Hlou-Shum languages

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Hlou-Shum languages/Lexicon

The Hlou-Shum languages (Eevo: bo brits Lloo-Xwm; Hlou: Ntzog Ntzog Schlaub-Xön; Ko: lees yoo ndoigh Hloodh-Xoo) are a small family of languages native to Verse:Tricin/Bjeheond. Most modern Hlou-Shum languages are tonal. The proto-language, Proto-Hlou-Shum (PHS), is about 2500 years old. The family is based on the idea of recasting IE languages as Hmong-like languages. Hlou-Shum languages had much more importance in the past, but today Windermere is more dominant in Bjeheond.

Family tree

  • Proto-Hlou-Shum
    • Vreed
    • Hlou (Ntzog Schlaub)
    • Shumic
      • Shum (lhàu śúṃ)
      • Celto-Shum
    • Ko (lees ndoigh Komh)
    • Tlu (χμῶ Τλὣ)
    • Liai (hmỳ Liaĩ)
    • Clooa (Mois de la Crouet)

Timeline

Proto-Hlou-Shum: 2500 years BP

Writing system

Proto-Hlou-Shum was written with a system of logographs. Hlou, Ku and Shumian developed the logographs separately into their own writing systems.

Phonology

The following presents Schlomo Schngellstein's reconstruction of Proto-Hlou-Shum.

Phonotactics

A Proto-Hlou-Shum word had the structure

(preinitial) + (C)C(r/l)V(C)(C) tone.

Preinitials were unstressed derivational prefixes.

Initials

  • p t tθ ts tx ḱ k kw ʔ
  • ph th tθh tsh txh ḱh kh kwh
  • b d dθ ds dx ǵ g gw
  • bh dh dθh dsh dxh ǵh gh gwh
  • f θ s x h
  • F Θ S X H = voiced/breathy f θ s x h
  • m n ń ŋ y r l w + breathy counterparts

θ-series > ɬ-series in some descendants

Ko and Clooa gain uvulars through velars + r/l.

Nuclei

a e i o u ə ai au ei ou iə uə

Coda

Allowed finals:

  • -p -t -k
  • -mp -nt -nk
  • -m -n -l -w -y
  • -ʔ -s
  • plosive + s or ʔ
  • nasal + s

Tones

PHS was non-tonal. The tones in daughter languages are actually reflexes of final types in PHS:

  • A: -0, -N, -l
  • B: -ʔ
  • C: -s
  • D: -t
  • E: -p, -k

The incidence of tones A, B, C in Hlou-Shum words follows the ratio 2:1:1.

Grammar

Proto-Hlou-Shum was head-initial like Vietnamese.

Reduplication

Total reduplication was used for noun plurals, verbal imperatives, and adverbs from adjectives.

Some descendants turned this into partial reduplication.

Derivation

Sometimes two prefixes could be used.

  • s-: nominalization, "metonymy", adjectivizer
    • louʔ 'spring (season)' > slouʔ 'springlike, where there is spring'
  • : nominalization
    • lou 'to plant' > louʔ 'spring (season)'
  • m- preinitial
  • r- preinitial
    • lenition/retroflexion in Hlou
  • D- preinitial
    • changes some consonants in Shum
    • maybe it's the same as the r-preinitial

Reflexes

Initials

Hlou

Initial clusters (not every cluster may be allowed)

  • ḱ ǵ ś > tx dx x
  • pl tl ḱl kl ʔl > pl tl schl kl schl
  • npl ntl nḱl nkl > npl ntl nkl nkl
  • bl dl ǵl gl > bl dl gl gl
  • nbl ndl nǵl ngl > nbl ndl ngl ngl
  • fl vl sl śl > fl fl schl schl
  • tzl tsl > tz ts
  • ntzl ntsl ntxl > ntz nts ntx
  • dz ds dxl > dz ds dx
  • ndzl ndsl ndxl > nl nl nl
  • ml nl > ml nl
  • pr, br > pf, v
  • kr, gr > sch
  • tr, dr > tr, dr
  • sp, st, str, stl, sc, sk > schm, schn, schr, schl, x, sch
  • sm, sn, sṇ, sń > schm, schn, schr, x
  • stz sts stx > tz ts tx

The n-preinitial turns some consonants into prenasalized consonants

The r-preinitial (some koineization)

  • r-p r-t r-ḱ r-k r-ʔ > f tr sch sch h
  • r-np r-nt r-nḱ r-nk > mpf ntr nk nk
  • r-b r-d r-ǵ r-g > v dr j g
  • r-nb r-nd r-nǵ r-ng > mpf ndr ng ng
  • r-f r-v r-z r-s r-x r-h > f w ntz nts ntx h
  • r-tz r-ts r-tx > z s x
  • r-ntz r-nts r-ntx > ntz nts ntx
  • r-dz r-ds r-dx > j j j
  • r-ndz r-nds r-ndx > ntz nts ntx
  • r-m r-n r-ń r-y r-l r-w > w n j j drl r
  • r-Cl > drl, trl, ndrl, ntrl

-k > glottal stop final

Shum

s- triggers tone split

b p > bh p

sb sp > b p

np nb > b mh

spr pr > ph p

sbr br > bh bh

nCl, r.Cl > nl or nlh

l > l, D.l > ll

f > h

Dp Db Dt Dd Dk Dg > f v th dh ch gh

f v th dh ch gh > p bh t dh k gh

x > tl

z > ś, s > s

k' > ś, g' > jh

  • kw > p
  • gw > v > vh in shum
  • w > w > v in shum

Ko

Rimes

Tones

Hlou

Tone split from voiceless initial/voiced initial?

Tone class Voiceless initial (5/8) Voiced initial (3/8)
A (10/27) -b (23%) -0 (14%)
B (5/27) -n (12%) -s (6.9%)
C (5/27) -s (12%) -g (6.9%)
D (4/27) (9.3%) -d (5.6%)
E (3/27) -hn (6.9%) -h (4.2%)

Among non-E syllables the distribution is:

b (23%) > s (19%) > 0 (14%) > n (12%) > ß (9.3%) > g (6.9%) > d (5.6%)

Shum

Ko

Sample

ʔouh ʔak zamp-zamp

The Sheep and the Horses