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|ondartigor; ra nimba ondartigora|
[ra ˈɲimba ondartiˈɡɔra]
|Native speakers||66,000,000 (2017)|
|Official language in||Atlantic Provinces|
Atlantic, also known as Atlantic Latin or Atlantic Romance, natively ondartigor (ra nimba ondartigora) [ondartiˈɡɔr], [ra ˈɲimba ondartiˈɡɔra] is a Romance language spoken in an alternate history version of Earth in the Atlantic Provinces (Ondàrtigot [onˈdartigot]), a country located in the northwestern corner of Africa. The country's name is a remnant of Roman history, when the area - including the Atlas Mountains as its main geographical feature - was divided in the provinces of Numidia, Mauretania Caesariensis, and Mauretania Tingitana.
It has various dialects, usually grouped in two main varieties called Mauritanian (muridoinens [muridɔˈɲens]), the one the standard is based on, and Numidian (numigens [numiˈzens] or [numiˈdzens]); some sources distinguish two further variants, Teneréïc (teneriens [teneˈʒens]) and Senegal Riparian (naia-uruminiens [ˌnæjæ.urumiˈɲens]); these two varieties are greatly influenced by the non-Romance languages they coexist with.
- 1 Diachronic development
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Orthography
- 4 Morphology
- 5 Vocabulary
- 6 Texts
- 7 Notes
Atlantic is part of its own branch among Romance languages, but shares many common features with Western Romance languages, notably Catalan.
The typical distinctive feature of Atlantic is its shifting of Vulgar Latin vowels which, while not completely unlike to how it developed in Sicilian, has a unique - and easily noticeable - change in having kept long and short /a/ distinct, with (Vulgar) Latin /aː/ being reflected as /o/. This is easily noted for example in all first conjugation verbs, as COMPROBĀRE > cumpuruò "to like" /kumpurˈwo/ or LV̄DITĀRE > nauuidò "to practice" /nau̯wiˈdo/.
Among mid vowels, the short ones were raised to /i u/ while the long ones remained /e o/, cf. TERRA > tira "land, earth, soil", FOCVM > fug "fire", RATIŌNEM > raçon "reason, cause", TRĒS > cet "three (m/f)".
Long vowels /iː uː/ were diphthongized to /ai̯ au̯/ when in open syllables, while they shortened and merged into /i u/ in other cases: LV̄NAM > rauna "moon", VICĪNVM > uiçain "neighbour; close", MAURĪTĀNIAM > Muridonea "Mauritania", NV̄LLIFICĀRE > nuiifigò "to cancel, revoke". Latin /au̯/ had probably merged with /uː/ before, and shifted back to /au̯/ for the same reason, cf. AVRA > *ūra > aura "gold" (plurale tantum); evidence of the shift to /uː/ is given by words where it was unstressed, such as AVGVSTVM > *uuust > uust /wust/ "August" (archaic, no longer used).
Original /ai̯ oi̯ eu̯/, meanwhile, all merged into */eː/, following the same development mentioned before (cf. AEDICVLAM > *ēdicula > eìguea /eˈiɡuja/ "house"; EVCHARISTIAM > *ēcaristia > *egarisça > egariça "Eucharist"; POENAM > pena "pain").
Short word-final vowels except for /a/ were lost as in Gallo-Romance, but in some words short vowels, usually /i/ or /u/, were later added again in order to break clusters; typically it was inserted into a -Cr cluster (CASTRVM > *castr > càistur "city", cf. CASTRA > caistra "cities") but after a -NC cluster (QVĪNQVE > *quingui > *pimb > pimbi "five"). /-ts/ (> /s/ today in most dialects) and /s/ + stop clusters were not changed, cf. LACTEM > *nasti > nast "milk".
/l/ completely disappeared from the Vulgar Latin dialects that became Atlantic, often by dissimilation to /r/ before other consonants (cf. (PRŌVINCIĀS) ĀTLANTICĀS > *Ordanticot > Ondàrtigot), and usually by turning into /j/ (after back vowels or /a/) or /w/ (after front vowels), cf. CABALLVM > cauài "horse", MĪLLE > miu "thousand".
Word-initially, it most commonly turned into /n/ – cf. LINGVAM > nimba "language" – but if the word contained an onset nasal, then it turned into /r/, as in LV̄NA > rauna "moon". This is the origin of the two sets of definite articles used in Atlantic, with the usual forms being in and na, but with ir and ra being used if the word they attach to has a nasal in its first syllable (cf. na rauna "the moon" but ra nimba "the language"). Originally this only applied to the feminine article, and if the word had a nasal but in coda it didn't apply, but analogy has extended this to all cases (cf. ir ondartigòr "the Atlantic man").
/l/ changed this way also in the FL- initial cluster, where (just as in FR-) the initial /f/ became first an approximant /w/ and then got fully vocalized to /u/, giving ur- or un- in such words, like FLŌREM > */wnor/ > unor /uˈnor/ "flower" or FLV̄MEN > */wrau̯m/ > uraum /uˈrau̯m/ "river". PL- and CR-, however, consistently became pr- and cr-, which means that /l/ got rhotacized there before it got lost in other places (cf. PLVVIAM > pruia "rain", ECCLĒSIAM > **ecclīsam > icraisa "church").
The -LI- cluster became a simple /j/, perhaps earlier */jj/, blocking the diphthongization of a preceding /uː iː/, as seen in the name of the Atlantic Provinces' second largest city, Iuia Uaìnça < IV̄LIAM VALENTIAM.
/l/ was later reintroduced into the language through Arabic loans and later Latin and Greek learned reborrowings – cf. luua "dialect" from Arabic لغة luḡa.
Atlantic palatalized /k ɡ/ as most Western Romance languages did, to /ts dz/; /ts/ also resulted from -TI- and -TR- (but not -STR-) clusters. These were later deaffricated to /s z/ in most dialects, but a few Numidian ones still retain the affricates. See RATIŌNEM > raçon "reason, cause" /raˈtson/ > /raˈson/, TRIA > cia "three (disj.)" /ˈtsi.a/ > /ˈsi.a/, GELĀRE > giuò "to freeze" /dziˈwo/ > /ziˈwo/. -DI- developed differently depending on whether it was followed by a front or by a non-front vowel. Before non-front vowels, the palatal element was lost so that it developed as regular intervocalic /d/ (see below); before front vowels, it palatalized to /dz/ much like -TI- did; cf. NVMIDIAM > *Numida > Numìua "Numidia" /nuˈmiwa/ and NVMIDIĒNSEM > numigens /numiˈdzens/ > /numiˈzens/ "Numidian".
As mentioned before, -S- blocked -TR- from shifting to /ts/; this /s/ was, in this environment, backed to /ʃ/, orthographically denoted by a preceding i, as in CASTRVM > *castr > */ˈkastur/ > càistur "city" /ˈkaʃtur/. In what is one of the most notable sound changes Atlantic underwent, word-final -S was stopped to /t/, as noticeable in many inflectional morphemes (e.g. pluralizing -ĀS, -ŌS, -ĒS > -ot, -ot, -et).
Intervocalic lenition of stops also follows the Western Romance pattern: unvoiced stops become voiced and voiced stops become fricatives, with original /d/ becoming */ð/ > /w/ and original /ɡ/ becoming */ɣ/ > /w/ or */ɣ/ > /j/ according to nearby vowels:
- CAPERE > *cabi > cab "to make an effort to understand"
- VĪTAM > uaida "life"
- CRVCEM > *crugi > carug "cross"
- QVOQVE > *pubi > pub "also"
- CABALLVM > *caual > cauai "horse"
- PEDEM > *piði > piu "foot" /piu̯/
- FRIGIDVM > */wriɣiðu/ > */urijið/ > urìu "cold"
- MAGVM > */maɣu/ > mau "nomad"
A preceding nasal prevented the consonant from being lenited, while a preceding /r/ or /l/ didn't, e.g. DIEM MARTIS > gimàrdit "Tuesday" (arch.).
/kt/ and /pt/ clusters were resolved by turning the backmost element to /s/, i.e. to /st/ and /ps/ respectively, see LACTEM > nast "milk"; APTVM > aps "ready".
VI- /wi/ was reduced to /j/ if a vowel followed, as e.g. in VIĀTICVM > iòdig "travel".
Sporadic posttonic syncope led to a range of newer clusters, which were often resolved through assimilation. For example, /mn/ assimilated to /nn/ and /nm/ to /mm/, as in FĒMINAM > *fēmna > fenna "woman"; ANIMAM > *anma > amma "person". Most modern dialects have further degeminated them (Senegal Riparian dialects are the main exception, as are a few ones in the Atlas valleys of Numidia), but they are still represented in the orthography. Historical gemination is not represented in a few words where such consonants were likely degeminated early and, in fact, no modern dialect has a geminate consonant - a common word where this happened is punust "tomorrow" < punnust < *pusnust < POST NOCTEM.
The so-called Mauritanian palatalization (palataligeoçon muridoinensa) is considered in Atlantic linguistics the main isogloss between Mauritanian and Numidian dialects; this change likely started in the 17th century and was successfully completed in the span of a few generations in the territories of Mauritania. Mauritanian palatalization, both progressive and regressive, was triggered by all instances of /j/, affecting nearby consonants (a very similar change before /i/ happened before and is reflected in all modern Atlantic dialects); the orthography still unambiguously reflects the situation as for a given word, Mauritanian dialects will have a palatalized consonant (not in the phonetic sense of "palatalized") while Numidian dialects will have /j/ and a "regular" consonant.
Mauritanian palatalization resulted in the following changes:
- /t d/ > /tʃ dʒ/, cf. fuit "he was" (Mauritanian /futʃ/, Numidian /fui̯t/), nàidur "shore" (Maur. /ˈnadʒur/, Num. /ˈnai̯dur/).
- /n/ > /ɲ/, cf. uiçain "neighbour" (Maur. /wiˈsaɲ/, Num. /wiˈ(t)sai̯n/). Historic /ni/ > /ɲi/ is, however, universal across the Atlantic-speaking world and therefore not a part of Mauritanian palatalization; this change is still productive and even found in loanwords.
- /r/ > /ʒ/, cf. Uiolarea, capital city of the Atlantic Provinces (Maur. /ujoˈlaʒa/, Num. /ujoˈlarja/). This change also happened, as part of Mauritanian palatalization, before /i/; Numidian still has /r/ before /i/, cf. riduòi "ritual" Maur. /ʒiˈdwoi̯/, Num. /riˈdwoi̯/.
- /s/ > /ʃ/, but /s/ from /ts/ was not affected (suggesting that deaffrication likely happened later), cf. fuist "you were" (Maur. /fuʃt/, Num. /fui̯st/), Osea "Asia" (Maur. /ˈoʃa/, Num. /ˈosja/).
- /l/ > /ʎ/, cf. sail "flood" (Maur. /saʎ/, Num. /sai̯l/), Iulea, proper name (Maur. /ˈjuʎa/, Num. /ˈjulja/).
Atlantic's consonant inventory is similar to those of other major Romance languages such as Italian, Catalan, or Portuguese. Mauritanian and Numidian dialects have slightly different inventories, mostly because of Mauritanian palatalization.
|Nasals||m m||n n||ni~in ɲ|
|Plosives||Voiceless||p p||t t||c~q k|
|Voiced||b b||d d||g g|
|Affricates||Voiceless||ç~ci~ce ts1||ti~it tʃ2|
|Voiced||gi~ge~ig dz3||di~id dʒ2|
|Fricatives||Voiceless||f f||s(~ç) s||si~is ʃ|
|Voiced||s(~g) z||ri~ir ʒ2|
|Laterals||l l||li~il ʎ2|
|Approximants||u w||i j|
- Only in some mountain Numidian dialects; merged with /s/ in most others.
- Mauritanian dialects only.
- Only in some mountain Numidian dialects; merged with /z/ in most others.
Palatal consonants, in Mauritanian and Senegal Riparian dialects, are realized as palatalized alveolars before other alveolar consonants, as in paindig "fifteen" /ˈpaɲdiz/ [ˈpanʲdiz] or sançuaint "June" /sanˈswaɲt/ [sanˈswanʲt]. In Numidian and Ténéréïc dialects they never occur before consonants.
Atlantic has a common five-vowel system, with [ɛ ɔ] being stressed allophones of /e o/ respectively. Vowel+approximant sequences are analyzed as vowel+consonant, mostly because of their development in Mauritanian dialects. In most dialects, /a/ is fronted to [æ] when adjacent to any palatal or alveolo-palatal consonant (e.g. Naia [ˈnæjæ] (← NĪAM) "Senegal River")
|High||i i||u u|
|Mid||e e||o o|
Note that /ä/ is usually transcribed as /a/.
Atlantic is written using the Latin alphabet, but with conventions quite different from other Romance languages:
- i and u may both represent vowels or consonants (v does not exist in the standard Atlantic alphabet); they represent /j/ (actual or historic) and /w/ near vowels, and /i u/ near consonants.
- The sequence /ja/ is written as ea.
- The sequences /ka ga ku gu ko go/ are, as in most Romance languages, written ca ga cu gu co go; the sequences ce ge ci gi represent /(t)se (d)ze (t)si (d)zi/. The "inverse" value of those letters is represented as follows:
- ça ço çu gea geo geu /(t)sa (t)so (t)su (d)za (d)zo (d)zu/;
- qe qi goe goi /ke ki ge gi/;
- The common word ending -ig represents /i(d)z/.
- A grave accent is put on any stressed vowel which is not in the last syllable, unless the word ends with a vowel or the plural marker -ot. The ìu and ùi diphthongs are stressed even in the last syllable (to prevent them being mistaken with /ju wi/ respectively), as is any other diphthong if preceded by /w/ or /j/, itself preceded by another consonant (i.e. uaida "life" (Maur. /ˈwadʒa/, Num. /ˈwai̯da/) does not need a stress mark).
Note that "diphthong" here is defined as a historic and a written diphthong, i.e. including those that resulted in Mauritanian palatalization.
Unlike neighboring Ibero-Romance languages, but like most Gallo-Romance ones, as well as Italian, Atlantic has three series of articles: definite (artìcul determinont), indefinite (artìcul indeterminont), and partitive (artìcul parçoir), the plural forms of the latter doubling as plural indefinite articles.
|Class||Masculine Sg.||Feminine Sg.||Plural|
|in*, ir||na, ra||not, rot|
|din*, dir||dina, dira|
The forms with -r- are used instead of those in -n- if the first syllable of the noun includes a nasal consonant:
- in curbur, not curburot, dinot curburot "the body, the bodies, some bodies" but ir nàidur, rot nàidurot, dirot nàidurot "the shore, the shores, some shores"
- na uçora, not uçorot, dinot uçorot "the wife, the wives, some wives" but ra nimba, rot nimbot, dirot nimbot "the language, the languages, some languages"
The articles in and din, furthermore, assimilate their consonant to a following /t d s ʃ l/ as (d)it, (d)id, (d)is, (d)is, (d)il:
- it test "the roof", id did "the finger", is suc "the market", is siampain "the champagne", il laus "the almond".
Unlike many other Romance languages, articles aren't used before given names:
- Fui dadur na unor au Agafì. "I gave Agatha the flower."
Atlantic nouns do not decline for case and are only inflected for number.
Grammatical gender is a pervasive feature of Atlantic morphology but, due to the loss of most final vowels, often there is no synchronic rule to determine the gender of the noun directly from its form; some particular word-forming suffixes are however always of the same gender, as for example the always feminine -òdig (< -ĀTICVM; cf. na iòdig "the journey", na curòdig "courage"). Loss of Latin neuter and reassignment of those nouns to other genders often applied in different ways than in other Romance languages, so for example there's feminine ra nom "the name" (< NŌMEN) and na raum "the river" (< FLV̄MEN), and masculine it tìmpur "the time" (< reanalyzed nom/acc stem *temp-or, a regular development in Atlantic, see also in gìnir "the type" < *gen-er, ir nàidur "the shore" < *līt-or, in cùrbur "the body" < *corp-or).
Despite this, some feminine words not ending with -a in Latin were modified in order to end that way, a notable example being na uçora (< *uxōram < VXŌREM) "the wife".
Atlantic has four different pluralization patterns (traditionally still referred to as "declensions" (decrinoçonet) by native grammarians), but for three of them it is not possible to predict which one is used just from the singular form. Only the first and second, however, are productive:
|Declension||Singular marker||Plural marker||Scope|
|-a||-ot||Almost all feminine nouns, a few masculines|
|-∅||Masculine nouns (their majority)|
|-et||Masculine and feminine nouns|
Their numeration only partially reflects the Latin system: while the first and second Atlantic declensions generally continue the same-numbered Latin ones, the third Atlantic declension is a catch-all for neuters-turned-masculines (all neuters-turned-feminines have been reanalyzed), while the fourth Atlantic declension corresponds to the Latin third. Examples of plurals:
- The first declension mostly continues Latin first declension feminine nouns:
- CANDĒLAM, CANDĒLĀS → candeua, candeuot "candle, candles"
- AQVAM, AQVĀS → aba, abot "water, waters"
- Some are Greek neuter nouns in -a which were generalized in the plural to be in *-ās instead of -ta, and shifted to the feminine class:
- BAPTISMA, *baptismās → bapsima, bapsimot "baptism, baptisms"
- LV̄MINA, plural of LV̄MEN, was reanalyzed as a feminine singular noun raumina "light" with the regular plural *lūminās → rauminot "lights"
- Greek masculine nouns in -a still follow this declension (e.g. all -ista → -istot), as do the following two masculine exceptions:
- AGRICOLAM, AGRICOLĀS → arìguea, arìguiot "farmer, farmers"
- NAVTAM, NAVTĀS → nauda, naudot "sailor, sailors"
- Borrowings ending in -a are analyzed as feminine nouns of this declension:
- Arabic برقوقة barqūqah → barcuga, barcugot "plum, plums"
- Ar. ولاية wilāyah → uilaea, uilaiot "region, regions"
- The second declension continues Latin second declension masculine nouns and reanalyzed fourth declension ones (with two exceptions noted below):
- PVERVM, PVERŌS → puir, puirot "boy, boys"
- AGRVM, AGRŌS → ar, arot "field, fields"
- PORTVM, *portōs → pùrid, pùridot (arch. pùrdot) "port, ports"
- Virtually all borrowings not ending in -a are analyzed as masculine nouns of this declension:
- Berber ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ agadir → agàdir, agàdirot "castle, castles"
- Arabic سوق sūq → suc, sucot "market, markets"
- The third declension, as mentioned before, contains all nouns which were originally neuter in Latin, independent of their declension, which were reanalyzed as masculines and therefore kept the -a plural ending. This declension includes all Latin third declension nouns following the TEMPVS, TEMPORA pattern, where the -or- or equivalent marker was reanalyzed as part of the stem even in the form that became the singular:
- AVXILIVM, AVXILIA → ucì, ucia "aid, aids"
- SAXVM, SAXA → saç, saça "stone, stones"
- PECV̄, PECVA → pìgu, pìgua "pet, pets"
- *lītor, LĪTORA → nàidur, nàidura "shore, shores"
- *pector, PECTORA → pìstur, pìstura "chest, chests"
- The fourth declension in Atlantic corresponds to the third one in Latin, and therefore contains both masculine and feminine nouns:
- AMŌREM, AMŌRĒS → amor, amoret "love; romantic affair, affairs" (m)
- DVCEM, DVCĒS → dug, duget "landlord, landlords" (m)
- LĪMITEM, LĪMITĒS → ràimid, ràimidet "border, borders" (m)
- FLŌREM, FLŌRĒS → unor, unoret "flower, flowers" (f)
- NIVEM, NIVĒS → nìu, nìuet "cold; cold day, cold days; snow, snows" (f)
- This declension also includes all neuters (mostly in -EN) which were reanalyzed as feminine:
- FLV̄MEN, FLV̄MINA → *flūm-em, *flūm-ēs → uraum, uraumet "river, rivers" (f)
- FVLMEN, FVLMINA → *fulm-em, *fulm-ēs → fùrim, fùrimet "lightning bolt, lightning bolts" (f)
- All Latin fifth declension nouns were also reanalyzed as feminine nouns of this declension:
- EFFIGIEM, EFFIGIĒS → ifìu, ifìuet "portrait, portraits" (f)
- DIEM, DIĒS → di, dìet "day, days" (f)
- Two lone feminine nouns of the Latin fourth declension remained feminine and therefore were reanalyzed according to this pattern:
- DOMVM, *domēs → dum, dumet "palace, palaces" (f)
- MANVM, *manēs → man, manet "hand, hands" (f)
The following five nouns are considered irregular, as they do not fit any of the patterns above; however, they were all regular in Latin:
- NŌMEN, NŌMINA → nom, nomina "name, names" (f)
- MARE, MARIA → mar, marea "sea, seas" (f)
- REM, RĒS → ri, ret "object, objects" (f)
- HOMŌ, HOMINĒS → om, unnet "man, men" (m)
- ITER, ITINERA → ìdir, idìnira "way(s), route(s), passage(s)" (m)
All Atlantic adjectives follow the first declination where feminine and the second one when masculine; they are therefore indistinguishable in the plural:
- àrud "tall (m)", arda (f), ardot (pl)
- cìur "fast (m)" (< CELEREM), cìura (f), cìurot (pl)
- sant "saint (m)", santa (f), santot (pl)
- saìr "small (m)" (< Ar. صغير ṣaḡīr), saìra (f), saìrot (pl)
Atlantic personal pronouns still distinguish case: the 1SG and 2SG pronouns have two different forms for the nominative and accusative, while all other ones have a nominative form which doubles as a stressed (tonic) accusative; all pronouns have one or more unstressed (atonic) accusative forms, as well as a dative one. The nominative and accusative forms of 1SG and 2SG derive, actually, from Latin accusative and genitive respectively. The third person pronouns derive their nominative/tonic accusative form from illum, illam, illōs, illās, while the other forms are from the declension of is, ea, eī:
|Person||Nominative||Accusative (tonic)||Accusative (atonic)||Dative||Possessive pronoun/adjective|
|1SG||me||mai||-im, -m||mai||mu, mia, miiot|
|2SG||te||toi||-it, -t||tìu||tu, tùa, tuuot|
|1PL||not||-un, -n||nouit||nùistur, nuistra, nuistrot|
|2PL||but||-üi||buuit||bùistur, buistra, buistrot|
|REFL.||—||se||-is, -s||sìu||su, sia, siiot|
The atonic accusative form is regularly used after verbs:
- cumiu-a "I eat it"
- su cumeuura "I (m.) will eat it"
It is also used, in all levels of formality (unlike many other Romance languages, which only allow this in very formal speech), after active participles, even when used as adjectives:
- ir om cumiuenta "the man eating it"
- ir om cumeuura "the man that will be eating it"
In informal Atlantic, this form is replacing the dative:
- (standard) do-a tìu "I give it to you"; su dadura(-a) tìu "I (f.) will give (it) to you"
- (informal) dòt "I give to you" su dadurat "I (f?) will give (it?) to you"
The atonic accusative of the reflexive pronoun is used in order to build the reflexive form for all persons (example verb: èiu-is /ejwiʃ/ "to wash oneself" < *ĒLUERE SĒ):
- (me) èiuus "I wash myself"
- (te) èiuitis "you wash yourself"
- (ai) èiuis "he washes himself"
Similarly, the reflexive possessive is mandatory for third person subjects; however, it is (prescriptively) not used in the first and second (except for, notably, the contemporary dialects of Tingis and far northern Mauritania):
- ai uii su padir "he sees his own father"
- ai uii eu padir "he sees his (someone else's)/her father"
- me uig mu padir "I see my father"; me uig eu padir "I see his/her father"; me uig su padir (TING.) "I see my father"
Prepositions (both merging and free-standing) require the tonic accusative after them:
- pro "for": pro mai, pro toi, pro ai...
- e "in": imai, itoi, inai, inaea, inòt, iuòt, inaiot
There are two distinct series of demonstratives: a proximal and a distal one; however, Numidian has a different formation for the proximal when compared to other dialects. All of them are different from those used in the rest of the Romance-speaking world: the words for "this, these" derive from the locutions ILLVM HĪC, ILLAM HĪC, ILLŌS HĪC (in Mauritanian; in Numidian from HVNC HĪC, HANC HĪC, HŌS HĪC); those for "that, those" from ILLVM IBĪ, ILLAM IBĪ, ILLŌS IBĪ.
|Masc. sg.||nuic /nus/||ùnci||niui|
|Femm. sg.||naic /nas/||ànci||naui|
List of the most common Atlantic prepositions and their contractions with articles:
|+ in*/ir||+ na/ra||+ not/rot|
IN FRONT OF, BEFORE
|e (ind, imb)
Atlantic is particularly conservative in its verbal system in keeping distinct all four conjugations of Latin in all forms except the past subjunctive. However, it did not develop neither a synthetic future nor a synthetic conditional, and it evolved an evidentiality distinction in the past between a witnessed past (analytic, built with the present of "to be" and the present active participle) and a renarrative past (synthetic, continuing the Latin perfect forms).
Table of conjugational endings:
|1st conjugation||2nd conjugation||3rd conjugation||4th conjugation|
|1SG||-∅||-iu /ju/||-∅||-iu /ju/|
|1st conjugation||2nd conjugation||3rd conjugation||4th conjugation|
|1SG||-oua||-eua||-iua /iwa/||-ieua /jewa/|
|2SG||-auot||-iuot /iwot/||-ieuot /jewot/|
|3SG||-au||-iu /iw/||-ieu /jew/|
|1PL||-auom||-iuom /iwom/||-ieuom /jewom/|
|2PL||-auoç||-iwoç /iwo(t)s/||-ieuoç /jewo(t)s/|
|3PL||-auant||-iuant /iwant/||-iuunt /iwunt/||-ieuant /jewant/|
|1st conjugation||2nd conjugation||3rd conjugation
(most verbs are irregular)
|1st conjugation||2nd conjugation||3rd conjugation||4th conjugation|
|1st conjugation||2nd conjugation||3rd conjugation
(most verbs are irregular)
|1SG||caps||capsoua||fui capsont(a)||capsoi||su capsadur(a)||caps||capsòir|
|2SG||càpsot||capsàuot||fuist capsont(a)||capsoist||es capsadur(a)||càpset||capsòirit|
|3SG||càpsa||capsau||fuit capsont(a)||capsoit||ist capsadur(a)||càpsi||capsòiri|
|1PL||capsom||capsauom||fuim capsontot||capsòuim||sum capsadurot||capsem||capsourìm|
|2PL||capsoç||capsàuoç||fuiç capsontot||capsòuiç||sest capsadurot||capseç||capsourìç|
|3PL||càpsant||capsàuant||fùirunt capsontot||capsàurunt||sunt capsadurot||càpsent||capsòurint|
|1SG||muriu||murieua||fui murient(a)||muriùi||su muisur(a)||murii||muriùir|
|2SG||mùriet||muriìuot||fuist murient(a)||muriùist||es muisur(a)||mùriot||muriùirit|
|3SG||murii||muriìu||fuit murient(a)||muriùit||ist muisur(a)||mùrea||muriùiri|
|1PL||muriem||muriìuom||fuim murientot||muriùim||sum muisurot||muriom||muriuirìm|
|2PL||murieç||muriìuoç||fuiç murientot||muriùiç||sest muisurot||murioç||muriuirìç|
|3PL||muriint||muriìuant||fùirunt murientot||muriùirunt||sunt muisurot||mùreant||muriùirint|
|1SG||acib||acibiua||fui acibent(a)||acibì||su acipsur(a)||aciba||acibìur|
|2SG||acìbit||acibìuot||fuist acibent(a)||acibist||es acipsur(a)||acìbot||acibìurit|
|3SG||acib||acibìu||fuit acibent(a)||acibit||ist acipsur(a)||aciba||acibìuri|
|1PL||acibim||acibìuom||fuim acibentot||acibìm||sum acipsurot||acibom||acibiurim|
|2PL||acibiç||acibìuoç||fuiç acibentot||acibìç||sest acipsurot||aciboç||acibiuriç|
|3PL||acìbunt||acibìuunt||fùirunt acibentot||acibèrunt||sunt acipsurot||acìbant||acibìurint|
|1SG||reniu||renieua||fui renient(a)||renì||su renidur(a)||renea||renìur|
|2SG||rènit||renièuot||fuist renient(a)||renist||es renidur(a)||rèniot||renìurit|
|3SG||reni||renièu||fuit renient(a)||renit||ist renidur(a)||renea||renìuri|
|1PL||renaim||renièuom||fuim renientot||renim||sum renidurot||reniom||reniurim|
|2PL||renaiç||renièuoç||fuiç renientot||reniç||sest renidurot||renioç||reniuriç|
|3PL||rèniunt||renièuant||fùirunt renientot||renìurunt||sunt renidurot||rèneant||renìurint|
As common among Romance languages, "to be" is irregular in Atlantic. Like in Iberian Romance, some forms were taken from the conjugation of SEDEŌ "to sit" (with a new, stative verb *SEDITŌ being developed for that meaning); however, there is only one copulative verb, without the general Iberian distinction between essence and state: siuè /ʃiˈwe/ is used for both. However, there are two forms of the future: the one with the sisur participle (< SESSV̄RVM) is used when the meaning is "to be in a place", while the fudur (< FVTV̄RVM) is used in all other cases, cf.:
- Sàmbad i geumiga su sisur imb Urumbi. "On Saturday and Sunday I'll be in Volubilis."
- Su fudur auna aistreia! "I will be a star!"
The verb "to go" in Atlantic is uoi. The infinitive and both presents (incl. participle) are from VĀDERE; other forms from ĪRE. The 2SG, 1PL, and 2PL forms of the present also underwent contraction; the earliest texts show the expected forms uoiit, uoiim, uoiiç.
|1SG||uoi||ieua||fui uoient(a)||iai||su idur(a)||uoia||aiìur|
|2SG||uoit||ieuot||fuist uoient(a)||aist||es idur(a)||uoiot||aiìurit|
|3SG||uoi||ieu||fuit uoient(a)||aiit||ist idur(a)||uoia||aiìuri|
|1PL||uoim||ieuom||fuim uoientot||aiim||sum idurot||uoiom||aiiurim|
|2PL||uoiç||ieuoç||fuiç uoientot||aiiç||sest idurot||uoioç||aiiuriç|
|3PL||uoiunt||ieuant||fùirunt uoientot||aièrunt||sunt idurot||uòiant||aiìurint|
The Atlantic verb for "to bring" is irregular fir, directly inherited from Latin FERRE "to carry":
|1SG||fir||firiua||fui firent(a)||tui||su nodur(a)||fira||tuiìur|
|2SG||fìrit||firiuot||fuist firent(a)||tuiist||es nodur(a)||firot||tuiìurit|
|3SG||fir||firìu||fuit firent(a)||tuiit||ist nodur(a)||fira||tuiìuri|
|1PL||firim||firìuom||fuim firentot||tuiim||sum nodurot||firom||tuiiurim|
|2PL||firiç||firìuoç||fuiç firentot||tuiiç||sest nodurot||firoç||tuiiuriç|
|3PL||fìrunt||firìuant||fùirunt firentot||tuièrunt||sunt nodurot||fìrant||tuiìurint|
Derived verbs with the same irregularity:
- cunfir "to join, unite" (cunfir, fui cunfirent(a), cuntui, cunnodur, cunnod)
- içfir "to remove" (içfir , fui içfirent(a), istui, içnodur, içnod)
- porfir "to distribute, offer, give" (porfir, fui porfirent(a), portui, ponnodur, ponnod)
- ufir "to show" (ufir, fui ufirent(a), upsui; unnodur, unnod)
Atlantic cardinal numerals are partially directly inherited from Latin (1-15, 17, and most tens and hundreds) and partially rebuilt on post-Vulgar Latin roots, especially where the numbers would have otherwise become too similar if not identical (as would have been the case with 13 and 16; the apparent irregularity in 7 is also a consequence of this, as *sips would have been too similar to siç). All numerals ending in 2 and 3 (except 12 and 13), as well as all hundreds except for 100, have a distinct form used only in disjunctive counting, derived from the Latin neuter.
Months of the year, days of the week
Month names (rot menset dir an) in Atlantic are, except for the first five, quite different from the standard set used in other Romance languages, even though their origin is often semantically similar (though etymologically different, except for September) to Sardinian.
|April||arbìu||Lat. APRĪLEM, through early dissimilation to *arpīl.|
|June||sançuàint||Lat. (MĒNSEM) SANCTĪ IOANNĒS|
|July||citurçon||Lat. (MĒNSEM) TRĪTV̄RATIŌNIS "month of threshing".|
|August||sunçon||Lat. (MĒNSEM) ASSV̄MPTIŌNIS|
|September||cabudain||Lat. CAPVT ANNĪ|
|October||nuriçon||Lat. (MĒNSEM) NV̄TRĪTIŌNIS, referring to manure|
|November||unniusantor||Lat. (MĒNSEM) OMNIVM SANCTŌRVM|
|December||nodoi||Lat. (MĒNSEM) NĀTĀLIS|
Days of the week (not dìet dina sipsamà) follow the ecclesiastic terminology also used by Portuguese and Galician; note the initial /z/ in the word for Sunday that points to DIEM DOMINICAM > *diðuminga > /zuˈmiɡa/:
- New Year's Day: na prima dir an
- Epiphany: na Epifanea (from Greek)
- Easter: na Pasca (from Greek)
- Labour Day: na dii dir nauor
- St. John's Day: na dii di Sant Iuàn ([santʃuˈan] (Maur.) or [santjuˈan] or ~ Sant Ioànes)
- Assumption: na Sunçon dina Uìrgean
- St. Augustine's Day (August 28): na dii di Sant Guistain
- All Saints Day: na dii di Tod not Santot
- Immaculate Conception: na dii dina Imaguioda Cunciçon
- St. Lucy's Day: na dii di Santa Lucia
- Christmas: ra Nodiudod (← Lat. NĀTĪVITĀTEM)
- New Year's Eve: na puistrema dir an
Cardinal points and continents
The cardinal points in Atlantic are Arabic borrowings, but their related adjectives are Latin:
- North: seamal, northern: buriòi
- East: seàruc, eastern: urintòi
- South: geanub, southern: oistròi
- West: àrub, western: uciuintòi
The names for Europe, Africa, and Asia are inherited from the Latin spoken in ancient times; the others are recent borrowings, but with the words for America and Antarctica sculpted after the one for Africa, and the one for Oceania sculpted on the cognate root ogein.
- Africa: Òfriga – African: òfir (f. òfira, arch. ofra)
- Europe: Eroba – European: erobens
- Asia: Osea – Asian: osion or osiòtig
- North America: Amèriga Burioea – North American: seamal-amerigens /-ameriˈzens/
- South America: Amèriga Oistroea – South American: geanub-amerigens
- Oceania: Ogeianea /ozeˈjaɲa/ – Oceanian: ogeianiens /ozejaˈɲens/
- Antarctica: Antàrtiga – Antarctic: antartigens /antartiˈzens/
Some countries and demonyms
- the Atlantic Provinces: Ondàrtigot (pl.), Atlantic: ondartigor
- Mauritania: Muridonea, Mauritanian: muridoinens
- Numidia: Numiua, Numidian: numigens
- Catalunya: Catalunea, Catalan: cataluinens
- Cyrenaica: Cirinega, Cyrenean: cirinegens (of Cyrenaica), cirinè (of ancient Cyrene)
- France: Gaea, French: gàiig /ˈɡajiz/
- Greece: Gareça, Greek: gareig /ɡaˈrez/
- Italy: Idoea, Italian: idoig /iˈdoz/
- Liguria: Niuurea, Ligurian: niuùistig /niˈwuʃtiz/ (< LIGVSTICVM)
- Romania: Romania, Romanian: romaniëns
- Portugal: Nusidonea, Portuguese: nusidoinens
- Sicily: Siciea, Sicilian: sìgui /ˈʃiɡuj/
- Spain: Isponea, Spanish: ispoinens
- Tripolitania: Cibuidonea, Tripolitanian: cibuidoinens
- Tuscany: Eçurea, Tuscan: eçuisc /eˈ(t)suʃk/
Of the 11 basic colours in Atlantic, only four of them derive from Latin roots (ĀTRVM > oç; LIGNEVM > rin; *AMARELLVM > marìu; CANDIDVM > càndiu); all others are Arabic loanwords.
|Black||oç, oça / oçot|
|Blue||arsac, arsaca / arsacot|
|Brown||rin, rinea / riniot|
|Gray||ramadi, ramadea / ramadiot|
|Green||marìu, maria / marìot|
|Orange||ranaing, ranaingea / ranaingiot|
|Pink||uardì, uardia / uardìot|
|Red||qirmis, qirmisea / qirmisiot|
|Violet||nìlac, nìlaca / nìlacot|
|White||càndiu, càndiua / càndiuot|
|Yellow||asfar, asfara / asfarot|
Opening lines from Commentarii de Bello Gallico
- Tuta Gaea ist sebaroda e cet pardot, e auna cuïs risiàiuunt not Belgeot, e àidira pard not Acuitanot, apiiodot Qeltot ira nimba sia, et Gaiot ina nuistra. Nòisic tutot sebàrantis cu nimba, moret et leget. Na uraum Garunna sebara not Gaiot içunt Acuitanot, et not uraumet Matruna et Sibana sebàrantiot ìçunt Belgeot.
[tuta ˈgæjæ ʃtʃebaˈrɔda e sɛt ˈpardot e au̯na ˈku.iʃ riˈʃæi̯wunt nɔb‿ˈbɛlzot e ˈadʒira ˈpard nɔt‿akwiˈtanot apiˈjɔdot ˈkɛltot ira ˈɲimba ˈʃi.æ eɡ‿ˈɡæjot ina ˈnuʃtra . nɔʃis ˈtutot seˈbarantiʃ ku ˈɲimba ˈmɔret e ˈlɛzet . na uˈrau̯m gaˈruna seˈbara nɔɡ‿ˈɡæjot isunt‿akwiˈtanot e ˈnɔt uˈrau̯met maˈtruna e ʃiˈbana seˈbarantʃot isum‿ˈbɛlzot]
All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. The river Garonne separates the Gauls from the Aquitani; the Marne and the Seine separate them from the Belgae.
Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit.
UDHR Article 1
- Tutot umanot naçunt nàiuirot et eboiot e dinidod et diristot. Aiot sunt dodot cu raçon et cucinça et dèuint auè aun adin àidir cu ispàirid di urodindod.
[ˈtutot uˈmanot ˈnasunt ˈnai̯wirot et‿eˈbɔjot e diɲiˈdɔd ed‿diˈʒiʃtot . ˈajot sun ˈdɔdot cu raˈsɔn e kuˈsinsa ed‿ˈdɛwint aˈwɛ ˈau̯n adin‿ˈadʒir cu‿i̯ˈʃpaʒid di‿u̯rodinˈdɔd]
- Phonemic /ʃ/, however, only arose because of successive palatalizations, and before /tr/ only because of learned Latin or Greek borrowings, as stratòs /straˈtos/ "army" - cf. EXTRĀNEVM > *istroniu > istroin /iʃˈtroɲ/ "foreign".
- Originally "magician, fortune-teller", this term came to identify wandering fortune-tellers.
- The form ind is used before any vowel except for vocalic u, where imb is used.
- The word aistreia (pl. aistreiot) "star" derives from Lat. STĒLLAM, but the irregular resolution of the initial cluster and the otherwise irregular r point to a contamination with ASTĒR, therefore to a Proto-Atlantic form *astrēlla, or to a diminutive form of the latter (*asterēlla), influenced by the former in having feminine and not masculine gender.
- In this and following month names, the genitive ending probably got mistaken as nominative as cases were merging and thus got deleted.