Far East Semitic
Inspiration: Old Chinese, Heleasic, Akkadian, Amharic
Far East Semitic is one of the major branches of Semitic and literary languages of Lõis's Southeast Asia. It's in a clade with Akkadian.
Verner's law in random words? plax "to open" <- *pdax <- *phthax
lhor "king", mëlkh "prince"?
- Proto-Far East Semitic (~ 500 AD)
- literally read Hmoob gib, possibly with tones? (greeting: Schlaub lag!)
- hyperconservative Far East Semitic
Far East Semitic is phonologically one of the more conservative branches of Semitic in Lõis, with different reflexes for almost all the consonants of Proto-Semitic.
- p b t ṭ d k q g ħ ʕ -> ph b th t d kh k g x ɣ~ɢ
- m n l r w y -> m n l ɹ w j
- θ θ̣ ð s ṣ z ś ṣ́ š x ɣ h -> θ θ ð s ts z~dz l̥ l̥~ts (from koineization) š qʰ q h
Vowels: i ɨ u e ə o a ā
p shows up in loanwords from Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan languages.
ɣašt, θian, l̥āθ, ɚbaɣ, qhamš, šɨš, šbaɣ, šmān, dɨšq, l̥əl
11: l̥əl had, 12: l̥əl θian, etc.
θina, l̥əθa, ɚbɣa, qhəmša, šɨša, šbəɣa, šməna, dɨšqa, mə'a əlp 100,000: ləkš 100,00,000: kot
-> aws, xiam, hlaus, plaub, qhaab, sws, pha, hmaum, dwg, hloj
Far East Semitic is written with an abugida inspired aesthetically by Tai Lue.
Far East Semitic is only vestigially triconsonantal.
Far East Semitic has noun classifiers but no grammatical gender. Noun classifiers are also used as definite articles.
Animate plurals are marked with postposed wɨl (which is more of an associative marker).
Singulatives are formed with bɨn-.
As in English, Far East Semitic verbs are analytic with some vestigial ablaut; participial (with m-) and verbnoun (with t- and other grammaticalized noun derivations) forms are common, as in modern Aramaic dialects. It's relatively unpredictable which Semitic verb root was assigned to which pattern.
Derivations that correspond to binyanim in other Semitic languages are more concatenative:
- G-stem: xtab, xtob, xtib
- D-stem: kʰətʰVb
- N-stem: nə·xtVb
- S-stem: šə·xtVb
- t-stems: tə·xtVb
the pa'al / pi'el distinction surfaces as initial clusters vs minor syllables
mə- prefix for derived nouns -> prenasalization in the quasi-Hmoob language
Some former VN patterns (also noun patterns)
- xteb, xtib
- xtub for adjectives
- kʰətʰib, kʰətʰub, kʰətʰāb
particles for aspects like Wdm (mɨn for perfect tense etc)
bə xtib nākʰ = I write
min xtib nākʰ = I wrote
l̥aʔ xtib nākʰ = I will write
- 1sg nākʰ~ni
- 2sg əntu~kʰmu
Plural pronouns were formed with the associative marker wɨl (< *wa-illu 'and these') or kʰol (from *kullu 'all'):
- 1pl: nākʰ wɨl~nākʰol
- 2pl kʰmu wɨl~kʰmu kʰol~kʰmɨl
Largely replaced with rank pronouns in descendants in non-intimate speech