Ko

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Not to be confused with the Earth language Fungor, also known as Ko.
Ko/Wordlist
Ko
lees ndoigh Komh
Created by IlL
Setting Verse:Tricin
Region Bjeheond
Language family
Writing system Latin (Uncial)
ISO 639-3

Ko (English: /koʊ/, natively lees ndoigh Komh /li noi kɔ/ (TBA: tone)) is a language spoken in Bjeheond; as a Hlou-Shum language, it's related to Hlou. It is a monosyllabic tonal language inspired by Hmong, Irish, Manx, and English. Like Irish, Ko has initial consonant mutations.

Todo

Motivation: "Sinospheric Irish" or "Hmoob read by an Irish speaker"

  • Explain: lexical mutation in Hlou, grammatical mutation in Ko
    • Hlou lexical mutation could have arisen from a grammatical mutation system where the particles fell away
  • dor = to be born ~ Hlou Ndol 'person'
  • TODO: kl gl sk > q
  • bach = small, meer = big
  • hlubh = to love (hlub means "to love" in Hmong)
  • kein = archaic negative word
  • ein = emphasis/'rather'
  • koobh = good
  • cu = copper

Phonology

Ko has fewer initials than Hlou, due to initial mutations.

Phonotactics

C + V + tone

Initials

m n ņ l nl r y w = /m n ɲ l (dark l) r j w/

hm hn hņ hl hr hy hw = /ʰm ʰn ʰɲ ʰl ʰr ç (voiceless w)/

p t tç ts tx c k q b d j g = /h t ts (Basque ts) tʃ c k q b d ɟ g/

pl bl tl dl = /hl bl tl dl/

ph th tçh tsh txh ch kh qh bh dh jh gh = /f θ s (Basque s) ʃ ç x χ v ð j ɣ/

phl bhl thl dhl /fl vl ɬ ɮ/

np nt ntç nts ntx nc nk nq nb nd nj ng = /b d dz (voiced Basque ts) dʒ ɟ g ɢ m n ɲ ŋ/

npl nbl ntl ndl /bl ml dl nl/

f ç s x = /f s (Basque s) ʃ/

nf nç ns nx, also fh çh sh xh = /v z (voiced Basque s) ʒ/

Rimes

a i ao u e o ee oo ai ei oi au eu ia ua = /a ɪ ɨ ʊ ɛ ɔ i u ai ei oi au eu iə uə/

Tones

9 tones:

  • -Ø: mid level
  • -ch: glottal stop final
  • -s: low falling
  • -r: low rising
  • -gh: low breathy
  • -mh: creaky
  • -bh: mid rising
  • -dh: high falling
  • -n: high level

Grammar

Ko is SVO and head-initial. Mutations often operate on a syntactic basis.

Nouns

plural word: yoo-L (placed after classifier but before noun)

Pronouns

  • xan = I
  • çeedh = you

Classifiers

Classifiers were historically a very open class. They always eclipse the following noun.

lu, tzagh, hņoobh, lees, çua, yaus, ...

  • lu-L = humans
    • faon = a man; lu nfaon = the man (classifier lu)
  • tçagh-N = animals, demons
    • plaidh = a dog; tçagh nplaidh = the dog (classifier tçagh)
    • tçagh Nja Ber Woch = a demon in Ko mythology
  • hņoobh = tall objects such as trees, buildings
    • qo = a tree; hņoobh nqo the tree
  • çua-N: infinitive
    • dor = is born; çua ndor = to be born (inf.)
  • edible plants
  • poisonous plants
  • lees-N = nominalization, way of X-ing
    • doigh = 'to speak'; lees ndoigh 'language'
  • In archaic language: fancy apparently ad-hoc classifiers for different animals and fruits (cf. English murder of crows except "murder" is a classifier)

Verbs

ba = subjunctive marker

Ba fhaomh-saigh le çeedh = If you like it

Sample text

Tower of Babel

Pugh çedh yaus nqar ņiamh tso txuabh çhaor aon lees ndoigh kiabh aon lees ntlair.
CONJ in CLF world whole PST give only one CLF language and one CLF speak
And in the whole world there was one language and one way of speaking.
Roomh lu yoo las jhugh dle [hyoch mhar], [ka nfemh] re txuabh tçhaoch ibh yaus [njo qiagh] Xi-Na, pugh re txuabh cheich hmoi nblaun.
when CLF PL person travel eastward then
As the people moved eastward...