Proto-Maro-Ephenian

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Proto-Maro-Ephenian
Created byLimius
SettingAvrid
Maro-Ephenian
  • Proto-Maro-Ephenian
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Proto-Maro-Ephenian (PME) is the ancient common ancestor of the Maro-Ephenian languages, spoken broadly throughout Ephenia, Eubora, and parts of Suria. This includes Aeranir and its descendants, Dalitian, and many others.

Phonology

Consonant phonemes
Labial Coronal Velar Uvular Glottal
dental lateral post-
alveolar
palato-
velar
plain labial plain labial
Nasal *m *n
Stop voiceless *p *t *tˡ *t́ *ḱ *k *kʷ *q *qʷ
voiced *d *dˡ *d́ *ɡ́ *g *gʷ
aspirated *bʰ *dʰ *dˡʰ *d́ʰ *ɡ́ʰ *gʰ *gʷʰ *ɡ̆ʰ *ɡ̆ʷʰ
Fricative *s *h
Trill *r₁ *r₂
Lateral *l₁ *l₂
Approximate *i̯ *u̯

Sound laws

Consonant phonemes
PME Maro-Stiric Talothic Iscaric Proto-
Fyrdic
Proto-
Maro-
Stiric
Stiric Old
Marian
Proto-
Talothic
Dalitian Proto-
Iscaric
Aeranir
*p *p; *pʰ p, ph p, f *p; *pʰ; *pť p, ph, pt *p p *f; *b
*bʰ *bʰ; b bh, b b *pʰ; *p; *pť ph, p, pt *ɸ; *β f, b *b; *f
*t *t; *tʰ t, th t, ϑ *t; *tʰ; *ts; *ťť t, th, s, tt *t̪; *ts t, ȥ [ts] *þ; *d
*d *d; *dʰ d, dh d *d; *tʰ; *ds; *ďď d, th, s, z *d̪ d *t
*dʰ *dʰ; *d dh, d d *tʰ; *t; *ts; *ťť th, t, s, tt *θ; *ð f, d; b *d
*t̂ *ʈ; *ʈʰ ṭ, ṭh t, ϑ *t; *tʰ; *ts; ťť t, th, s, tt *t; *ts t, ȥ [ts] *þ; *d
*d̂ *ɖ; *ɖʰ ḍ; ḷ, ḍh; ḷh d *d; *tʰ; *ds; *ďď d, th, s, z *d d *t
*d̂ʰ *ɖʰ; *ɖ ḍh; ḷh, ḍ; ḷ d *tʰ; *t; *ts; *ťť th, t, s, tt *r̥; *r̝; d rh [r̥], r; b, d *d
*tˡ *č; *čʰ c, ch č *ts; *ťť s, tt *tɬ; *ts tl [tɬ], ȥ [ts] *þ; *d
*dˡ *ǰ; *ǰʰ j, h ǰ *ds; *ďď s, z *d d *t
*dˡʰ *ǰʰ; *ǰ h, j ǰ *ts; *ťť s, tt *ɬ; *ɮ; d f, l; b, d *d
*t́ *č; *čʰ c, ch č *ts; *ťť s, tt *ts ȥ [ts] *þ; *d
*d́ *ǰ; *ǰʰ j, h ǰ *ds, *ďď s, z *d d *t
*d́ʰ *ǰʰ; *ǰ h, j ǰ *ts; *ťť s, tt *s̠; *z̠; d s, r; b, d *d
*ḱ ś ϑ *k; *kʰ; *ťť k, kh, tt *k c *h; *g
*ǰ; *ǰʰ j, h d *g; *kʰ; *ďď g, kh, z *g g *k; *h
*ǵʰ *ǰʰ; *ǰ h, j d *kʰ; k; *ťť kh, k, tt *x; *ɣ h; Ø, gh [ɣ]; g *g; *h
*k *k; *kʰ; *č k, kh, c k, x, č *k; *kʰ; *ťť k, kh, tt *k c *h; *g
*g *g; *gʰ; *ǰ g, gh, j g, ǰ *g; *kʰ; *ďď g, kh, z *g g *k; *h
*gʰ *gʰ; *g; *ǰʰ; *ǰ gh, g, h, j g, ǰ *kʰ; *k; *ťť kh, k, tt *x; *ɣ h; Ø, gh [ɣ]; g *g; *h
*kʷ *k; *kʰ; *č k, kh, c k, x, č *kʷ; *kʷʰ; *ťť p; t; k,
ph; th; kh, tt
*kʷ cu; c *hw; *gw; *h
*gʷ *g; *gʰ; *ǰ g, gh, j g, ǰ *gʷ; *kʷʰ; *ďď b; d; g,
ph; th; kh, z
*gʷ v [ʋ]; gu *kw; *h
*gʷʰ *gʰ; *g; *ǰʰ; *ǰ gh, g, h, j g, ǰ *kʷʰ; *kʷ; *ťť ph; th; kh,
p; t; k, tt
*xʷ; *ɣʷ f, v [ʋ]; gu *gw; *h
*q *q; *qʰ; *č k, kh, c q, χ, č *k; *kʰ; *ťť k, kh, tt *q q *ħ; *ʕ
*qʷ *q; *qʰ; *č k, kh, c q, χ, č *kʷ; *kʷʰ; +ťť p; t; k,
ph; th; kh, tt
*qʷ qu; q *ħw; *ʕw; *ħ

Nouns

Declension

Noun declension
Singular Plural
athematic thematic pronominal athematic thematic pronominal
Nominative *-s *-os *-s† *-r₁ *-or₁ *-ōs
Vocative *-e
Accusative *-m̥ *-om *-ē *-i *-oy *-ō(n)
Inanimate Nom/Acc *-d *-n̥t *-ont *-er₁
Essive *-u *-ow *-wos *-ur₁ *-owr̥₁ *-uh
Genitive *-s/*-es/*-os *-osyo *-oy *-ir₁ *-obʰos *-stros
Dative *-ey/-oy *-oey/-ōy *-bʰey *-n̥r₃ *-onr̥₃ *-sbʰeys
Ablative *-eyd *-er₂d *-e-e‡ *-n̥s *-ons *-mos
Locative *-sis *-osis *-eys *-sr̥₂ *-osr̥₂ *-esr̥₂


Lexicon

Proto-Maro-Ephenian Roots