myxþub
imperative xøþøb!
active participle xėþeb
passive participle myxþub
w-form wyxþab
infinitive xþėb

Binyan 2: faȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic D-stem (related to Hebrew pi33el and Arabic fa33ala)

Binyan 2 conjugation: saxen 'inhabit'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ysaxen aþ/eþ ysaxen hu/hi saxen nan saxen aþøm saxen høm saxen
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wysaxen fit wysaxen fė wysaxen finė wysaxen fitøm wysaxen fu wysaxen
present nėx ysxėxen aþ/eþ ysxėxen hu/hi sxėxen nan sxėxen aþøm sxėxen høm sxėxen
present progressive nėx še wysaxen aþ/eþ še wysaxen hu/hi še wysaxen nan še wysaxen aþøm šu wysaxen høm šu wysaxen
present subjunctive ani ysaxenan aþ/eþ ysaxenan hu/hi saxenan nan saxenan aþøm saxenun høm saxenun
future ėbe saxun tėbe saxun jėbe saxun nėbe saxun tėbu saxun jėbu saxun
perfect li møsaxan lax/lex møsaxan lau/la møsaxan lanė møsaxan laxøm møsaxan laum møsaxan
imperative saxen!
active participle møsaxen
passive participle møsaxan
w-form wysaxen
infinitive saxun

For 4-letter verbs such as parkes 'to act', the present tense is formed with the stem -C₁C₂ėC₃eC₄, like nėx yprėkes 'I act'.

Binyan 3: afȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic Š-stems thus corresponds to Hebrew hif3il and Arabic ʔaf3ala.

Binyan 3 conjugation: ažxer 'remind'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ažxer aþ/eþ ažxer hu/hi ažxer nan ažxer aþøm ažxer høm ažxer
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wažxer fit wažxer fė wažxer finė wažxer fitøm wažxer fu wažxer
present nėx ažėxer aþ/eþ ažėxer hu/hi ažėxer nan ažėxer aþøm ažėxeru høm ažėxeru
present progressive nėx še wažxer aþ/eþ še wažxer hu/hi še wažxer nan še wažxer aþøm šu wažxer høm šu wažxer
present subjunctive nėx ažxeran aþ/eþ ažxeran hu/hi ažxeran nan ažxeran aþøm ažxerun høm ažxerun
future ėbe hažxur tėbe hažxur jėbe hažxur nėbe hažxur tėbu hažxur jėbu hažxur
perfect li mažxar lax/lex mažxar lau/la mažxar lanė mažxar laxøm mažxar laum mažxar
imperative ažxer!
active participle mažxer
passive participle mažxar
w-form wažxer
infinitive ažxur

Binyan 4: yftyȝel

This binyan comes from the Proto-Semitic t-stem and shares similarities with the Hebrew binyan hitpa33el and Arabic ifta3ala. It is characterized by the þ- prefix that comes from the *t infix.

Meanings:

  • reflexive
  • reciprocal

The prefix þ metathesizes with C1 when

  • C1 = f x s š c h z ž ȝ: þf þx þs þš þh þz þž þȝ > ft xt st št ct ht zd žd ȝd
  • C1 = d t þ: þd þt þþ > d t þ
Binyan 4 conjugation: hyþlymed 'find one's way around'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yþlymed aþ/eþ yþlymed hu/hi þlymed nan þlymed aþøm þlymed høm þlymed
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyþlymed fit wyþlymed fė wyþlymed finė wyþlymed fitøm wyþlymed fu wyþlymed
present nėx yþlėmed aþ/eþ yþlėmed hu/hi þlėmed nan þlėmed aþøm þlėmed høm þlėmed
present progressive nėx še wyþlymed aþ/eþ še wyþlymed hu/hi še wyþlymed nan še wyþlymed aþøm šu wyþlymed høm šu wyþlymed
present subjunctive nėx yþlymedan aþ/eþ yþlymedan hu/hi þlymedan nan þlymedan aþøm þlymedun høm þlymedun
future ėbe hyþlymud tėbe hyþlymud jėbe hyþlymud nėbe hyþlymud tėbu hyþlymud jėbu hyþlymud
perfect li møþlymad lax/lex møþlymad lau/la møþlymad lanė møþlymad laxøm møþlymad laum møþlymad
imperative yþlymed!
active participle møþlymed
passive participle møþlymad
w-form wyþlymėd
infinitive hyþlymud

Binyan 5: eþyfȝel

This binyan comes from the Nt-stem, with the mediopassive n- marker and the reflexive/reciprocal t-marker: the stem comes from *intap3il. cf. Hebrew nitpa33el, a variant of the hitpa33el binyan and the Arabic infa3ala binyan.

Binyan 5 conjugation: eþygdel 'grow up'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx eþygdel aþ/eþ eþygdel hu/hi eþygdel nan eþygdel aþøm eþygdelu høm eþygdelu
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti weþygdel fit weþygdel fė weþygdel finė weþygdel fitøm weþygdel fu waþygdel
present nėx eþygėdel aþ/eþ eþygėdel hu/hi eþygėdel nan eþygėdel aþøm eþygėdelu høm eþygėdelu
present progressive nėx še weþygdel aþ/eþ še weþygdel hu/hi še weþygdel nan še weþygdel aþøm šu weþygdel høm šu weþygdel
present subjunctive nėx eþygdelan aþ/eþ eþygdelan hu/hi eþygdelan nan eþygdelan aþøm eþygdelun høm eþygdelun
future ėbe heþygdul tėbe heþygdul jėbe heþygdul nėbe heþygdul tėbu heþygdul jėbu heþygdul
perfect li meþygdal lax/lex meþygdal lau/la meþygdal lanė meþygdal laxøm meþygdal laum meþygdal
imperative - heþygdel! - - heþygdelu! -
active participle meþygdel
passive participle meþygdal
w-form waþygdel
infinitive heþygdul

Binyan 6: þyfaȝel

This binyan comes from the tD-stem (t- with geminate stem) and corresponds directly to the Arabic binyan tafa33ala.

The main meanings of this binyan are:

  • reciprocal or back-and-forth action
  • reaction/back, re-: the most productive modern meaning
    • þy'awer 'to reflect', from aur 'light'
    • þyparkes 'to react', from parkis 'action'
    • þysalem 'to repay', from √s-l-m 'peace, whole'
    • þyȝanė 'to satisfy', from √ȝ-n-j 'distress, need'; probably influenced by a now obsolete meaning 'to answer' of the same root
  • unpredictable change in meaning

The resemblance of this binyan to the very common faȝel binyan has led to the þy- prefix becoming productive, with some semantic overlap with the prefix re- in English.

Binyan 6 conjugation: þydares 'teach'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx yþydares aþ/eþ yþydares hu/hi þydares nan þydares aþøm þydares høm þydares
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyþydares fit wyþydares fė wyþydares finė wyþydares fitøm wyþydares fu wyþydares
present nėx yþydrėres aþ/eþ yþydrėres hu/hi þydrėres nan þydrėres aþøm þydrėres høm þydrėres
present progressive nėx še wyþydares aþ/eþ še wyþydares hu/hi še wyþydares nan še wyþydares aþøm šu wyþydares høm šu wyþydares
present subjunctive nėx yþydaresan aþ/eþ yþydaresan hu/hi þydaresan nan þydaresan aþøm þydaresun høm þydaresun
future ėbe þydarus tėbe þydarus jėbe þydarus nėbe þydarus tėbu þydarus jėbu þydarus
perfect li møþydaras lax/lex møþydaras lau/la møþydaras lanė møþydaras laxøm møþydaras laum møþydaras
imperative þydares!
active participle møþydares
passive participle møþydaras
w-form wyþydares
infinitive þydarus

Binyan 7: styfȝel

This binyan comes from the Št-stem and is directly related to the binyan istaf3ala in Arabic and the very rare binyan hishtaf3el in Biblical Hebrew.

Binyan 7 conjugation: stytȝem 'try out'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ystytȝem aþ/eþ ystytȝem hu/hi stytȝem nan stytȝem aþøm stytȝem høm stytȝem
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wystytȝem fit wystytȝem fė wystytȝem finė wystytȝem fitøm wystytȝem fu wystytȝem
present nėx ystytėȝem aþ/eþ ystytėȝem hu/hi stytėȝem nan stytėȝem aþøm stytėȝem høm stytėȝem
present progressive nėx še wystytȝem aþ/eþ še wystytȝem hu/hi še wystytȝem nan še wystytȝem aþøm šu wystytȝem høm šu wystytȝem
present subjunctive nėx ystytȝeman aþ/eþ ystytȝeman hu/hi stytȝeman nan stytȝeman aþøm stytȝemun jystytȝemun
future ėbe stytȝum tėbe stytȝum jėbe stytȝum nėbe stytȝum tėbu stytȝum jėbu stytȝum
perfect li møstytȝam lax/lex møstytȝam lau/la møstytȝam lanė møstytȝam laxøm møstytȝam laum møstytȝam
imperative - stytȝem! - - stytȝemu! -
active participle møstytȝem
passive participle møstytȝam
w-form wystytȝem
infinitive stytȝum

Concatenative verbs

The concatenative paradigm, analogous to Germanic weak verbs, is formed by adding prefixes and suffixes, without changing the stem. The past and imperative forms are formed by adding -i or -ji to the noun, when no other suffix is added.

It is used for recent loan verbs like maksimezi 'to maximize', but can also be used to derive verbs from native nouns:

  • mydrasi 'to school' (from mydras 'school')
  • þaxili 'to consume' (from þaxil 'consumption', itself from the root √ʔ-x-l 'to eat')
  • žaxoji 'to entitle, to allow' (from žaxo 'right')
  • ȝeini 'to eye' (from ȝein 'eye')

The endings are mainly derived from Middle Togarmite forms of 3-y verbs.

  • [STEM]-i = active
  • þy-[STEM]-i = re-
  • mø- = active participle
  • -ėþ = infinitive
Weak verb conjugation: mydrasi 'to school'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nėx ymydrasi aþ/eþ ymydrasi hu/hi mydrasi nan mydrasi aþøm mydrasi høm mydrasi
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wymydrasi fit wymydrasi fė wymydrasi finė wymydrasi fitøm wymydrasi fu wymydrasi
present nėx ymydrasė aþ/eþ ymydrasė hu/hi mydrasė nan mydrasė aþøm mydrasė høm mydrasė
present progressive yše wymydrasi tyše wymydrasi jyše wymydrasi nyše wymydrasi tyšu wymydrasi jyšu wymydrasi
present subjunctive nėx ymydrasan aþ/eþ ymydrasan hu/hi mydrasan nan mydrasan aþøm mydrasun høm mydrasun
future ėbe mydrasėþ tėbe mydrasėþ jėbe mydrasėþ nėbe mydrasėþ tėbu mydrasėþ jėbu mydrasėþ
perfect li mømydrasa lax/lex mømydrasa lau/la mømydrasa lanė mømydrasa laxøm mømydrasa laum mømydrasa
imperative mydrasi!
active participle mømydrasė
passive participle mømydrasa
w-form wymydrasi
infinitive mydrasėþ

fe 'to be'

The verb 'to be' is perhaps the most irregular verb of the language; it displays suppletion and it uses the Proto-Semitic suffix conjugation in the past tense.

fe 'to be'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional fiti fit finė fitøm fu
past progressive; past subjunctive fiti wyfė fit wyfė fė wyfė finė wyfė fitøm wyfė fu wyfė
present nėx še (or nėx) aþ/eþ še (or aþ/eþ) hu/hi še (or hu/hi) nan še (or nan) aþøm šu (or aþøm) høm šu (or høm)
present progressive yše wyfė tyše wyfė jyše wyfė nyše wyfė tyšu wyfė jyšu wyfė
present subjunctive yfijan tyfijan jyfijan nyfijan tyfijun jyfijun
future ėbe fėþ tėbe fėþ jėbe fėþ nėbe fėþ tėbu fėþ jėbu fėþ
imperative fe!
active participle hėwi
passive participle fuj
w-form wyfė
infinitive fėþ

xėl 'can'

xėl 'can'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional nex yxel aþ/eþ yxel hu/hi xel nan xel aþøm xel høm xel
past subjunctive fiti wėxel fit wėxel fė wėxel finė wėxel fitøm wėxel fu wėxel
present wyxėlti wyxėlt wyxėl wyxėlnė wyxėltøm wyxėlu
present subjunctive nėx yxelan aþ/eþ yxelan hu/hi xelan nan xelan aþøm xelun høm xelun
future ėbe xėl tėbe xėl jėbe xėl nėbe xėl tėbu xėl jėbu xėl
active participle -
passive participle fuj wėxel
w-form wėxel
infinitive xėl

høbė 'should; ought'

høba 'should; ought'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
present nėx høbė aþ/eþ høbė hu/hi høbė nan høbu aþøm høbu høm høbu

ryšė 'to want'

ryšė 'to want'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1sg 2sg 3sg 1pl 2pl 3pl
past; conditional yrši tyrši jyrši nyršu tyršu jyršu
past subjunctive hwiti wyrši hwit wyrši hwė wyrši hwinė wyrši hwitøm wyrši hwu wyrši
present nėx ryšė aþ/eþ ryšė hu/hi ryšė nan ryšu aþøm ryšu høm ryšu
future ėbe ryšėþ tėbe ryšėþ jėbe ryšėþ nėbe ryšėþ tėbu ryšėþ jėbu ryšėþ
w-form wyrši
active participle rėši
passive participle myršuj
infinitive ryšėþ

Gzarot

Main article: Togarmite/Gzarot

In Semitic languages, gzarot (Hebrew גְּזָרוֹת‎, sg. gizra גִּזְרָה 'figure, form, pattern') are variations of an inflectional (especially verbal) paradigm that are determined by the choice of consonants in the consonantal root. Thus, a paradigm has not only a regular gizra but various irregular ones, which occur most commonly when

  • the consonantal root contains a "guttural" (ʔ ȝ h) or a semivowel (j w);
  • the consonantal root contains a n, since nC tends to assimilate into CC
  • the consonantal root has 2 letters.

Because Togarmite only uses the prefix conjugation, modern Togarmite gzarot are in some ways less bad than Hebrew gzarot; most of the irregularities occur in binyan fȝøl. However, there are often so many irregularities even within each gizra, and cases of analogy between verbs of different gzarot, that the concept of gzarot in Modern Togarmite has been questioned: in Togarmite, a "gizra" just describes general tendencies of verbs with a certain root consonant.

Prepositions

Some prepositions:

  • in 'in' [from PSem *ina]
  • ly (l before V) 'to'
  • by (b before V) 'by, at'
  • šydo 'out of' (from *śadiy-ah 'to the field')
  • me (men before V) 'from'
  • ȝem 'with'
  • ȝal 'on'
  • lid 'of (possessive)'
  • ȝbar 'over'
  • þaþ 'under'
  • arþo 'down' (from *ʔarþ-ah "earthward")
  • darxan 'along'

Syntax of prepositions

Numerals

Cardinal

0: cefry 1: yhad 2: šnein / attributive šnė 3: šlėš (animate šlėšt) 4: yrbaȝ (animate yrbaȝt) 5: hymes (animate hymest) 6: setš (animate setšt) 7: sabȝy (animate sabȝyt) 8: šmėni (animate šmėnt) 9: þesȝy (animate tesȝyt) 10: ȝašry (animate ȝašryt) 11: ȝašry yhad 12: ȝašry šnein 20: ȝešrin 30: šlėšin 40: yrbȝin 50: hymsin 60: setšin 70: sybȝin 80: šmėnin 90: þesȝin 100: me'yþ 101: me'yþ yhad 200: meþein 300: šlėš me'yþ 400: yrbaȝ me'yþ 1000: alfy 2000: alfein 3000: šlėš alf 1000000: alfun 10^9: bėþfun 10^12: gamfun etc.

Plural numerals usually take plural nouns. They used to take singular nouns, however this is considered archaic.

Numbers ending in digits "3" through "9" (thus ending in šlėš through tesȝy), or "10" (thus ending in ȝašry), have two forms depending on the animacy of the noun: hymes myrþemi 'five abacuses', but hymest ahėþ 'five sisters'. The animate forms come from the masculine forms (reverse polarity) marked with *-t in Proto-Semitic.

Ordinal

Ordinals are formed using the pattern CCuC; as in English, "1st" and "2nd" are irregular, from elatives *ʔaʕlay- 'topmost' and *ʔaʕqab- 'the immediately following' respectively. In compound numerals, the last number word is inflected to the ordinal form.

  • 1st = yȝlė
  • 2nd = yȝkab
  • 3rd = šluš
  • 4th = rbuȝ
  • 5th = hmus
  • 6th = stuš
  • 7th = sbuȝ
  • 8th = šmun
  • 9th = þsuȝ
  • 10th = ȝšur
  • 11th = ȝašry-yȝlė
  • 12th = ȝašry-yȝkab
  • 13th = ȝašry-šluš

etc.

Fractional

Fractional numerals are formed with the segolate pattern CøCCy (pl. CøCaCi). Compound numerals can be inflected as well, like in the case of ordinal numerals. The analogized form øhdy is used for numerals ending in "1".

  • half = gøb (from *gunb- 'side')
  • 3rd = šølšy
  • 4th = røbȝy
  • 11th = ȝašry-øhdy

To express "m/n", Togarmite uses "m nths": "2/3" is šnė šølaši.

Syntax

Faulty accusative marker

The faulty accusative marker is used. It behaves like MSA accusative case and Welsh soft mutation: when there is a constituent separating the verb or predicate from a second constituent, comes between the two constituents regardless of whether the second constituent is actually a direct object. Example:

  • Halex wyfė li šlėšt xlabi, wy ȝeþo lėš li nux. = I used to have three dogs, and now I don't have any.
  • Yn dėrest li ryšė li ȝyšėþ rab þamuni beiþ. = My teacher wants me to do a lot of homework.

Questions

Yes-no questions require the question marker ha to be placed at the beginning of the sentence.

What-questions have a syntax similar to English.

Existentials

The word is used to indicate existence. It is also used with the preposition ly 'to' or the possessive pronouns to indicate possession. The negative of is lėš.

  • Lėš mykėm ėn xøl bašar šaš. = There is no place where everyone is happy.
  • Ha iš lex zman? = Do you (f. sg.) have time?

The particle uses the accusative marker when the "object" is animate.

Conditional clauses

  • "if" = em
  • "then" =

Relative clauses

The relative pronoun xi or žė is used for both relative and complement clauses. It may takes prepositional cases, just like English relative pronouns. The word žė is from PSem *ðā, a form of the demonstrative *ðū; cf. Biblical Hebrew זו zu, Aramaic די .

For relative clauses whose heads are prepositional objects in the relative clause, there are two strategies like in English:

  • In informal Togarmite, the relativizer is treated as a resumptive pronoun which takes the preposition, like English which: yn gabry ly xi nėx yþen yn maþan, lit. 'the man to which I gave the gift'. This syntax arose from the influence of surrounding languages like English.
  • In formal Togarmite, the preposition goes to the end of the clause: yn gabry xi nėx yþen yn maþan ly lit. 'the man which I gave the gift to'. This syntax arose from the native Semitic construction which used a resumptive pronoun on the preposition: after the resumptive pronoun lost the stress, the preposition lost its pronominal suffix and moved to the end of the clause.
  • A combination of both strategies can be used: yn gabry ly xi nėx yþen yn maþan ly, lit. 'The man to which I gave the gift to'.

Derivation

Noun and adjective patterns

  • CaCCy(þ), CeCCy(þ), CøCCy(þ) = segolates
  • CyCiC = adjective; -able
  • CyCuC = adjective; color
  • CyCaCt, CyCeCt, CyCøCt
  • CaCøCt = describes a condition
  • CyCeCCaC = diminutive
  • myCCaC(t), meCCaC(t), myCCėC: noun, often denoting place
  • maCCaCt = causative version of myCCaC(t)
  • myCCeC(t) = instrument
  • maCCeCt = causative version of myCCeC(t)
  • þyCCuC, þyCCiC, þyCCėC = action or process
  • þyCCøCt = (hypothetical cognate of Hebrew tiCCóCet) = system of things
  • CaCėC = agentive
    • CaCaCt = feminine agentive (not always used)
    • or CaCėC?
  • CaCCan = agentive; -an is an agentive
  • CaCCėn, CeCCėn, and CeCaCėn = nouns, often an augmentative

Affixes

  • -an = forms agentives and adjectives
  • -in = collectives
    • lamusin 'charity'
  • -uþ = abstract noun
  • -i = forms adjectives
  • -iþ = forms adverbs
  • i- = non-, un-
    • ibašari 'incorporeal'
    • iwøxli 'impossible'
  • tarmy- = pre-, not yet
    • tarmy-mynaša 'never married'
  • -yr = someone who is characterized by X (from English)
    • wduȝyr 'know-it-all', from wduȝ 'knowledgeable'
  • -ri = -ry (from English)
    • kdėsri = excessive piousness or asceticism, from kdės 'holy'
    • xyl'anri = double standard or hypocrisy, from the agentive xyl'an 'hypocrite' of √x-l-ʔ 'double'
  • auto- = self-
  • e- = a- (from ʔiC-, an assimilated form of the OTog preposition ʔin 'in'); these adjectives can usually only be predicative
    • e'est 'ablaze'
    • edarxy 'away'
    • eþal 'galore' (lit. a-mound)
    • emein 'drowned, lost forever', lit. awater
  • -byl = -able (from English -able and native abȝel 'to be able to')

Sample texts

Newton's laws of motion

I: Dbar šėbøþ by dymi, o by ȝyþėk enomorfy, lulė ydraȝ prėkes ȝal þež.

I: An object stays at rest, or at a constant speed, unless a force acts on it.

II: Yn šanuj fy þyȝþik lid gaf še myþxøni ly 'n øþisi møþyfacar ȝal yn gaf; w' yn šanuj kėrė darxan yn kau þykin žė ži øþisi še møþyfacar ȝal.

II: The change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force applied to the body; and the change occurs along the straight line on which that force is applied.

III: Iš ly xøl parkis iþ þyparkis is w' anteþet.

III: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

O how quickly the sculpture of life

O! Xma myhiriþ yn myklaȝ lid hein
Šaber in temaša zȝarȝeri!
Yn mygiluþ lid yn malx ȝal yn þrøn lau
Še xliliþ mygruf edarxy by gali jam.
Aþøm xi jėþ heno mømancabta hen,
Ȝabry hen Elėh aþøm lawani ȝal yn arþ.
Xøl lanė mødajan ȝal parkisi lanė;
Þnenė þėþ lyn ȝnij, wy agaþeržijėþ had ly wdud.

O how quickly the sculpture of life
Shattered into tiny fragments!
The splendor of the king on his throne
Is completely swept away by sea-waves.
Ye who come hither stationed here,
By the grace of God ye are guests on earth.
All of us are judged according to our actions;
Let us give to the needy, and do charity towards one another.

Stairway To Heaven

Maȝlyþ lyn Symeiniþ
Iš gabryþ xi še šur
Xøl xi nėher še žahab
Wy hi še wykna maȝlyþ lyn symeiniþ

UDHR

Xøl ynėsi še mewøladi hyruri w' isi in akšoprepja wy žyxawi. Høm še møþyhanani ȝym ložeki wy synidisi wy høbu ly parkus l' odšni in ruh lid ahwuþ.