Gussnish

From Linguifex
Jump to: navigation, search
Gussnish
dhuenanae Guqnanaer
Pronunciation /ˈðyːnanɛ ˈgʊɬnanɛr/
Created by Praimhín
Setting Rulak
Language family
Pulchric
  • Rencadic
    • P-Rencadic
      • Gussnish
Writing system Gussnish script (a.k.a. IPA gibberish)
ISO 639-3


Introduction

Gussnish is the most widely spoken language of the Rencadic branch of the Pulchric family. It is inspired by Irish, English and Welsh.



Phonology

Orthography

Gussnish uses its own native alphabet.

The phonetic value of any consonant letter is the first consonant in its name - so that <ʕ> for example sounds like 'ts' (i.e. /tsʰ/) and <ɧ> sounds like 'x' (i.e. /ɮ/)

The letters themselves are derived from pictograms.

  • paesj = bear = ɤ
  • taenweof = mushroom = ɷ
  • tsopeol = hook = ʕ
  • saen = head = ɵ
  • tqiich = vine = ɖ
  • qvaera = clock = ɸ
  • tjiweoq = cloud = ɯ
  • sjwaet = rose = ɘ
  • cmath = jaw = ʟ
  • banr = hill = ʌ
  • drix = river = ʭ
  • dzitra = fence = ʜ
  • zaweoth = ant = ɶ
  • dxeorsja = plough = ʄ
  • xa = human being = ɧ
  • djarva = seesaw = ʎ
  • zji = hair = ɪ
  • gaenu = foot = ʊ
  • minth = arm = ʏ
  • neoqa = rope = n
  • ngeulaer = boat = ʁ
  • reoxaeth = tree = ʔ
  • rhoadzeot = pineapple = ð
  • lif = moon = c
  • wuthma = whale = ɚ
  • yachta = navel = ʘ
  • lenition sign = ː

The phonetic value of a vowel letter is the first vowel in its name.

  • a: ʱ (called xa aereo, 'small human being')
  • ae: ˠ (paesj aereo 'small bear')
  • eo: ˀ (reoxaeth aereo 'small tree')
  • i: ʷ (tjiweq aereo 'small cloud')
  • o: ˁ (tsopeol aereo 'small hook')
  • eu: ʶ (ngeulaer aereo 'small boat')
  • u: ˞ (wuthma aereo 'small whale')

Punctuation is as follows:

  • [ ] = quotation marks
  • . = space/word boundary marker
  • ɭ = period
  • ɭɭ = comma
  • ʕ̰ = semicolon
  • ʕ = colon
  • The punctuation mark ˈ is placed before sentences and clauses, and ˌ before proper names.

Example:

  • ˈɤˠ.ɧʱnˠ.ʏˀnɤːʱʔnʱɯːɭɭ.[ˈʟˁ.ˀɤːɵʱ.ʭːˀ.ɘɚˠɷ.ʏˀ.ɖːˠʌʱnˠɭ]
    Pae xanae meonfarnasj, "Co eofsa dheo sjwaet meo qaebanae."
    /pʰɛ ˈɮanɛ mənˈfarnaʃ ǀ kʰɔ ˈəfsa ðə ˈʃwɛtʰ mə ˈɬɛpanɛ ‖ /
    pae xa-nae meon-farnasj co eofsa dheo sjwaet meo-L tqaeba-nae
    PAST person-SG.DEF.NOM AFF-speak PRES water.SG.INDEF.NOM and rose.SG.INDEF.NOM LOC goblet-SG.DEF.NOM

    The person said, "There's water and a rose in the goblet."

Consonants

Labial Dental Alveolar Lateral Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Aspirated Stop/Affricate p /pʰ/ t /tʰ/ ts /tsʰ/ tq /tɬʰ/ tj /tʃʰ/ c /kʰ/
Unaspirated Stop/Affricate b /p/ d /t/ dz /ts/ dx /tɬ/ dj /tʃ/ g /k/
Voiceless Fricative f /f/ th /θ/ s /s/ q /ɬ/ sj /ʃ/ ch /x/ h /h/
Voiced Fricative v /v/ dh /ð/ z /z/ x /ɮ/ zj /ʒ/ gh /ɣ/
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ng /ŋ/
Approximant l /ɫ/ y /j/ w /w/
Voiceless Trill rh /r̥/
Voiced Trill r /r/
Notes
  • In casual speech, the unaspirated stops and affricates /p t ts tɬ tʃ k/ are voiced intervocalically to [b d dz dɮ dʒ ɡ].

Vowels

The vowel values in the transliteration are based on the Revised Romanization of Korean.

Vowel IPA
a /a/
aa /ɑː/
ae /ɛ/
eo /ə/
eeo /əː/
i /ɪ/
ii /iː/
o /ɔ/
oa /ɔɑ ~ ɒɑ ~ ɒː/
eu /ɨ/
u /ʊ/
uu /uː/
ue /yː/

Lenition

Normal p t ts s tq q tj sj c b d dz z dx x dj zj g
Lenited f th s h q h sj h ch v dh z 0 x 0 zj 0 gh
Normal m n ng w l r y
Lenited w n w w w r y

Prosody

Stress

In native words stress is on the first syllable, not counting prefixes. In loans (e.g. from Vrushka) stress falls on the same syllable as in the source language.

Intonation

Phonotactics

Morphophonology

Morphology

Nouns

Nouns have 2 genders (masculine and feminine) and 3 cases (nominative, comparative, and vocative). The genitive is archaic and survives in verbal nouns and stock expressions.

Noun stems often get lenited. Lenition works as follows:

  • When the noun begins with a lenitable consonant (any consonant besides f, v, th, dh, ch and gh), the first consonant gets lenited. If the first consonant is z, x or zj and there's a prefix before the lenited stem, an epenthetic -n- is inserted between the prefix and the stem.
  • When the noun begins with a vowel, an n- is inserted before the stem.
  • When the noun begins with a nonlenitable consonant (f, v, th, dh, ch or gh), an n- is inserted before the stem if there's a prefix before the stem that ends in a vowel. Otherwise, neo- is inserted before the stem.

For example:

  1. baer 'leaf' → vaer
  2. rasj 'spouse' → rasj
  3. zaweoth 'ant' → aweoth, ʙᴜᴛ:
  4. xeu + lenited form of zaweoth 'like an ant' → xeu naweoth
  5. eonsae 'fruit' → neonsae
  6. farnath 'speech' → neofarnasj, ʙᴜᴛ:
  7. meo + lenited form of farnasj 'speaking' → meonfarnasj
  8. ow + lenited form of farnasj 'not speaking' → owneofarnasj

Feminine nouns

Most nouns are feminine and decline as follows:

Case Indefinite Singular Indefinite Plural Definite Singular Definite Plural
Nominative [nom stem] [nom stem]+meo [nom stem]+nae [nom stem]+neu
(Genitive) [gen stem] [nom stem]+meon [nom stem]+naer [nom stem]+neureo
Comparative [acc stem] [nom stem]+meoth [nom stem]+naeth [nom stem]+neuth
Vocative [lenited nom stem] [lenited nom stem]+meo [lenited nom stem]+nae [lenited nom stem]+neu
  • [nom stem] is the dictionary form of a noun.
  • [gen stem] is the genitive stem, formed by adding -eo if the noun ends in a consonant and -n if the noun ends in a vowel.
  • [acc stem] is the accusative stem, formed by adding -eoth if the noun ends in a consonant and -th if the noun ends in a vowel.

Here are two examples:

eorim 'tail' Indefinite Singular Indefinite Plural Definite Singular Definite Plural
Nominative eorim eorimmeo eorimnae eorimneu
(Genitive) eorimeo eorimmeon eorimnaer eorimneur
Comparative eorimeoth eorimmeoth eorimnaeth eorimneuth
Vocative neorim neorimmeo neorimnae neorimneu
neoqa 'rope' Indefinite Singular Indefinite Plural Definite Singular Definite Plural
Nominative neoqa neoqameo neoqanae neoqaneu
(Genitive) neoqan neoqameon neoqanaer neoqaneur
Comparative neoqath neoqameoth neoqanaeth neoqaneuth
Vocative neoqa neoqameo neoqanae neoqaneu

Masculine nouns

First declension

First declension masculine nouns end in consonants and the genitive stem is identical to the nominative stem, unless the final consonant is th, dh, s or z, in which case this final consonant is replaced with sj, zj, sj or zj respectively. The accusative stem is formed from the nominative stem as follows:

  • If the final consonant is th or dh, it's replaced with t or d respectively.
  • If the final consonant is a voiced fricative that is not dh, -dh is suffixed.
  • Otherwise, -th is suffixed.

The paradigm is:

Case Indefinite Singular Indefinite Plural Definite Singular Definite Plural
Nominative [nom stem] [nom stem]+meo [nom stem]+ae [nom stem]+eu
(Genitive) [gen stem] [nom stem]+meon [nom stem]+aer [nom stem]+eur
Comparative [acc stem] [nom stem]+meoth [nom stem]+aeth [nom stem]+euth
Vocative [lenited nom stem] [lenited nom stem]+meo [lenited nom stem]+ae [lenited nom stem]+eu

Here's an example:

neowaeth 'root' Indefinite Singular Indefinite Plural Definite Singular Definite Plural
Nominative neowaeth neowaethmeo neowaethae neowaetheu
(Genitive) neowaesj neowaethmeon neowaethaer neowaetheur
Comparative neowaet neowaethmeoth neowaethaeth neowaetheuth
Vocative neowaeth neowaethmeo neowaethae neowaetheu
Second declension

Second declension masculine nouns end in vowels. The genitive stem is formed by:

  • suffixing -r if the last vowel is preceded immediately by a consonant cluster ending in a consonant that's not p, t, c, b, d, g, f, th, ch, v, dh or gh;
  • otherwise, replacing the last vowel with -r.

The paradigm is as follows:

Case Indefinite Singular Indefinite Plural Definite Singular Definite Plural
Nominative [nom stem] [gen stem]+eom [gen stem]+ae [gen stem]+eu
(Genitive) [gen stem]+eo [gen stem]+eomeon [gen stem]+aer [gen stem]+eur
Comparative [gen stem]+th [gen stem]+eomeoth [gen stem]+aeth [gen stem]+euth
Vocative [lenited nom stem] [lenited gen stem]+eom [lenited gen stem]+ae [lenited gen stem]+eu

An example:

maexneu 'love' Indefinite Singular Indefinite Plural Definite Singular Definite Plural
Nominative maexneu maexneureom maexneurae maexneureu
(Genitive) maexneureo maexneureomeon maexneuraer maexneureur
Comparative maexneurth maexneureomeoth maexneuraeth maexneureuth
Vocative waexneu waexneureom waexneurae waexneureu

Verbal nouns ending in -reo are always second declension masculine.

  • dexreo 'to rest'
  • ithreo 'to eat'
  • maerthreo 'to sit'


Syntax

Constituent order

The Gussnish word order is TSVO (tense-subject-verb-object) or TSOV (tense-subject-object-verb). The tense is indicated by a particle:

  • co = present progressive
  • ceuvo = simple present
  • pae = past
  • paenwae = past habitual (the equivalent of "used to" in English)
  • sjin = future

Tense particles, like prepositions, may fuse with pronouns.

(yet to create tables)

Noun phrase

Noun phrases are consistently head-initial.

There are no adjectives per se in Gussnish, only abstract nouns whose genitives can function as adjectives:

  • zjaereo = small (< zjaer 'smallness')
  • doasc aereo = small number
  • zaweoth zjaereo = small ant

Adjectives lenite after feminine nouns (e.g. doasc) but not after masculine nouns (e.g. zaweoth).

Relative clauses are marked with the words reo or tjeo (both meaning 'of', but 'reo' is used when the complement is definite). Gussnish uses resumptive pronouns a lot -- so "the man who the wolf ate" literally translates as "the man of the wolf eating him".

  • xanae tjeo poreownae meo caew nitheu
    /ˈɮanɛ tʃʰə ˈpʰɔrəwnɛ mə kʰɛw ˈnɪθɨ/
    xa-nae tjeo poreow-nae meo caew-L ith-eu
    person-SG.DEF.NOM TJEO wolf-SG.DEF.NOM AFF 3SG.GEN eat

    the man who the wolf ate
  • xanae reo nFrichorsjnae
    /ˈɮanɛ rə‿nfrɪˈxɔrʃnɛ/
    xa-nae reo-L Frichorsj-nae
    person-SG.DEF.NOM REO Frichorsj-SG.DEF.NOM

    the man from Frichorsj (a place)
  • xanae tjeo meo nFrichorsjnae
    /ˈɮanɛ tʃʰə mə‿nfrɪˈxɔrʃnɛ/
    xa-nae tjeo meo-L Frichorsj-nae
    person-SG.DEF.NOM TJEO LOC Frichorsj-SG.DEF.NOM

    the man in Frichorsj

Verb phrase

Sentence phrase

Dependent clauses

Numerals

Gussnish uses a base-6 numeral system.

Number Gussnish symbol Word
0 Ψ dira
1 I aeth
2 V slonw
3 N daenr
4 M stjiw
5 E dhasjtur
6 maech
7 II aethach
8 IV slonwach
9 IN daenrach
10 IM stjiwach
11 IE dhasjturach
12 slonwaeq
13 VI slonwaeq a naeth
14 VV slonwaeq a hlonw
15 VN slonwaeq a dhaenr
16 VM slonwaeq a htjiw
17 VE slonwaeq a ndhasjtur
18 daenraeq
35 EE dhasjturaeq a ndhasjtur
36 IΨΨ raegh
1295 EEEE dhasjturaeq a ndhasjtur raegh a dhasjturaeq a ndhasjtur
1296 IʼΨΨΨΨ dmozj
2592 VʼΨΨΨΨ slonw dmozj
3888 NʼΨΨΨΨ daenr dmozj
5184 MʼΨΨΨΨ stjiw dmozj
6480 EʼΨΨΨΨ dhasjtur dmozj
7776 IΨʼΨΨΨΨ maech dhmozj
9072 IIʼΨΨΨΨ aethach dhmozj
1679616 IʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨ dmozjir
2176782336 IʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨ tsifeod
2821109907456 IʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨ tsifeodir
3656158440062976 IʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨ veorqiw
4738381338321616896 IʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨʼΨΨΨΨ veorqiwir

Example texts

Other resources

Gussnish/Lexicon