Far East Semitic

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Inspiration: Old Chinese, Heleasic, Akkadian, Amharic

Far East Semitic is one of the major branches of Semitic and literary languages of Lõis's Southeast Asia. It's in a clade with Akkadian.

Todo

Verner's law in random words? plax "to open" <- *pdax <- *phthax

lhor "king", mëlkh "prince"?

Family tree

  • Proto-Far East Semitic (~ 500 AD)
    • literally read Hmoob gib, possibly with tones? (greeting: Schlaub lag!)
    • hyperconservative Far East Semitic

Far East Semitic is phonologically one of the more conservative branches of Semitic in Lõis, with different reflexes for almost all the consonants of Proto-Semitic.

Phonology

Consonants:

  • p b t ṭ d k q g ħ ʕ -> ph b th t d kh k g x ɣ~ɢ
  • m n l r w y -> m n l ɹ w j
  • θ θ̣ ð s ṣ z ś ṣ́ š x ɣ h -> θ θ ð s ts z~dz l̥ l̥~ts (from koineization) š qʰ q h

Vowels: i ɨ u e ə o a ā

p shows up in loanwords from Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan languages.

ɣašt, θian, l̥āθ, ɚbaɣ, qhamš, šɨš, šbaɣ, šmān, dɨšq, l̥əl

11: l̥əl had, 12: l̥əl θian, etc.

θina, l̥əθa, ɚbɣa, qhəmša, šɨša, šbəɣa, šməna, dɨšqa, mə'a əlp 100,000: ləkš 100,00,000: kot

-> aws, xiam, hlaus, plaub, qhaab, sws, pha, hmaum, dwg, hloj

Orthography

Far East Semitic is written with an abugida inspired aesthetically by Tai Lue.

Grammar

Far East Semitic is only vestigially triconsonantal.

Nouns

Far East Semitic has noun classifiers but no grammatical gender. Noun classifiers are also used as definite articles.

Animate plurals are marked with postposed wɨl (which is more of an associative marker).

Derivation

Singulatives are formed with bɨn-.

kʰətʰāb: agentive

Verbs

As in English, Far East Semitic verbs are analytic with some vestigial ablaut; participial (with m-) and verbnoun (with t- and other grammaticalized noun derivations) forms are common, as in modern Aramaic dialects. It's relatively unpredictable which Semitic verb root was assigned to which pattern.

Derivation

Derivations that correspond to binyanim in other Semitic languages are more concatenative:

  • G-stem: xtab, xtob, xtib
  • D-stem: kʰətʰVb
  • N-stem: nə·xtVb
  • S-stem: šə·xtVb
  • t-stems: tə·xtVb

the pa'al / pi'el distinction surfaces as initial clusters vs minor syllables

mə- prefix for derived nouns -> prenasalization in the quasi-Hmoob language

Some former VN patterns (also noun patterns)

  • kʰətʰıb
  • xteb, xtib
  • xtub for adjectives
  • tə·xtVb
  • kʰətʰib, kʰətʰub, kʰətʰāb

Inflection

particles for aspects like Wdm (mɨn for perfect tense etc)

bə xtib nākʰ = I write

min xtib nākʰ = I wrote

l̥aʔ xtib nākʰ = I will write

Pronouns

  • 1sg nākʰ~ni
  • 2sg əntu~kʰmu

Plural pronouns were formed with the associative marker wɨl (< *wa-illu 'and these') or kʰol (from *kullu 'all'):

  • 1pl: nākʰ wɨl~nākʰol
  • 2pl kʰmu wɨl~kʰmu kʰol~kʰmɨl

Largely replaced with rank pronouns in descendants in non-intimate speech

Derivation

Syntax