Dãterške

From Linguifex
(Redirected from Dãterške language)
Jump to: navigation, search


Danterske
Дантэршкэ
Progress: 95%
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Ergative-absolutive
Head direction
Initial Mixed Final
Primary word order
Subject-object-verb
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
1
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Danterske
Дантэршкэ
Дантэрскэ атӕжӀұец
Flag of Danterlĕxan.png
The official flag of the Scientific Nation.
Pronunciation /t̬antʰɛrʃkʰɛ/
/t̬antʰɛrskʰɛ atʰəʒd͡ʒyjet͡n̥/
Created by Elliott Wheeler
Setting
Language family
Writing system Cyrillic (Danterian alphabet)
ISO 639-3 qdt

Dãterške (Дантэршкэ, Дантэрскэ атӕжӀұец), also known as Danterian (English calque) and Danterske, is a language created by Elliott Wheeler originally desiğned to suit the needs of the scientific community, as it varies by field. As such, the grammar was loosely modeled after the concepts behind several well-known processes in physical sciences.

A significant portion of its morphology, if not its main purpose, is comprised of native terms and according interactions for scientific terms, technical jargon, and computer-language-derivatives. It's also desiğned to lack multiple synonyms for definitions and has an inherent goal of unarbitrarity, which together makes it relatively difficult to have a colloquial version of the language completely suited for daily life on Earth.

Due to several drastic changes during the course of its development, along with being her first language created, the language is loosely based off of Proto-Altaic, various Slavic languages, Proto-Northwest-Caucasian, and her native idiolect of English, but is ultimately a priori.


Introduction

History

The exact date of the language's inspiration remains unknown, but the project probably began on 26-9-12015 (September 26, 2015) with an Apple Pages document titled "Danterian Language", which featured an abecedarium of a bicameral Cyrillic-, Armenian-, & Latin-based alphabetic script, what appears to be an English approximation for the sound each represented, and a set of orthographic conventions. Featured below is the alphabet copied verbatim from the document.

Æ E A B C Д Њ F G H N J K L M I O R S Ð T U V Щ Ж ß Y Z
æ є a Б/ƃ c Δ ђ f դ h и j k l m ն o r s þ t μ v щ ж β y ƶ
(ae) (e) (a) (b) (c) (d) (ny) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) (th) (t) (u) (v) (w) (zh) (sz) (y) (z)

More letters were almost certainly added later. This was probably an attempt of an English spelling reform that I decided to use to improve English as a whole, but then evolved into an entirely separate language that I decided to develop as my early knowledge of linguistics grew.

As the language grew, the document where I stored the language's lexicon was named after its first proper word, кражңа, literally translating as "The Index of the Frontier" (Кљіха ды Кражңа). At the time of writing this, the index lists approximately 967 morphemes; enouğf of the language to derive a dictionary from such, but less in that various crucial notes and sketches are recorded elsewhere.

Phonology

Orthography

The orthgraphy of Dãterške is a Russian-inspired Cyrillic alphabet, and is mostly to entirely phonemic, if not phonetic, in that each letter corresponds directly to a single (1) sound or modification on a sound (such as [◌ʼ], [◌ˤ], [◌̃], etC). Because of its relatively large phonemic inventory, the language had to use relatively unconventional uses and extensions for the letters in modern Cyrillic. Listed below are all of the characters in the alphabet and associated values in other systems, in no particular order due to the lack of an unarbitrary glyph-order for the language.

Letter IPA Sound Letter Name IPA Letter Name Scientific
Latin transliteration
Ӏ /◌ʼ/ пӀ'алєчһа /pʼʡalot͡ʃħa/ ‡ (ʼ)
' /ʡ/~[ʔ] нруцӕфих пӀ'алєчһа /nrut͡n̥əfɪx pʼʡalot͡ʃħa/ ʔ '
і /ʲi/ пӀ'алєчһих і /pʼʡalot͡ʃħɪx iː/ İ i
а /a/ а /a/ A a
ӑ /ʕ/ нруцӕфих ӑа /nrut͡n̥əfɪx ʕa/ Ă ă (ʕ ʿ)
я /ʲɒ/ я /ɒ/ Â â
ә /æ/ ә /æ/ Æ æ
ӕ /ə/ ӕ /ə/ Ä ä (Ə ə)
э /ɛ/ э /ɛ/ E e
ӭ /ɘ/ ӭ' or птрђих ӭ /ɘʡ/ or /pʰtʰr̩c̬ɪx ɘ/ Ë ë
ө /ɞ/ ө /ɞ/ Œ œ
є /ʲo/ є /o/ Ĕ ĕ (Ô ô)
е /ʲe/ е /e/ Ê ê
ё /ʲø/~[ʲɵ] ё' or птрђих ё /øʡ/ or /pʰtʰr̩c̬ɪx ø/ È è
и /ɪ/ и /ɪ/ I ı
ӥ /i/ ӥ' or птрђих ӥ // or /pʰtʰr̩c̬ɪx i/ Ï ï
й /j/ нруцӕфих йи /nrut͡n̥əfɪx jɪ/ Ĭ ĭ (J j)
о /ʌ/ о /ʌ/ O o
ӧ /ɤ/ ӧ' or птрђих ӧ /ɤʡ/ or /pʰtʰr̩c̬ɪx ɤ/ Ö ö
у /u/ у /u/ U u
ў /w/ нруцӕфих ўу /nrut͡n̥əfɪx wu/ Ŭ ŭ (W w)
ұ /y/ ұ or пӀ'алєчһих ұ /y/ or /pʼʡalot͡ʃħɪx y/ Ù ù
ю /ʲɯ/ ю /ɯ/ Û û
ы /ɨ/ ы /ɨ/ Y y
ӹ /ʉ/ ӹ' or птрђих ӹ /ʉʡ/ or /pʰtʰr̩c̬ɪx ʉ/ Ÿ ÿ
м /ɱ/ эм /ɛɱ/ M m
н /n/ эн /ɛn/ N n
ң /◌̃/ р'ьәњӕы эң or пӀ'алєчһих эң /rʡʲæɲəɨ ɛ̃/ or /pʼʡalot͡ʃħɪx ɛ̃/ Ņ ņ
ц /t͡n̥/~[θ] цэ /t͡n̥ɛ/ C c
њ /ɲ/ њэ /ɲɛ/ N̂ n̂ (Ñ ñ)
б /p̬/~[b̪] эб /ɛp̬/ B b
п /pʰ/ пэ /p̪ʰɛ/ P p
д /t̬/~[d̟] эд /ɛt̬/ D d
т /tʰ/~[t̟ʰ] тэ /tʰɛ/ T t
џ /d͡ʒ/ эџ /ɛd͡ʒ/ D̂ d̂
ч /t͡ʃ/ чэ /t͡ʃɛ/ Č č
ђ /c̬/~[ɟ] эђ /ɛc̬/ Đ đ
ћ /cʰ/ эћ /cʰɛ/ Ć ć
ӵ /c͡ç/ ӵэ /c͡çɛ/ C̈ c̈
г /k̬/~[g] эг /ɛk̬/ G g
к /kʰ/ кэ /kʰɛ/ K k
ҝ /q͡χ/ ҝэ /q͡χɛ/ Q q
в /v/ ве /vʲe/ V v
ф /f/ еф /ef/ F f
з /z/ зе /z̟ʲe/ Z z
с /s/ ес /es̟/ S s
ԇ /sˤ/~[z̥] ԇөд /sˤɞt̬/ Sz sz
ж /ʒ/ же /ʒʲe/ Ž ž
ш /ʃ/ еш // Š š
җ /ʝ/ җе /ʝe/ Ẑ ẑ
щ /ç/ ещ // Ŝ ŝ
ғ /ɣ/ ғе /ɣʲe/ Ġ ġ
х /x/ ех /ex/ X x
һ /ħ/~[h] һе /ħʲe/ H h
р /r/~[ɹ] ер /er/ R r
ь /j/~/◌ʲ/ ьерь or йерь /jerʲ/
ъ /w/~/◌ʷ/ ъеръ or ўеръ /werʷ/
ҍ /ʕ/~/◌ˤ/ ҍерҍ or ӑерҍ /ʕerˤ/
л /l/~[ɮ] ел /el/ L l
љ /ʎ/ љер /ʎer/ L̂ l̂ (Ł ł)

Consonants

Danterške consonant phonemes
Labiodental Denti-alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Pharyngeal/Uvelar
plain 2 artic.
Nasal ɱ (м) n (н) t͡n̥~θ (ц) ɲ (њ)
Plosive aspirated (п) (т) (ћ) (к) ʡ (')
lenis (б) (д) (ђ) (г)
ejective (пӀ) (тӀ) t͡ʃʼ (чӀ) (ћӀ) (кӀ) (ҝӀ)
Affricate voiceless p͡f (пф) t͡s (тс) t͡ʃ (ч) c͡ç (ӵ) q͡χ~k͡xʷ (ҝ)
ʃt͡ʃ (щӀ)
voiced b͡v (бв) d͡z (дз) d͡ʒ (џ)
ʒd͡ʒ (җӀ)
nasal release t̃ʰ (тң) t͡ʃ̃ⁿ (чң) c̃ʰ (ћң) g̊ⁿ (кң,гң)
dⁿ~nˑ (дң) d͡ʒ̃ⁿ (џң) ɟⁿ~ɲˑ (ђң)
Fricative voiceless f (ф) s[note 1] (с) sˤ~z̥[note 1] (ԇ) ʃ (ш) ç (щ) x (х) ħ (һ)
voiced v (в) z[note 1] (з) (зь) ʒ (ж) ʝ (җ) ɣ (ғ)
nasalized (фң) (сң) s̃ˤ (ԇң) ʃ̃ (шң) ç̃ (щң) (хң)
(вң) (зң) ʒ̃ (жң)
Approximant r~ɹ (р) (рң) (рь) j (ь,й) w (ъ,ў) ʕ (ҍ,ӑ)
Lateral oral l~ɮ (л) ʎ (љ)
nasalized (лң) ʎ̃ (љң)
  1. ^ a b c Denti-alveolar consonants, nor any fricatives, are never sibilants.

Vowels

Dãterške vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Close oral i (ӥ) ʲi(ː) (і) y (ұ) ɨ (ы) ʉ (ӹ) u (у)
nasal ĩ (ің/ӥң) (ұң) ɨ̃ (ың) ʉ̃ (ӹң) ũ (уң)
Near-close oral ɪ (и) ʲɯ (ю)
nasal ɪ̃ (иң) ɯ̃ (юң)
Close-mid oral ʲe (е) ɘ (ӭ) ʲø~ʲɵ (ё) ɤ (ӧ) ʲo (є)
nasal (ең) ɘ̃ (ӭң) ø̃~ɵ̃ (ёң) ɤ̃ (ӧң) õ (єң)
Open-mid oral ɛ (э) ə (ӕ) ɞ (ө) ʌ (о)
nasal ɛ̃ (эң) ə̃ (ӕң) ɞ̃ (өң) ʌ̃ (оң)
Near-open oral æ (ә)
nasal æ̃ (әң)
Open oral a (а) ʲɒ (я)
nasal ã (аң) ɒ̃ (яң)

Prosody

Another relatively unique feature of the language is that it has no phonemic stress, intonation, or even syllable-boundaries, thus forcing both the speaker & listener either to innovate all the likely possibilities of the prosody of a given sentence or analyze it purely as a sequence of sounds. However, it is important to note that, at least for casual speech, primary stress and/or hiğ-tone is often placed on the initial syllable of a word, and secondary stress and/or mid-tone is often trochaic (placed in repeating patterns of stressed-unstressed) from the beginning of the word. An exception to the rule of casual stress would be a syllable containing a lengthened or ава (rouğf) vowel, which is stressed by default.

Phonotactics

Syllable Structure: (W/N)(C)6(W)2V/-P2(W)2(C)4(W/N)
Where:

  • C = Consonant
  • N = Nasal consonant
  • -P = Non-plosive
  • V = Vowel
  • W = Semivowel
  1. /r/, /rʲ/, /r̃/ cannot immediately follow a Palato-alveolar consonant.
  2. Unstressed /ʲi/, /ʲe/, /ʲø/, /ʲɒ/, /ʲo/, /ʲɯ/ cannot preceed liquids and will become lengthened /ː/ and/or undergo ава-ућу mutation.
  3. Adjacent consonants with multiple similar features may merge (their Places of Articulation).
  4. Lenis Stops are not released syllable-finally or preceeding other Stops.
  5. Complex consonant clusters with non-plosives >C6 become syllabic.
  6. /j/, /w/, /ʕ/, /r/, /rʲ/, /r̃/, /l/, /ʎ/, /l̃/, /ʎ̃/, /ʡ/ become devoiced after Aspirated Stops and assimilate with the plosive.
  7. Voiced and unvoiced equivalents of a consonant cannot be adjacent unless at a syllable boundary.
  8. /t͡n̥l/ cannot occur.

Ава-ућу vowel correspondence

Dãterške vowel mutation
Series # Ава Ућу
1 А Е
2 Ә Ӭ
3 И Ӕ
4 Э Ө
5 О У
6 Є І
7 Ӥ Ы
8 Ӧ Ұ
9 Ю Ӹ
10 Я Ё
11 аў,ӑу єұ
12 Р Л

Morphophonology

Due to the language being a semi-agglutinative language, little pure morphophonological processes take place other than the characteristic Danterian vowel mutation. Because of this process alone, one could either analyze the language’s morphological typology as an agglutinative language with ablauting morphemes, or as a minor fusional language without sandhi. One could argue that there is a complex system of vowel harmony underlying every word, but if existing, such is yet to be decoded.

Morphology

Syntax

Constituent order

Noun phrase

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Example texts

Swadesh list


No. English Dãterške
1Iхж
2you (singular)хи
3heэсі
4weмыр
5you (plural)хи'с
6theyэсі'с
7thisэхі
8thatэхі
9hereлєх ды хж
10thereлєх ды эхі
11whoўла'у
12whatўлэцћ
13whereўлэзђ
14whenўлатҝ
15howўлих
16notњэд
17allсфэх
18manyбвиӑҗӕы
19someу
20fewлэхмындопӀӕы
21otherщԇөмтӕы
22oneінэ
23twoџвћ
24threeнрій
25fourхԇрф
26fiveвпіђ
27bigбољщевӕы
28longбоюхӕы
29wideбољщевӕы
30thickдлекӕы
31heavyщрьєхӕы
32smallлэхӕы
33shortльыхӕы
34narrowлэхӕы
35thinждлекӕы
36womanфрау
37man (adult male)фрау
38man (human being)
39childльыхфрау
40wifeебщаюңһа
41husbandебщаюңһа
42motherмам
43fatherмам
44animalанӥмалӥа
45fishєстеӥкӀтӀұес
46birdавес
47dogфамӥлӥарӥс
48louseпӀтӀӥраптера
49snakeсерпентес
50wormанелӥда
51treeпӥнєпӀұта
52forestпӥнєпӀұтасім'ьяр
53stickпӀ'алєчһа
54fruitфруктус
55seedбул
56leafфєлӥум
57rootрадӥхс
58barkкєртехс
59flowerфлєс
60grassпєакеә
61ropeумукңәту
62skinкутӥс
63meatанӥмалӥа'ишмалж
64bloodершы
65boneвертебратафрељһа
66fat
67eggєвум
68hornкєрну
69tailкєкұхс
70featherавесфєлӥум
71hairграӑюлш
72headњђәмӹнец
73earаўрӥс
74eyeӑәйн
75noseњђәмӹнец
76mouthбука
77toothденс
78tongueлӥнгъа
79fingernailунгъӥс
80footпес
81legєӑөпӀһа
82kneeгену
83handманус
84wingфљећманус
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correctљәһвкӕы
197nearблъю
198farҝаһ
199rightжљэфң
200leftтљэфң
201atпрьи
202inдре
203withтсъу
204andи
205ifҝелф
206becauseжерг
207nameім'ьяћљ


Chemistry

Dãterške Periodic table of the Elements
Group Period 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 H
һыд/'ыд
Li
лиц
Na
нҍид
K
кчил
Rb
дриб
Cs
ҝиԇ
Fr
фғинћ
2 Be
бірљ
Mg
міџ
Ca
гҍілс
Sr
щӀіһ
Ba
бірь
Ra
ҝрішд
3 Sc
щӀэй
Y
йэт
La
лңҍяп
Ac
'ӹџҍ
F1 Ce
сярп
Th
цӹрь
F2 Pr
прязд
Pa
прӹђъ
F3 Nd
лњяд
U
ўӹрңҝ
F4 Pm
пяһ
Np
нпӹгҝ
F5 Sm
смяһр
Pu
пъӹхң
F6 Eu
пяб
Am
ӑӹмь
F7 Gd
дяҗ/гяҗ
Cm
кӹрҝ
F8 Tb
тярб
Bk
вкӹԇҝ
F9 Dy
рдясп
Cf
пфӹњҝ
F10 Ho
һял
Es
йӹнст
F11 Er
һряц
Fm
фмӹрь
F12 Tm
цялм
Md
мдңӹл
F13 Yb
йят
No
њӹбҝ
F14 Lu
ляӑт
Lr
лрӹнџ
4 Ti
тэпӀ
Zr
крэз
Hf
хӭфң
Rf
рфӭдь
5 V
внэлб
Nb
њэў
Ta
тӀӭп
Db
дбӭўн
6 Cr
хрьэлм
Mo
љэйд
W
ўӭлӵ
Sg
сгӭӵ
7 Mn
мнэг/њэмг
Tc
йтэхц
Re
рңӭщц
Bh
бһӭр
8 Fe
фэҗ
Ru
рэԇ
Os
ӑӭљш
Hs
һсӭӑ
9 Co
ҝэҗ
Rh
рһэд
Ir
ӑӭрд
Mt
мтӭрң
10 Ni
њэҗ
Pd
спэљ
Pt
ӑӭп
Ds
дшӭғм
11 Cu
гэп
Ag
сэп
Au
ӑӭўж
Rg
ргӭтң
12 Zn
ԇэн
Cd
хэд
Hg
ғмӭлһ
Cn
цнӭрп
13 B
бөд
Al
ӑљөм
Ga
гҍөљ
In
ӵөдң
Tl
цөл
Nh
нһөџң
14 C
гсъарб
Si
саљ
Ge/Esi
дач
Sn
тсан
Pb
пћаџб
Fl
фларв
15 N
нхлетң
P
пресң
As
сбехңт
Sb
њхңет
Bi
ԇңелғ
Mc
мскевң
16 O
һок
S
сњоб
Se
срол
Te
тољ
Po
ҝпор
Lv
лворҝ
17 F
фюңл
Cl
хюңл
Br
люңб
I
йюңдь
At
ҝюңӵ
Ts
тсюңԇ
18 He
һұл
Ne
ғњӥд
Ar
хрёђ
Kr
крєћң
Xe
хсьәм
Rn
ҝрӕун
Og
ӑгӧњ

Other resources