The Hlou-Shum languages (Eevo: bo brits Lloo-Xwm; Hlou: Ntzog Ntzog Schlaub-Xön; Ko: lees yoo ndoigh Hloodh-Xoo) are a small family of languages native to Verse:Tricin/Bjeheond. Most modern Hlou-Shum languages are tonal. The proto-language, Proto-Hlou-Shum (PHS), is about 2500 years old. The family is based on the idea of recasting IE languages as Hmong-like languages. Hlou-Shum languages had much more importance in the past, but today Windermere is more dominant in Bjeheond.
Proto-Hlou-Shum: 2500 years BP
Proto-Hlou-Shum was written with a system of logographs. Hlou, Ku and Shumian developed the logographs separately into their own writing systems.
The following presents Schlomo Schngellstein's reconstruction of Proto-Hlou-Shum.
A Proto-Hlou-Shum word had the structure
(preinitial) + (C)C(r/l)V(C)(C) tone.
Preinitials were unstressed derivational prefixes.
- p t tθ ts tx ḱ k kw ʔ
- ph th tθh tsh txh ḱh kh kwh
- b d dθ ds dx ǵ g gw
- bh dh dθh dsh dxh ǵh gh gwh
- f θ s x h
- F Θ S X H = voiced/breathy f θ s x h
- m n ń ŋ y r l w + breathy counterparts
θ-series > ɬ-series in some descendants
Ko and Clooa gain uvulars through velars + r/l.
a e i o u ə ai au ei ou iə uə
- -p -t -k
- -mp -nt -nk
- -m -n -l -w -y
- -ʔ -s
- plosive + s or ʔ
- nasal + s
PHS was non-tonal. The tones in daughter languages are actually reflexes of final types in PHS:
- A: -0, -N, -l
- B: -ʔ
- C: -s
- D: -t
- E: -p, -k
The incidence of tones A, B, C in Hlou-Shum words follows the ratio 2:1:1.
Proto-Hlou-Shum was head-initial like Vietnamese.
Total reduplication was used for noun plurals, verbal imperatives, and adverbs from adjectives.
Some descendants turned this into partial reduplication.
Sometimes two prefixes could be used.
- s-: nominalization, "metonymy", adjectivizer
- louʔ 'spring (season)' > slouʔ 'springlike, where there is spring'
- -ʔ: nominalization
- lou 'to plant' > louʔ 'spring (season)'
- m- preinitial
- r- preinitial
- lenition/retroflexion in Hlou
- D- preinitial
- changes some consonants in Shum
- maybe it's the same as the r-preinitial
Initial clusters (not every cluster may be allowed)
- ḱ ǵ ś > tx dx x
- pl tl ḱl kl ʔl > pl tl schl kl schl
- npl ntl nḱl nkl > npl ntl nkl nkl
- bl dl ǵl gl > bl dl gl gl
- nbl ndl nǵl ngl > nbl ndl ngl ngl
- fl vl sl śl > fl fl schl schl
- tzl tsl > tz ts
- ntzl ntsl ntxl > ntz nts ntx
- dz ds dxl > dz ds dx
- ndzl ndsl ndxl > nl nl nl
- ml nl > ml nl
- pr, br > pf, v
- kr, gr > sch
- tr, dr > tr, dr
- sp, st, str, stl, sc, sk > schm, schn, schr, schl, x, sch
- sm, sn, sṇ, sń > schm, schn, schr, x
- stz sts stx > tz ts tx
The n-preinitial turns some consonants into prenasalized consonants
The r-preinitial (some koineization)
- r-p r-t r-ḱ r-k r-ʔ > f tr sch sch h
- r-np r-nt r-nḱ r-nk > mpf ntr nk nk
- r-b r-d r-ǵ r-g > v dr j g
- r-nb r-nd r-nǵ r-ng > mpf ndr ng ng
- r-f r-v r-z r-s r-x r-h > f w ntz nts ntx h
- r-tz r-ts r-tx > z s x
- r-ntz r-nts r-ntx > ntz nts ntx
- r-dz r-ds r-dx > j j j
- r-ndz r-nds r-ndx > ntz nts ntx
- r-m r-n r-ń r-y r-l r-w > w n j j drl r
- r-Cl > drl, trl, ndrl, ntrl
-k > glottal stop final
s- triggers tone split
b p > bh p
sb sp > b p
np nb > b mh
spr pr > ph p
sbr br > bh bh
nCl, r.Cl > nl or nlh
l > l, D.l > ll
f > h
Dp Db Dt Dd Dk Dg > f v th dh ch gh
f v th dh ch gh > p bh t dh k gh
x > tl
z > ś, s > s
k' > ś, g' > jh
- kw > p
- gw > v > vh in shum
- w > w > v in shum
Tone split from voiceless initial/voiced initial?
|Tone class||Voiceless initial (5/8)||Voiced initial (3/8)|
|A (10/27)||-b (23%)||-0 (14%)|
|B (5/27)||-n (12%)||-s (6.9%)|
|C (5/27)||-s (12%)||-g (6.9%)|
|D (4/27)||-ß (9.3%)||-d (5.6%)|
|E (3/27)||-hn (6.9%)||-h (4.2%)|
Among non-E syllables the distribution is:
b (23%) > s (19%) > 0 (14%) > n (12%) > ß (9.3%) > g (6.9%) > d (5.6%)
ʔouh ʔak zamp-zamp
The Sheep and the Horses