Páuluòbeng

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Páuluòbeng (yi bPáuluòbeng) is a minority language closely related to Ciètian, but is distinct enough to be regarded as a separate language. It is inspired by Mandarin and Yorkshire English.

Páuluòbeng is the most tonal spoken Talmic language (even more tonal than Anbirese).

Figure out how to assign tones

Todo

Glottal reinforcement mania

Final schwa > tone split

dr tr sr > zh ch sh; zhil, zhim, zhin, zhing > zhul, zhum, zhun, zhung

lr̀ /lɛ̂ː(ɹ)/ = sap, syrup

ehcung, yi h-ehcung; pl. ehcungr /əhˈkʊ̄ŋ, əhˈkȭː(ɹ)/ = mountain

dèe, yi dèe; pl. dèen /têː, têːn/ = valley

yi syøød /ɕɥǿːʔ/ = rose

mand /manʔ/ = to take

ted /təʔ/ = beautiful

dùun /tû:n/ = far

duāilig /ˈtwɑ́ːljəʔ/ = to demand, to pester

yi mār /mǽ:/ = tree

jyarm /t͡ɕǽ:m/ 'heavy'

yi kaθr /ˈkʰaħə/ 'flower'

ái /ɑ̌ː/ 'gold'

Áiзaan /ɑ̌ːzǣːn/ '(a name)'

neħdir /nəhtjə/ = chain

Phonology

Mandarin/Ufirlandisg consonants; Yorkshire vowels

Tones

Báoluòveng is a strongly pitch-accent language.

Three tones for long vowels:

  • ā or a: mid level, relaxed
  • á: rising
  • à: falling

Consonants

p b f v t d c z s з /z/ q j x ξ /ʑ/ ch zh sh r /ɹ/ k g h γ /ɣ/ θ /ħ/ ħ /h/ m n ng l w y - stops are devoiced, as in Mandarin

  • /tʂw tʂʰw ʂw ɹw/ labialize to /pf pfʰ f ʋ/ before /u y ɥ w/
  • h = /x/ θ = /ħ/, ħ = /h/

Vowels

Baoluoveng doesn't like closing diphthongs very much, unlike Standard Ciètian.

Short vowels:

  • a ie i o u ü /a (j)ɛ (w)ɪ (w)ɔ (w)ʊ (ɥ)ʏ/

Long vowels:

  • ai ee uai uee ie üe /ɑː~aɪ eː waɪ~wɑː weː jeː ɥøː/
    • [aɪ] is the Canadian-raised allophone of /ɑː/
  • au iau oo ioo /æː~əʊ jæː~əʊ oː joː/
    • [əʊ] is the Canadian-raised allophone of /æː/
  • ii uu üü /(j)iː uː (ɥ)yː/

R-linking vowels:

  • uor, uoor, uoo, ur, uur /(w)ɔː(ɹ)/
  • (i)ar, (i)aar, (i)aa /(j)æː(ɹ)/
  • r, eer /ɛː(ɹ)/
  • ir, iir /jɛː(ɹ)/
  • ür, üür /jɔː(ɹ)~ɥœː(ɹ)/
  • ueer /wɛː(ɹ)/
  • air aur oor /æː(ɹ), ɑː(ɹ), ɔː(ɹ)/
  • angr engr ingr (u)ongr ungr üngr /ɑ̃ː(ɹ) ɜ̃ː(ɹ) jɜ̃ː(ɹ) ɔ̃ː(ɹ) ɔ̃ː(ɹ) ɥɜ̃ː(ɹ)/
    • e.g. liangr /ljɑ̃̀ː(ɹ)/ 'dream'

Unstressed vowels:

  • final -r = /(j)ə(ɹ)/
  • final -i = /ɪ/
  • final -ou = /o/

Many grammatical endings are merged in Páuluòbeng.

Linking R
  • Example of linking R: yi χazr àard [jɪ ˈxazə ɹ‿æ̂ːʔ] 'the big flower' (cf. Ciètian: ye χazerr àrd [jə ˈxazər ʔɔɯt])
  • No linking R: yi búuθ àard [jɪ ˈpǔːħ æ̂ːʔ] 'the big cave' (cf. Ciètian: ye bùθa àrd [jə ˈpuːhə ʔɔɯt])

Mutations

Báoluòveng has no eclipsis mutation, unlike Cièdian. Lenition is similar to Cièdian.

Grammar

Nouns

The Páuluòbeng noun system is much simpler than in Cièdian: there is no case, and the masculine and the feminine merged to the common gender.

As in Ciètian, the singular definite article ye and yeN changes to yen (with no mutation) before a noun starting with a vowel or a semivowel. The same occurs for plural nouns too. For example:

  • *yiL ùur > yin ùur /jɪn ˈwɤ̂ː/ (masculine) 'the sense (nominative)'; pl. nan ùurn /nən wɤ̂ːn/ 'the senses'
  • *yi àavr > yin àavr /jɪn ˈæ̂ːvə/ (neuter) 'the book (nominative)'; pl. nan áavr /nən ˈæ̌ːvə/ 'the books'
Definite article
singular plural
common neuter common neuter
yiL, yin
yi bpràan /jɪ bɹæ̂ːn/ 'the corner'
yi, yin
yi hāar /jɪ xǣ:/ 'the flower'
na, nan
na bpràanr /nə bɹæ̂ːnə/ 'the corners'
naL
na γǎar /nə ɣæ̌:/ 'the flowers'

Nouns are usually pluralized with -r. If the singular already ends in -r, the plural is unchanged except possibly with a tone change.

Pluralization patterns

  1. sg. null > pl. -r /ə/: The regular pattern.
    • bpràan /bræ̂:n/ 'a corner' > bpràanr /bræ̂:nə/
  2. sg. level tone > pl. rising tone: Common for nouns whose stems contain a *ð (Tigol ṫ) or *γ (Tigol ċ).
    • hāar /xǣ:/ 'a flower' > hǎar /xæ̌:/ 'flowers'
  3. sg. falling tone > pl. rising: Common for nouns already ending in r
    • àavr /ˈæ̂ːvə/ 'a book' > áavr /ˈæ̌ːvə/ 'books'
  4. sg. null > pl. -n /ən/: For nouns which were monosyllabic in Tigol and ended in a vowel.
    • tèe /tʰe:/ 'a valley' pl. tèen /tʰêːn/ 'valleys'

Adjectives

Adjectives take plurals like nouns, and have the same pluralization patterns as nouns.

  • shàan /ʂæ̂:n/ 'true (sg)' > shàanr /ʂæ̂:nə/ 'true (pl)' (~ Eevo tŋawm 'true')
  • zhùu /tʂû:/ 'red (sg)' > zhùun /tʂû:n/ 'red (pl)' (~ Eevo dru 'copper')

Verbs

There is a binary system of present vs. past. The past tense requires ergative syntax to be used, like in Anbirese and Ciètian.

The ergative particle is u /ʊ/.

Tonal ablaut patterns

  1. present level > past rising (verbs ending in consonants)
  2. present any tone > past -n (verbs ending in vowels)
    • shuò 'digs' (~Eevo troh 'to oppose'); shuōn 'dug'