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  • Monophthongisation of diphthongs
    • ai > ɛː; ei > eː; oi > oː; eu, ou > ɔː, au > aː
  • Reduction of pretonic & final vowels
    • short vowels lowered
    • long vowels shortened
  • Lenition of intervocalic stops, m & s
    • voiceless stops p, t, k > voiced b, d, g
    • voiced stops b, d, g > voiced fricatives v, ð (later z), ɣ
    • m >
    • s > h
  • Compensatory Lengthening of vowels before nC
    • a > ā; e > ɛː; i > ī; o > ɔː; u > ū
    • the change indicates that short e was /ɛ/ and short o was /ɔ/. The short high vowels i and u may similarly have been lowered to /ɪ/ and /ʊ/.
  • Diphthonisation before CC or C + back vowel/a
    • ɛː > ia
    • ē > ie
  • Vocalisation of ɣ and -h-
    • ɣ > w after o(ː), ɔː, u(ː)
    • ɣ > j after other vowels
    • medial -h- (from s) becomes j before front vowels (i, e etc), w before u and is lost before a, o.
      • esa, eso > iːa, iːo
      • ese, esi > ɛːe, ɛːi
    • final -h- (from s) is lost
  • Merger of v, ṽ and w
    • the quality of the new sound is unclear, but it is represented here by β
    • vocalisation of βC > uC
    • metathesis of Cβ as uC
  • Metathesis of VrC > rVC
    • new mr- > br-, nr- > dr-
  • Loss of vowel quantity
    • all long vowels become short, creating a 10 vowel system.
    • aː, ɛː, ɔː merge with their short counterparts, a, ɛ, ɔ
    • eː, oː create new short vowels e, o
    • iː, uː create new short vowels i, u alongside existing ɪ, ʊ
    • the new vowel system:
  Front Near- front Central Near- back Back
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
  • Merger of near-high vowels
    • ɪ > e and ʊ > o
    • the sequence ɪjV becomes ijV (later ia)
  • Iotisation
    • semi-vowel j merges with adjacent consonant
    • tj, kj > ć; dj, gj > ģ; s > ś; z > ź; l > ĺ; n > ń; r > ŕ
    • does not affect bilabials p, b, m
    • βj remains word-initially but becomes j medially.
    • note that iotisation continues to work as a productive sound change.
  • Merger of semivowels
    • sequences ij, ji, uv, vu merge into a single vowel i or u
    • iV > jV, causing iotisation to the preceding consonant
    • ovi > oi
  • Syncope
    • intervocalic, internal vowels are lost except where this would cause an impossible consonant cluster.
  • Palatalisation
    • consonants preceding i are palatalised
    • t, d > ts, dz
    • n, l, r > ń, ĺ, ŕ


Brythonic wesanteinos brigantiːnos
Monopthongisation wesanteːnos brigantiːnos
Vowel reduction wesanteːnəs brigantiːnəs
Lenition wehanteːnəs briɣantiːnəs
Comp. Lengthening wehaːteːnəs briɣaːtiːnəs
Diphthonisation wehaːtienəs
Vocalisation of ɣ, h wiːaːtienə brijaːtiːnə
Merger of v, ṽ, w βiːaːtienə
Methathesis of r
Loss of vowel quantity βiatienə brijatinə
Merger of high vowels
Iotisation βiaćenə
Merger of semivowels βjaćenə bŕatinə
Syncope βjaćnə bŕatnə
Bźatga vjaćna bźatna


PC Brythonic + Length General Initial -w, -lC, -bC -jC j- w-
a a a a a au aCʲ ja va
ā ā ā
ai ɛː ia1
ʲa ja jau eCʲ je vja
e e e e ve
ei ē ie1
ʲe je ʲeu iCʲ vje
ê eu i
i i i
ī i i ju vi
ī ī
o o o o o ou oCʲ jo vo
eu ɔː ɔː
oi ō ō ô vo uCʲ
u u u
ū u u u ju u
ū ū u
  1. before a back vowel in next syllable
  2. before a front vowel in next syllable


PC Initial +j +i Medial +j +i Geminate
p (kʷ) p pj b bj p
t t ć ŝ d ģ t
k c ć g ģ c
b (gʷ) b bj v j b
d d ģ z ź d
g g ģ j/v j g
m m mj v j m
n n ń ń n ń ń n
l l ĺ ĺ l ĺ ĺ l
r r ź ź r ź / ŕ ź / ŕ r
s s ś ś - j s
j j-, -
w v, - v j

Consonant Clusters

Inital Medial
tl ĺ zl
tn zn
tr tr dr
tri, trj ć ģ
kl ĺ ĺ
kn ń ń
kr cr gr
ks ś
kt ć
dl ĺ zl
dm zv
dn zn
dr dr zr
gl ĺ ĺ
gn ń ń
gr gr ź
lp, lt, lk up, ut, uc
lb, ld, lg v, l, v
mp, nt, nk ~p, ~t, ~k
mb, nd, ng ~b, ~d, ~g
rp, rt, rk rVp, rVt, rVk
rb, rd, rg rVv, rVz, rVv
sɸ, sw zv v
st śt s
sti, stj ść ś
stl, str sl, sr sl, sr
sk śc śc
ski, skj ść ść
skl, skr sl, sr sl, sr
sm, sn zn _m, _n
smi, sni źńi
sl, sr zl, zr _l, _r
sli, sri źĺi, źi