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Old Togarmite
Created byIlL
  • Semitic
    • Northwest Semitic
      • Old Togarmite

Old Togarmite or Classical Togarmite (θėgarmī́θ /tʰɛːgarˈmiːtʰ/ or an lasė́n an θėgarmī́θ /an laˈsɛːn an tʰɛːgarˈmiːtʰ/; Modern: Þėrmiþ ȝyþik) is an ancient Semitic language with an Ancient Greek aesthetic; it is the ancestor of Modern Togarmite.


Introduce dual number in nouns and pronouns but not in verbs



  • m n /m n/
  • p t c č k ʔ /p’ t’ ts’ tʃ’ k’ ʔ/
  • b d j g /b d dʒ g/
  • φ θ χ /pʰ tʰ kʰ/
  • s š ħ h /s ʃ ħ h/
  • z ž ȝ /z ʒ ʁ/
  • w l r y /w l r j/

Coda p t c č k were glottally reinforced: φasīt 'simple' /pʰa'si:t’/ was pronounced [pʰasi:ʔt’].


Old Togarmite had the following vowels:

a ā e ė ē i ī ȯ ō u ū ay aw /a aː ɛ ɛː eː ɪ iː ɔː oː ʊ uː aj aw/


Stress is phonemic and not entirely predictable. Old Togarmite stress is a result of extensive analogical levelling from Proto-Semitic (particularly in verbs), and caused vowel lengthening as in Hebrew.

Final stress is common but less so than in Hebrew: Togarmite words often resemble Hebrew pausal forms with penultimate stress (e.g. OTog yasmā́ȝū /jasˈmaːʁuː/ 'they hear', cf. Tiberian Hebrew pausal variant /jiʃˈmɔːʕuː/ for ישמעו /jiʃmăˈʕuː/ 'they hear').




  • 1sg: ʔanė́χ
  • 2sg: ʔáθθa (m), ʔéθθi (f)
  • 3sg: (m), (f)
  • 1pl: náħnė
  • 2pl: ʔáθθum (m), ʔéθθin (f)
  • 3pl: hōm (m), hēn (f)


  • 1sg: -nī
  • 2sg: -χa (f), -χi (f)
  • 3sg: -uh/-hu (m), /-hā (f)
  • 1pl: -nė
  • 2pl: -χum (m), -χin (f)
  • 3pl: -um/-hum (m), -in/-hin (f)

Object suffixes immediately follow the verb, and certain vowels are inserted before affixes that begin in a consonant:

  • 1s perfect: žaχárθuχa 'I remember you'
  • 3ms perfect: χabbḗra 'he has made me great'
  • prefix conjugation forms with no suffix: yuχabbḗru 'he makes me great'; χabbḗru 'make me great!'

Inflected prepositions


Nouns have singular and plural numbers and three states as in Hebrew and Aramaic. Both definite nouns and definite adjectives are marked with the particle an. The formation of the construct follows a rather complex set of rules, often involving a stress shift.

A noun in the construct state is presumed to be definite. Only the last noun in a construct noun phrase can have its definiteness changed by adding an before it: bėθ báȝle 'a master's house' and bėθ an báȝle 'the master's house' are both definite.

Masculine nouns

ȝėlā́m = world

  • absolute: ȝėlā́m, ȝėlamī́n
  • construct: ȝė́lam, ȝėlā́mė
  • definite: an ȝėlā́m, an ȝėlamī́n

Possessive forms are formed by adding possessive suffixes to construct forms:

singular: báyθī, báyθaχ, báyθeχ, báyθū, báyθā, báyθenė, báyθeχum, báyθeχin, báyθōm, báyθēn

plural: bėθáy, bėθáyχa, bėθáyχe, bėθáyyū, bėθáyyā, bėθáynė, bėθáyχum, bėθáyχin, bėθáyyum, bėθáyyin

Feminine -(a)θ nouns

ȝasū́raθ = noblewoman

  • indefinite: ȝasū́raθ, ȝasūrė́θ
  • construct: ȝasū́raθ, ȝasū́rėθ
  • definite: an ȝasū́raθ, an ȝasūrė́θ

warášθ = last will

  • indefinite: warášθ, warašė́θ
  • construct: warášθ, warā́šėθ
  • definite: an warášθ, an warašė́θ


Declension of tėb 'good' (modifying yawm (m.) 'day' and φarīθ (f.) 'fruit' respectively):

Attributive declension for hard-stem adjectives
number singular plural
gender m. f. m. f.
indef. yawm tėb φarī́θ tė́baθ yawmė́θ tėbī́n φariyė́θ tėbė́θ
def. an yawm an tė́b an φarī́θ an tė́baθ an yawmė́θ an tėbī́n an φariyė́θ an tėbė́θ


See Togarmite/Old/Gzarot for common verb irregularities..

Old Togarmite verbs are divided into 8 binyanim:

  1. φaȝāl/nuφȝāl - G/N-stem
  2. φaȝȝēl/φuȝȝāl - D-stem
  3. φėȝēl/φūȝāl - L-stem
  4. haφȝēl/hassuφȝāl - Š-stem
  5. haφθaȝāl - tG/Gt-stem
  6. niφθuȝāl - Nt-stem
  7. θaφaȝȝēl/θaφuȝȝāl - tD-stem
  8. hastaφȝēl/hastuφȝāl - Št-stem

Togarmite finite verbs have 7 morphological tenses:

  • perfect: like the English perfect
  • present: present, continuing or habitual action
  • future: future action or completed in the future; gnomic tense
  • subjunctive: for sequences of tenses
  • optative: for sequences of tenses; less strong wishes
  • jussive: demands; wishes
  • imperative: direct commands

Binyan 1A: φaȝāl

Semantics: basic action

Binyan 1A conjugation: χaθā́b 'to write'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past χaθábθ χaθábθa χaθábθi χaθā́b χaθā́baθ χaθábnė χaθábθum χaθábθin χaθā́bū χaθábna
present ʔaχėθṓb θaχėθṓb θaχėθṓbī yaχėθṓb yaχėθṓbī naχėθṓb θaχėθṓbū θaχėθṓbna yaχėθṓbū yaχėθṓbna
future ʔaχθṓb θaχθṓb θaχθṓbī yaχθṓb yaχθṓbī naχθṓb θaχθṓbū θaχθúbna yaχθṓbū yaχθúbna
optative ʔaχθubánna θaχθubánna θaχθubínna yaχθubánna yaχθubínna naχθubánna θaχθubúnna θaχθubnánna yaχθubúnna yaχθubnánna
jussive ʔáχθub θáχθub θáχθubī yáχθub yáχθubī náχθub θáχθubū θáχθubna yáχθubū yáχθubna
imperative - χuθṓb! χuθṓbī! - - - χuθṓbū! χuθṓbna! - -
active participle χėθḗb
passive participle χaθū́b
verbal noun χiθė́b

Example: ħamā́l 'to suffer', žaχā́r 'to remember'

Binyan 1P: nuφȝāl

Semantics: passive of Binyan 1; change of state

Binyan 1P conjugation: nugdā́l 'to grow'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past nugdálθ nugdálθa nugdálθi nugdā́l nugdā́laθ nugdálnė nugdálθum nugdálθin nugdā́lū nugdálna
present ʔuggėdā́l θuggėdā́l θuggėdā́lī yuggėdā́l yuggėdā́lī nuggėdā́l θuggėdā́lū θuggėdálna yuggėdā́lū yuggėdálna
future ʔuggadā́l θuggadā́l θuggadā́lī yuggadā́l yuggadā́lī nuggadā́l θuggadā́lū θuggadálna yuggadā́lū yuggadálna
optative ʔuggadalánna θuggadalánna θuggadalínna yuggadalánna yuggadalínna nuggadalánna θuggadalúnna θuggadalnánna yuggadalúnna yuggadalnánna
jussive ʔúggadal θúggadal θúggadalī yúggadal yúggadalī núggadal θúggadalū θúggadalna yúggadalū yúggadalna
imperative - huggadā́l! huggadā́lī! - - - huggadā́lū! huggadálna! - -
participle muggadā́l
verbal noun nugdė́l

Binyan 2A: φaȝȝēl

Semantics: intensive, causative, applicative, denominal verbs including 4-consonant verbs and loan verbs.


  • šabbḗr 'to shatter' (intensive of š-b-r 'to break')
  • žaχχḗr 'to record' (causative of ž-χ-r 'to remember')
  • ħassḗb 'to consider' (applicative of ħ-s-b 'to think')
  • sayyḗr 'to sing the praises of' (applicative of s(-y-)r 'to sing')
  • žāhḗb 'to gild' (denominative of žahāb 'gold')
  • nabbḗʔ 'to prophesy, to call out' (from Hebrew נביא nâbiʔ)
  • θargḗm 'to translate' (from Aramaic תרגום targum)
  • lammḗs 'to give charitably; to give alms' (from lammū́sīn 'alms', from Greek eleēmosynē)
  • raθθḗm 'to count' (the root r-θ-m was borrowed from Greek arithmos 'number')
Binyan 2A conjugation: žaχχḗr 'to record; to cause to remember'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past žaχχírθ žaχχírθa žaχχírθi žaχχḗr žaχχḗraθ žaχχírnė žaχχírθum žaχχírθin žaχχḗrū žaχχírna
present ʔažaχėχḗr θažaχėχḗr θažaχėχḗrī yažaχėχḗr yažaχėχḗrī nažaχėχḗr θažaχėχḗrū θažaχėχírna yažaχėχḗrū yažaχėχírna
future ʔažaχχḗr θažaχχḗr θažaχχḗrī yažaχχḗr yažaχχḗrī nažaχχḗr θažaχχḗrū θažaχχírna yažaχχḗrū yažaχχírna
optative ʔažaχχiránna θažaχχiránna θažaχχirínna yažaχχiránna yažaχχirínna nažaχχiránna θažaχχirúnna θažaχχirnánna yažaχχirúnna yažaχχirnánna
jussive ʔažáχχir θažáχχir θažáχχirī yažáχχir yažáχχirī nažáχχir θažáχχirū θažáχχirna yažáχχirū yažáχχirna
imperative - žaχχḗr! žaχχḗrī! - - - žaχχḗrū! žaχχírna! - -
participle mužaχχḗr
verbal noun žaχχū́r, žiχχárθ

Binyan 2P: φuȝȝāl

Binyan 2P conjugation: žuχχā́r 'to be recorded'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past žuχχárθ žuχχárθa žuχχárθi žuχχā́r žuχχā́raθ žuχχárnė žuχχárθum žuχχárθin žuχχā́rū žuχχárna
present ʔažuχėχā́r θažuχėχā́r θažuχėχā́rī yažuχėχā́r yažuχėχā́rī nažuχėχā́r θažuχėχā́rū θažuχėχárna yažuχėχā́rū yažuχėχárna
future ʔažuχχā́r θažuχχā́r θažuχχā́rī yažuχχā́r yažuχχā́rī nažuχχā́r θažuχχā́rū θažuχχárna yažuχχā́rū yažuχχárna
optative ʔažuχχaránna θažuχχaránna θažuχχarínna yažuχχaránna yažuχχarínna nažuχχaránna θažuχχarúnna θažuχχarnánna yažuχχarúnna yažuχχarnánna
jussive ʔažúχχar θažúχχar θažúχχarī yažúχχar yažúχχarī nažúχχar θažúχχarū θažúχχarna yažuχχarū yažúχχarna
imperative Verbs of this binyan have no imperatives.
participle mužuχχā́r
verbal noun Verbs of this binyan have no verbal nouns.

Binyan 3A: haφȝēl

Semantics: causative

Binyan 3A conjugation: hakdḗs 'to dedicate, to set apart'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past hakdísθ hakdísθa hakdísθi hakdḗs hakdḗsaθ hakdísnė hakdísθum hakdísθin hakdḗsū hakdísna
present ʔakėdḗs θakėdḗs θakėdḗsī yakėdḗs yakėdḗsī nakėdḗs θakėdḗsū θakėdísna yakėdḗsū yakėdísna
future ʔakdḗs θakdḗs θakdḗsī yakdḗs yakdḗsī nakdḗs θakdḗsū θakdísna yakdḗsū yakdísna
optative ʔakdisánna θakdisánna θakdisínna yakdisánna yakdisínna nakdisánna θakdisúnna θakdisnánna yakdisúnna yakdisnánna
jussive ʔákdis θákdis θákdisī yákdis yákdisī nákdis θákdisū θákdisna yákdisū yákdisna
imperative - hakdḗs! hakdḗsī! - - - hakdḗsū! hakdísna! - -
participle makdḗs
verbal noun hakdū́s

Binyan 3P: huφȝāl, hissuφȝāl

A variant of this binyan is hissuφȝāl, from older *in-suφȝāl.

Binyan 3A conjugation: hukdā́s 'to be dedicated, to be set apart'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past hukdásθ hukdásθa hukdásθi hukdā́s hukdā́saθ hukdásnė hukdásθum hukdásθin hukdā́sū hukdásna
present ʔukėdā́s θukėdā́s θukėdā́sī yukėdā́s yukėdā́sī nukėdā́s θukėdā́sū θukėdásna yukėdā́sū yukėdásna
future ʔukdā́s θukdā́s θukdā́sī yukdā́s yukdā́sī nukdā́s θukdā́sū θukdásna yukdā́sū yukdásna
optative ʔukdasánna θukdasánna θukdasínna yukdasánna yukdasínna nukdasánna θukdasúnna θukdasnánna yukdasúnna yukdasnánna
jussive ʔúkdas θúkdas θúkdasī yúkdas yúkdasī núkdas θúkdasū θúkdasna yúkdasū yúkdasna
imperative Verbs of this binyan have no imperatives.
participle mukdā́s
verbal noun Verbs of this binyan have no imperatives.

Binyan 4: heθφaȝāl

Semantics: reflexive, reciprocal, event or change of state

Metathesis happens when C1 ∈ {s, š, c, z, ž, j, ħ, ȝ}: θs θš θc θz θž θj θħ θȝ > st št ct zd žd jd ħt ȝd.

Binyan 4A conjugation: heθlaħā́m 'to be at war'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past heθlaħámθ heθlaħámθa heθlaħámθi heθlaħā́m heθlaħā́maθ heθlaħámnė heθlaħámθum heθlaħámθin heθlaħā́mū heθlaħámna
present ʔeθlėħā́m θeθlėħā́m θeθlėħā́mī yeθlėħā́m yeθlėħā́mī neθlėħā́m θeθlėħā́mū θeθlėħámna yeθlėħā́mū yeθlėħámna
future ʔeθlaħā́m θeθlaħā́m θeθlaħā́mī yeθlaħā́m yeθlaħā́mī neθlaħā́m θeθlaħā́mū θeθlaħámna yeθlaħā́mū yeθlaħámna
optative ʔeθlaħamánna θeθlaħamánna θeθlaħamínna yeθlaħamánna yeθlaħamínna neθlaħamánna θeθlaħamúnna θeθlaħamnánna yeθlaħamánna yeθlaħamnánna
jussive ʔéθlaħam θéθlaħam θéθlaħamī yéθlaħam yéθlaħamī néθlaħam θéθlaħamū θéθlaħamna yéθlaħamū yéθlaħamna
imperative - heθlaħā́m! heθlaħā́mī! - - - heθlaħā́mū! heθlaħámna! - -
active participle meθlaħā́m
verbal noun heθlaħū́m

Binyan 5: niθφuȝāl

Semantics: reflexive or change of state

Binyan 4A conjugation: niθluħā́m 'to go to war'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past niθluħámθ niθluħámθa niθluħámθi niθluħā́m niθluħā́maθ niθluħámnė niθluħámθum niθluħámθin niθluħā́mū niθluħámna
present ʔeθθulėħā́m θeθθulėħā́m θeθθulėħā́mī yeθθulėħā́m yeθθulėħā́mī neθθulėħā́m θeθθulėħā́mū́ θeθθulėħámna yeθθulėħā́mū yeθθulėħámna
future ʔeθθulħā́m θeθθulħā́m θeθθulħā́mī yeθθulħā́m yeθθulħā́mī neθθulħā́m θeθθulħā́mū́ θeθθulħámna yeθθulħā́mū yeθθulħámna
optative ʔeθθulħamánna θeθθulħamánna θeθθulħamínna yeθθulħamánna yeθθulħamínna neθθulħamánna θeθθulħamúnna θeθθulħamnánna yeθθulħamánna yeθθulħamnánna
jussive ʔeθθúlħam θeθθúlħam θeθθúlħamī yeθθúlħam yeθθúlħamī neθθúlħam θeθθúlħamū θeθθúlħamna yeθθúlħamū yeθθúlħamna
imperative - heθθulħā́m! heθθulħā́mī! - - - heθθulħā́mū! heθθulħámna! - -
active participle meθθulħā́m
verbal noun niθlaħė́m

Binyan 6A: θaφaȝȝēl

Semantics: "back-and-forth" actions

Example: θažaχχēr 'to resent, to desire revenge on'

Conjugation is similar to Binyan 2, just with the prefix θa- added.

Binyan 6P: θaφuȝȝāl

Binyan 7A: hastaφȝēl

Semantics: "to make oneself X"; "to take it upon oneself to X"; tends to form verbs involving conscious decision.


  • hastamȝḗl 'to dare, to venture'
  • hastažχḗr 'to make note of'
  • hastaχθḗb 'to copy, to transcribe'
  • hastaχlė 'to commit suicide'

Binyan 7A conjugation: hastatȝḗm 'to attempt'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past hastatȝímθ hastatȝímθa hastatȝímθi hastatȝḗm hastatȝḗmaθ hastatȝímnė hastatȝímtum hastatȝímtin hastatȝḗmū hastatȝímna
subjunctive wastatȝímθī wastatȝímθa wastatȝímθi wastatȝḗm wastatȝḗmaθ wastatȝímnė wastatȝímtum wastatȝímtin wastatȝḗmū wastatȝímna
future ʔastatȝḗm θastatȝḗm θastatȝḗmī yastatȝḗm yastatȝḗmī nastatȝḗm θastatȝḗmū θastatȝímna yastatȝḗmū yastatȝímna
optative ʔastatȝimánna θastatȝimánna θastatȝimínna yastatȝimánna yastatȝimínna nastatȝimánna θastatȝimúnna θastatȝímnanna yastatȝimúnna yastatȝímnanna
jussive ʔastátȝim θastátȝim θastátȝimī yastátȝim yastátȝimī nastátȝim θastátȝimū θastátȝímna yastátȝimū yastátȝimna
imperative - hastatȝḗm! hastatȝḗmī! - - - hastatȝḗmū! hastatȝímna! - -
participle mustatȝḗm
verbal noun hastatȝū́m

Binyan 7P: hastuφȝāl

Binyan 7A conjugation: hastutȝā́m 'to be attempted'
→ Person
↓ Tense
1s 2ms 2fs 3ms 3fs 1p 2mp 2fp 3mp 3fp
past hastutȝámθ hastutȝámθa hastutȝámθi hastutȝā́m hastutȝā́maθ hastutȝámnė hastutȝámθum hastutȝámθin hastutȝā́mū hastutȝámna
present ʔastutėȝā́m θastutėȝā́m θastutėȝā́mī yastutėȝā́m yastutėȝā́mī nastutėȝā́m θastutėȝā́mū θastutėȝámna yastutėȝā́mū yastutėȝámna
future ʔastutȝā́m θastutȝā́m θastutȝā́mī yastutȝā́m yastutȝā́mī nastutȝā́m θastutȝā́mū θastutȝámna yastutȝā́mū yastutȝámna
optative ʔastutȝamánna θastutȝamánna θastutȝamínna yastutȝamánna yastutȝamínna nastutȝamánna θastutȝamúnna θastutȝamnánna yastutȝamúnna yastutȝamnánna
optative ʔastútȝam θastútȝam θastútȝamī yastútȝam yastútȝamī nastútȝam θastútȝam θastútȝamna yastutȝamū yastútȝamna
imperative Verbs of this binyan have no imperatives.
participle mustutȝā́m
verbal noun Verbs of this binyan have no verbal nouns.


Numerals ending in 3 through 9 or 10 display the Semitic gender polarity: masculine nouns are marked with -θ while feminine nouns are unmarked.

  1. m. ʔaħā́d, f. ʔaħā́θ
  2. m. šenáyn, f. šeθθáyn, construct šenė, šeθθė
  3. m. šalė́šaθ, f. šalė́š
  4. m. ʔarbáȝθ, f. ʔarbáȝ
  5. m. ħámsaθ, f. ħámse
  6. m. síθšaθ, f. síθše
  7. m. sábȝaθ, f. sábȝe
  8. m. samė́nīθ, f. samė́ni
  9. m. θísȝaθ, f. θísȝe
  10. m. ȝášraθ, f. ȝášre




Sample texts


An χabše wan φarasīn

Χabše, žė lė hawė šamre lawh, φarasīn raʔė: yagōr ʔaħād marχabaθ šakūlaθ, wa-yaħmōl ʔaħād ħemle χabūr, wa-yaħmōl ʔaħād ħaφīzan ʔinės. Yāmār an χabše: Mār lī an lēb, bi-riʔėθī ʔinės rėχib φarasīn. Yāmārū an φarasīn: Sumaʕ an χabše! Mār lanė an lēb bi-riʔėθinė žīnė: ʔinės an baʕle yaʕšē lawh malbasaθ ħamūmaθ mēn šamre an χabšīn. Wa-lėš len-χabše šamre. Bi-šimėʕ an χabše žīnė, yamnāȝ ʔilė an šadi.