Aeranir

From Linguifex
Jump to: navigation, search
Aeranir
coeñar inceris
coeñar aerānir
Pronunciation [ˈk̟øː.ɲar ˈɪ̃ŋ̟.k̟ɛ.rɪs̠],
[ˈk̟øː.ɲar ɛːˈraː.nɪr]
Created by Limius
Setting Avrid
Spoken natively in Telrhamir, Iscaria, Aeranid Empire
Ethnicity Aeran
Language family
Maro-Ephenian
  • Iscaric
    • Aeranir
Early forms:
Official status
Official language in Aeranid Empire
Recognised minority language in Iscaria, S'entin, Tevrén
ISO 639-3 qco

Aeranir, also known as coeñar aerānir (language of the Aerans), or coeñar inceris (language of the capital), is an Iscaric language in the Maro-Ephenian language group. It was originally spoken by the Aerans, developed in the deserts of Northern Iscaria in the city of Telrhamir, and spread with the expanse of the Aeranid Empire throughout Ephenia, as well as parts of Eubora and Syra. It later developed into the Aeranid languages, such as Dalot, Ilesse, Iscariano, Îredese, S'entigneis, and Tevrés. It is still used throughout Ephenia as a language of theology, science, medicine, literature, and law.

Aeranir had been standardised into Classical Aeranir by the time of the Early Empire, around the second millennia BNIA by the writer and educator Limius. The period before that is generally referred to as Old Aeranir. The language spoken between the 15th and 12th centuries BNIA is generally referred to Late Aeranir. This shift is marked by several grammatical and phonetic shifts. After that period, Aeranir began to splinter off into the various Aeranid languages. A form of Classical Aeranir called New Aeranir or Medieval Aeranir remained in use in official writings even after this period.

Aeranir is a highly inflective and fusional language, with three distinct genders, nine cases, two aspects, four moods, three persons, two or three voices, and two numbers.

History

Periodisation

Timeline of Aeranir
0 —
200 —
400 —
600 —
800 —
1000 —
1200 —
1400 —
1600 —
1800 —
2000 —
2200 —
2400 —
2600 —
2800 —
3000 —
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proto-Aeranid
Liturgical Aeranir
Post-Collapse Aeranir
Late Aeranir
Golden Age Aeranir
Classical Aeranir
Old Aeranir
Proto-Iscaric
Aeranid Languages
The Collapse
Aeran settlements
City of Telhramir
Aeranid Kingdom
Aeranid Empire
Eastern Aeranid Empire
Western Aeranid Empire
Various Nations
A timeline of the evolution of Aeranir. The scale is in years BCA. The thin bar to the left denotes the Aeranir (and later Aeranid) speaking powers of the time, whilst the right denotes the evolutionary stage of Aeranir.

The Aeranir language is descended from Proto-Iscaric, a theoretical reconstruction, which is in turn descended from Proto-Maro-Ephenian. This makes Aeranir a member of the Maro-Ephenian language family, along with Talothic, Fyrdan, and Marian. Because neither of these two proto-languages are attested in writing, it can be difficult to say when they were spoken, and when one transitioned into the other, but scholars generally agree that there was something that could be called Proto-Iscaric around the end of the 4th millennium BCA.

Proto-Iscaric was spoken by numerous Maro-Ephenian tribes which settled in Iscaria at the end of the 4th millennium. This evolved into numerous attested Iscaric languages, of which the language of the Aerans, who settled the region known as Aes, was but one. The oldest evidence of their language is found dating well after the founding of their most famous city, Telhramir, around 2500 BCA. This phase of the language, from around then to the later years of the Aeranid Kingdom, is known as Old Aeranir (called coeñar accuiha aerānir or aerānir accuiha by Classical and Golden Age sources).

Phonology

Consonants

The following is a table of phonemes in Aeranir. This analysis is based on Classical Aeranir, as it was used during the hight of the Aeranid Empire. The phonology, especially the number of vowel phonemes, varied greatly time, but this is seen as the standard version of the language.

Classical consonant phonemes
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral plain labial plain labial
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p t k q
Affricate ts
Fricative f s h
Liquid r l j w ɦ
Golden age consonant phonemes
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral plain labial plain labial
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop aspirated (pʰ) (tʰ)
plain p t k q
voiced (b) (d) (g)
Affricate voiceless ts
voiced (dz~z)
Fricative f s h
Liquid ʋ r l j ɦ
Late consonant phonemes
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar
central lateral plain labial
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop voiceless p t c k
voiced b d ɟ g
Affricate ts
Fricative f s
Liquid r l j

Notes on consonants

  • The clusters /rh/, /nh/, and /lh/ vary greatly between dialects; [rɦ nɦ ɫɦ ~ rg ŋg ɫg ~ ʀː ŋː ʟː].
  • The sequence /ks/ is written in the romanisation as x.
  • The nasal consonant /n/ assimilates to the place of articulation of the following stop, so that /nk/ or /nqʷ/ for example become /ŋk/ and /ɴʷqʷ/. Before fricatives, /n/ is deleted, and the proceeding vowel is lengthened and nasalised. These processes apply between word boundries as well. Word final /n/ as part of case and personal markers is elided before a word starting with a vowel, fricative, approximate, or before a pausa. It often served as a shibboleth for discerning one's origins or social circles.
  • The velar, labio-velar, and labio-uvular consonants /k/, /kʷ/, /q/, and /qʷ/ are palatalised before front vowels and /j/ to [k̟], [kᶣ], [k̠] and [k̠ᶣ] respectively. Futhermore, dental consonants /n/ and /t/ are palatalised before /j/ to [ɲ̟], and [tʲ]. The glottal fricative /h/ is also palatalised to [ç] before high front vowels and /j/. Some dialects also palatalise the postalveolar consonants /s/ and /ts/ to [ɕ] and [tɕ] before front vowels and /j/.
  • The labialised consonants /kʷ/, and /qʷ/ are pronounced as truly labialised, rather than a sequence of two consonants, i.e. /kw/, /qw/. The voiced labiovelar stop only occurs after a nasal consonant.
  • All consonants, with the exception of /ʋ/, can be geminated between vowels. This is denoted orthographically by doubling of the first letter of the phoneme, i.e. ⟨cc⟩, ⟨ff⟩, ⟨hh⟩, etc. The palatal approximate /j/ is always geminated to [jː] between vowels, but is written with a simple ⟨i⟩. Fricative /hː/ is usually realised as [çː]. In dialects that palatalise /s/ and /ts/, [çː] often becomes [ɕː], merging in some environments with /sː/.
  • The lateral approximate /l/ has two allophones in Classical Aeranir; [l] before close front vowels, /j/, and when geminated, and [ɫ] elsewhere.
  • The fricative /s/ is often pronounced further back in the mouth, closer to [s̠].
  • The phoneme /h/ has two distinct allophones following the nasal /n/. When this cluster occurs natively within a word, /h/ is voiced and velarised to [g]. Nasal /n/ is likewise velarised to [ŋ]. Dialectically, the cluster /ŋg/ may be fortified to [gː] or lenited to [ŋː]. Before front vowels and /j/, these may appear as [ɲʝ], [ŋ˖g˖], [g˖ː], or [ŋ˖ː]. When the cluster /nh/ occurs where /h/ was once word initial, as result of a prefix, the nasal is deleted and the preceding vowel nasalised and lengthened, as with fricatives /s/ and /f/.

Vowels

Vowels in Aeranir underwent the greatest amount of change throughout time. Although the standard is considered to me Classical Aeranir as it was spoken in the 17th and 16th centuries bnia, this should not be seen in the context of a sliding historical spectrum. Below are listed three somewhat representative samples that provide a broad overview of general changes.

Old Aeranir vowel phonemes
(circa 2300bca)
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a
Classical and Golden Age Aeranir vowel phonemes
(circa 1600bca)
Front Central Back
plain rounded
short long short long short long short long
Close ɪ ʏ ʊ
Mid-close øː
Mid-open ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː
Open a
Late Aeranir vowel phonemes
(circa 1200bca)
Front Central Back
plain round
Close i (y) u
Mid-close e (ø) o
Mid-open ɛ ɔ
Open a

Notes on vowels

  • The short high rounded vowel /ʏ/ is mostly a loan from Dalitian, and is not found in many native words, or words dating back to Old Aeranir. It is usually realised as [ɪ], and is only rounded in educated speech.
Vowel change from PME to Late Aeranir (in stessed initial syllables)
PME Old Classical Late
*u[r₂, r₃, h]i → ui /ui̯/ → y /yː/ → i /i/
*i[r₂, r₃, h]u → iu /iu̯̯/
*ey, *ehi, *ēy, *hey → ei /ei̯/ → ī /iː/
*i[r₂, r₃, h] → ī /iː/
*i → i /i/ → i /ɪ/ → e /e/
*oy, *o[r₂, r₃, h]i, *er₃i,
*ōy, *[r₂, r₃, h]oy, *r₃ey
→ oi /oi̯/ → oe /øː/
*eh, *ē → e /eː/ → e /eː/
*e → e /e/ → e /ɛ/ → è /ɛ/
*er₂i, *r₂ey → ai /ai̯/ → ae /ɛː/
*ow, *o[r₂, r₃, h]u, *ōw,
*[r₂, r₃, h]ow, *r₃ew, *ew,
*ehu, *ēw, *hew
→ ou /ou̯̯/ → ū /uː/ → u /u/
*u[r₂, r₃, h] → ū /uː/
*u → u /u/ → u /ʊ/ → o /o/
*o[r₂, r₃, h], *ō, *r₃e[r₂, r₃, h],
*r₃ē, *er₃
→ o /oː/ → o /oː/
*o, *r₃e → o /o/ → o /ɔ/ → ò /ɔ/
*er₂u, *r₂ew → au /au̯̯/ → au /ɔː/
*er₂, *r₂ē → ā /aː/ → ā /aː/ → a /a/
*[r̥₂, r̥₃, h̥] → a /a/ → a /a/
  • Most non-intial short vowels in Proto-Iscairc were reduced to /i/ by the time of Old Aeranir. Many of these were then further reduced in Classical Aeranir (as discussed above), to the vowels represented by diaeresis. These merged in Late Aeranir to a schwa, but this schwa was deleted in many environments. 
  • Old Aeranir diphthongs /ei̯/ and /ou̯̯/ may have been realised as hightened pure vowels [eː~e̝ː] and [oː~o̝ː]. Before other vowels, /ei̯/ becomes simple [e] in Classical Aeranir. Likewise, Classical /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ rise to [e] and [o] before another vowel. These were then simplified into glides [j] and [w] in Late Aeranir.
  • There are two realisations of high short vowels /ɪ/ and /ʊ/ before another vowel, depending on whether the proceeding syllable it light or heavy. Following a light syllable, the become glides [j] and [w]. Follwing a heavy syllable, an anaptyctic vowel is inserted, becoming [ɪj] and [ʊw]. These vowels are not represented in the orthography.
  • Some peripheral dialects of Late Aeranir retained rounded front vowels /y/ and /ø/, while in most, including the speech of Telrhamir, they merged with their plain counterparts /i/ and /e/ respectively.

Stress

Syllable stress in Old Aeranir fell uniformly on the first syllable of a word. However, by the time of Classical Aeranir, stress had shifted to a more complex paradigm, generally falling on the penult (the second to last syllable) or the antipenult (the third to last syllable). Which one was determined by the weight of the penult.

Syllables are divided into one of two categories, or weights. These are light syllables and heavy syllables. A light syllable contains a maximum of one short vowel, alone or proceeded by a consonant or consonant cluster, while a heavy syllable may contain a long vowel, a coda consonant, or both. If the penult of a word is heavy, it is stressed. If not, the antipenult is stressed.

Dialects

Pēcilia Cūvae
The pēcilia cūvae ('Cuvan swing') refers to the particular musical quality of the Aeranir spoken in the Aes city of Cuva (cūva) during the classical and golden age of Aeranid civilisation. It was likened in the earliest records to the pēcilia traecōvus ('talothic swing'), and occasionally referred to as the pōnus traeceus ('talothic voice'). However, by the golden age, Talothic had lost its distinct melodious accent, and the these terms fell out of use. This is believed to be the reason that citizens of Cuva were called traeceolar ('little taloths'), and is the origin of the name of the city Triggiolari, founded as Traeceolar.
Rather than the stress-accent of standard capitoline Aeranir, the speech of Cuva is marked by a distinctive pitch accent. Pitch in Cuva begins low, and then rises until a kernel mora, after which it immediately falls. Placement of the kernel mora generally falls on the third to last mora. However, the way morae are counted is somewhat complex. A short vowel, either proceeded by a consonant or consonant cluster, or bare, counts as one mora, and a long vowel of (spurious) diphthong counts as two. On top of that, coda consonants, rather singletons or clusters, also count as a mora. So, for example, each syllable of the word āctās is three morea; a-a-c.ta-a-s
Pitch accent manifests differently depending on where the kernel falls. Then the kernel falls on a vowel, there is a downstep before it; e.g. āctās: a-a-c.ta-a-s /àák.tààs/ [ǎːk.tàːs].

Syntax

Word order

Aeranir is generally verb-initial in independent clauses, and verb-final in dependant clauses, including non-finite clauses using the infinitive, participle, gerund, etc.. These rules may be violated in poetry, however it is much more common to violate the former than the later.

qurra

read-3SG.C

Rāscānus

Rascanus-NOM.SG

salvan

book-ACC.SG

qurra Rāscānus salvan

read-3SG.C Rascanus-NOM.SG book-ACC.SG

'Rascanus is reading a book'

Rāscānus

Rascanus-NOM.SG

salvan

book-ACC.SG

qurrea

read-SUBJ.3SG.C

Rāscānus salvan qurrea

Rascanus-NOM.SG book-ACC.SG read-SUBJ.3SG.C

'should Rascanus be reading a book...'

sircuīva

tell-PFV.3SG.C

īliō

Ilius-DAT.SG

Rāscānus

Rascanus-NOM.SG

salvan

book-ACC.SG

qurrīhan

read-INF

sircuīva īliō Rāscānus salvan qurrīhan

tell-PFV.3SG.C Ilius-DAT.SG Rascanus-NOM.SG book-ACC.SG read-INF

'Rascanus told Ilius that he was reading a book'

Nominal clitics attach to the end of verbs in independent clauses, and the beginning of verbs in dependant clauses.

tetue

drink-PFV.3SG.E

ne

=2SG

tīn

tea-ACC.SG

tetue ne tīn

drink-PFV.3SG.E =2SG tea-ACC.SG

'You drank the tea'

tīn

tea-NOM.SG

ne

2SG=

tessun

drink-PFV.PTCP-E.NOM.SG

tīn ne tessun

tea-NOM.SG 2SG= drink-PFV.PTCP-E.NOM.SG

'The tea you drank'

Word order is much more free for nouns and noun phrases. Adjectives and genitives may either proceed or follow a noun (e.g. formun cōmus or cōmus formun, both 'the warm house;' umae menter or menter umae, both 'my mother's sibling'), although they adjectives generally follow, whilst genitives generally proceed. Prepositions always proceed their noun, whilst postpositions, which are far less common, always follow.

Due to agreement in gender, case, and number between nouns and adjectives, additional nouns may be inserted between a noun and its adjective without changing the meaning, in what is called hyperbaton:

ītē

listen-IMP

arte

person-VOC.SG

tihī

1SG.PRO-DAT

iūre

good-T.VOC.SG

ītē arte tihī iūre

listen-IMP person-VOC.SG 1SG.PRO-DAT good-T.VOC.SG

'Listen to me good fellow!'

Nouns

Gender

Aeranir nouns are divided into three genders, all of which are directly inherited from late Proto-Maro-Ephenian. These known as the temporary (t), cyclical (c), and eternal (e) genders. The gender of a noun effects the adjectives and verbs that refer to it.

ēs

COP.3SG.T

ars

wumbo(T)-NOM.SG

raius

small-T.NOM.SG

ēs ars raius

COP.3SG.T wumbo(T)-NOM.SG small-T.NOM.SG

'It's a small wumbo'

sa

COP.3SG.C

tlāna

flower(C)-NOM.SG

raia

small-C.NOM.SG

sa tlāna raia

COP.3SG.C flower(C)-NOM.SG small-C.NOM.SG

'It's a small flower'

COP.3SG.E

nātlun

shell(E)-NOM.SG

raiun

small-E.NOM.SG

sī nātlun raiun

COP.3SG.E shell(E)-NOM.SG small-E.NOM.SG

'It's a small shell'

The gender of most nouns can be easily inferred from its ending. Furthermore, there is often overlap between meaning and gender. Animate living beings and small, breakable objects are often temporary, while abstract concepts, natural processes, or seasonal plants are usually cyclical, and large, durable, inanimate objects are most likely eternal. However, some nouns have no relation to their gender. Personal names are either temporary or cyclical; eternal names are reserved for gods.

Case

Nouns in Aeranir have a series of different forms, called cases of the noun, which have different functions or meanings. For example, the word for 'king' is rēs when subject of a verb, but rēnin when it is the object:

There are a total of nine cases for most nouns in Aeranir. Outside of the nominative and accusative, they are as the following:

  • Vocative: rēne iō!: 'o king!'
  • Essive: seū rēnū: 'as this king'
  • Instrumental: seōrun rēnerun: 'using this king'
  • Genitive: sī rēnis: 'of this king'
  • Dative: seō rēnī: 'to/for this king'
  • Ablative: seā rēnī: 'from/by this king'
  • Locative: sīs rēnīs: 'at/with the king'

Sometimes the same endings, e.g. and -ēs, are used for more than one case. Since the function of a word in Aeranir is shown by ending rather than word order, in theory requor rēnī could mean either 'I return to the king' or 'I return from the king.' In practice, however, such ambiguities are rare.

Declensions

Class I

Class I noun
salva
c. book, tome
Singular Plural
word ending word ending
Primary
prīstūmus
Nominative salva -a salvar -ar
Accusative salvan -an salvae -ae
Vocative salva -a salvar -ar
Existential
soniāmus
Essive salvau -au salvur -ur
Instrumental salvārun -ārun salvōs -ōs
Genitive salvae -ae salvābus -ābus
Directive
satūmus
Dative salvō salvāna -āna
Ablative salvā salvās -ās
Locative salvīs -īs salvā

Class II

Class II temporary/eternal nouns
pernus
t. storm, chaos
nātlun
e. shell, carapace
Singular Plural Singular Plural
word ending word ending word ending word ending
Primary
prīstūmus
Nominative pernus -us pernur -ur nātlun -un nātlunt -unt
Accusative pernun -un pernī
Vocative perne -e pernur -ur
Existential
soniāmus
Essive pernū pernur -ur nātlū nātlur -ur
Instrumental pernōrun -ōrun pernōs -ōs nātlōrun -ōrun nātlōs -ōs
Genitive pernī pernōvus -ōvus nātlī nātlōvus -ōvus
Directive
satūmus
Dative pernō pernōna -ōna nātlō nātlōna -ōna
Ablative pernā pernōs -ōs nātlā nātlōs -ōs
Locative pernīs -īs pernā nātlīs -īs nātlā

Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns
First person Second person Reflexive
singular
I
plural
we
singular
you
plural
y'all
singular/plural
himself/herself/
itself/themselves
full clitic full clitic full clitic full clitic full clitic
Primary
prīstūmus
Nominative aecū te eōs ī hanae ne rōs er ce
Vocative
Accusative eon ron
Existential
soniāmus
Essive tōs eor nōs
Genitive īster rester
Directive
satūmus
Dative tihī īvīs nivī urvīs civī
Ablative tētē eōvōs nēnē rōvōs cēcē

Possessive pronouns

Possessive pronouns in Aeranir distinguish between many more different types of possession than ordinary nouns, which use only the genitive to mark possession, ownership, association, etc. Pronouns distinguish both alienable and inalienable possession.

Possessive pronouns
1st person 2nd person 3rd person reflexive
proximal distal medial
singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural singular plural
inalienable
te
īster
ne
rester
se
seōvus ūlī ūlōvus ustī ustōvus
ce
alienable tuius eius nuius ruius seius ūleius usteius cuius

Objects of inalienable possession are marked with the genitive of a personal or demonstrative pronoun. These include body parts, kinship and familiarity terms, personal attributes, emotions, or thoughts. These pronouns generally proceed the possessee, although that is not always the case, especially in poety. Singular pronouns , , , , ustī, and ūlī may be appear as tei, nei, cei, sei, usti, ūli before words starting with a vowel, and te, ne, ce, se, ust, ūl before words starting with i.

se

this-T.GEN.SG

incus

head-NOM.SG

se incus

this-T.GEN.SG head-NOM.SG

'this one's head'

Alienable possession, including essentially all other categories, is marked via possessive adjectives. These adjective may appear either before or after the possessee, but usually come afterwards. Oftentimes, the different use of alienable/inalienable pronouns may hint at a difference in meaning. The word indus, for example, may mean 'head,' but also 'capital' or 'leader.' With inalienable pronouns, however, it always means 'head,' versus with alienable pronouns, it means 'capital,' or 'leader' because while a head is inalienable, a capital or leader is not. However, this might not always be the case, depending on the possessor and context.

ēs

COP.3SG.T

incus

head-NOM.SG

telūhramir

mesa-ESS.SG=hram-GEN.PL

tuius

mine-T.NOM.SG

ēs incus telūhramir tuius

COP.3SG.T head-NOM.SG mesa-ESS.SG=hram-GEN.PL mine-T.NOM.SG

'My capital is Telhramir'

ēs

COP.3SG.T

ūlae

that_one's-C.GEN.SG

(tlānae

(flower-GEN.SG

aerānihae)

Aeranid-C.GEN.SG)

incus

head-NOM.SG

telūrhamir

mesa-ESS.SG=rham-GEN.PL

ēs ūlae (tlānae aerānihae) incus telūrhamir

COP.3SG.T that_one's-C.GEN.SG (flower-GEN.SG Aeranid-C.GEN.SG) head-NOM.SG mesa-ESS.SG=rham-GEN.PL

'Its (the Aeranid Empire's) capital is Telrhamir'

Adverbs

Adverbs in Aeranir are used to modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs indicating time, manner, or place. Most adjectives are formed from nouns or adjectives, although they can be derived from some verbs, especially stative verbs. There are a variety of different formulation strategies, depending on the class of the noun/adjective/verb.

  • formus ("warm" 1st-2nd declension adjective) → formē ("warmly")
  • aerās ("an Aeran" 3rd declension noun) → aerāne ("like an Aeran")
  • raelis ("a child" 3rd declension i-stem noun) → raeliter ("like a child")
  • vȳlēs ("three days from now" 4th declension noun) → vȳlē ("every three days")
  • sacus ("a pin" 5th declension noun) → saciter ("sharply, like a pin")

One of the most notable uses of the adverbial form is with verbs like ficitz ("it makes me"), fitz ("I become"), and caitz ("I change into"). Adverbs can be used to denote the result of a change of state in such a clause.

fīx

make.PFV-3SG.T

prīstus

first-NOM.SG

pāliōne

provincial_governor-ADV

Boezymiae

Boezymia-GEN.SG

fīx prīstus pāliōne Boezymiae

make.PFV-3SG.T first-NOM.SG provincial_governor-ADV Boezymia-GEN.SG

'The First Senator made them provincial governor of Boezymia'

sa

COP-3SG.C

Īliō

Ilius-DAT.SG

qūria

power-NOM.SG

tzillē

cat-ADV

cainnī

change_form-GER-GEN

sa Īliō qūria tzillē cainnī

COP-3SG.C Ilius-DAT.SG power-NOM.SG cat-ADV change_form-GER-GEN

'Ilius has the power to turn into a cat'

Verbs

Conjugation

Agreement

The DGA pyramid, originally developed by u/Darkgamma, 2018. The Total Cacophony of Bäladiri Verb Agreement and Argument Assignment.

Verbs in Aeranir are conjugated to agree with the number, the person, and in the third person singular, the gender of the most oblique argument given a word's valency, as defined by the DGA pyramid[1]. Here, S represents the subject of an intransitive verb, such as 'the person' in 'the person laughed.' A represents the agent of a transitive verb (also occasually called the subject), or the person or thing that does the action of the verb, such as 'the child' in 'the child reads the book.' D marks the donor, a special type of agent, who gives something or does a the action of a verb for the benefit of another, such as ‘the senator’ in ‘the senator gave the cat some milk.’ These are collectively called the nominative argument, and are expressed usually with the nominative case, but also occasionally with the genitive case in dependant clauses.

P represents the patient of a transitive verb, or the person or thing towhich the verb is done, also called the direct object, such as ‘the book’ in ‘the child reads the book.’ T represents the theme, or the object that is given to someone or something, such as ‘the milk’ in ‘the senator gave the cat some milk.’ These two roles make up the accusative argument, which is marked with the accusative case. Finally, R represents the recipient, or the person who recieves the theme from the donor, or benefits from the donor's action, with a ditransitive verb, also commonly called the indirect object, such as 'the cat' in 'the senator gave the cate some milk.'

Aeranir verbs conjugate their endings to agree with the most oblique argument in a clause. That means the subject of an intransitive verb (e.g. clautitz; 'I laugh'), the patient of a transitive verb (e.g. auhente; 'I look at you'), or the recipient of a ditransitive verb (e.g. tzavī'r salvae; 'you all gave me the books').

mollī

leak-3SG.E

cōmus

house-NOM.SG

mollī cōmus

leak-3SG.E house-NOM.SG

'The house is leaking'

requis

return-3SG.C

te

=1SG

coptin

hat-ACC.SG

nuiun

2SG.POS.PRO-T.ACC.SG

requis te coptin nuiun

return-3SG.C =1SG hat-ACC.SG 2SG.POS.PRO-T.ACC.SG

'I'm giving back your hat'

emptās

send-POT.3SG.T

ne

=2SG

mu

=INTERR

sōlī

clothing-ACC.PL

nomī

new-IPFV.PTCP-T.ACC.SG

Sētīlī

Setil-DAT.SG

emptās ne mu sōlī nomī Sētīlī

send-POT.3SG.T =2SG =INTERR clothing-ACC.PL new-IPFV.PTCP-T.ACC.SG Setil-DAT.SG

'Can you send Setil the new clothes?'

It should be noted that a verb in the active voice must always have the maximum number of arguments according to its inherent transitivity. This means, for example, that one can never say 'John eats.' Because 'to eat' is transitive, there must be a patient, or direct object, e.g. 'John eats food.' However, there are a number of valancy dropping operations available in Aeranir to allow various arguments to be dropped, which are discussed in the section on voice.

Additional arguments can be expressed with pronominal clitics attached to the end of a verb in independant clauses and to the beginning in dependant ones (e.g.auhente; 'I look at you,' tzāvī'r salvae; 'you all gave me the books'), however these are not considered part of a verbs conjugation, and are optional, especially if the information can be assumed or is known between speakers.

Number of Conjugations

Basic conjugation paradigm
Aspect → Imperfective Perfective
Mood →
Voice ↓
Indicative Subjunctive Desiderative Potential Indicative Subjunctive Desiderative Potential
Active aehatz
They love me
aehet
They should love me
aehārit
They want to love me
aehātatz
They can love me
aehāvī
They loved me
aehēvī
They should have loved me
aehāruī
They wanted to love me
aehātāvī
They could have loved me
Middle aehor
I love
aeheō
I should love
aehārō
I want to love
aehātor
I can love
aehāvō
I loved
aehēvō
I should have loved
aehāruō
I wanted to love
aehātāvō
I could have loved
Passive aehālō
I am loved
aehēlō
I should be loved
aehārēlō
I want to be loved
aehātālō
I can be loved
aehāvēlō
I was loved
aehēvēlō
I should have been loved
aehāruēlō
I wanted to be loved
aehātāvēlō
I could have been loved
Causative aehātitz
They let me love them
aehātiat
They should let me love them
aehātīrit
They want to let me love them
aehāssītatz
They can let me love them
aehātīvī
They have let me love them
aehātiāvī
They should have let me love them
aehātīruī
They wanted to let me love them
aehāssītāvī
They could have let me love them

Conjugation formation

Conjugation formation
IPFV A-grade I-grade E-grade Null-grade
strong weak strong weak strong weak strong weak
ACT IND ROOT-ā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ī-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ē-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ACT.IPFV
SUBJ ROOT-ē-ACT.IPFV ROOT-iā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-eā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ē-ACT.IPFV
DES ROOT-s-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ār-ACT.IPFV ROOT-s-ACT.IPFV ROOT-er/īr-ACT.IPFV ROOT-s-ACT.IPFV ROOT-er/īr-ACT.IPFV ROOT-s-ACT.IPFV ROOT-er-ACT.IPFV
POT ROOT-tā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ātā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itā/ītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itā/ītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itā-ACT.IPFV
MID IND ROOT-ā-MID.IPFV ROOT-ī-MID.IPFV ROOT-ē-MID.IPFV ROOT-MID.IPFV
SUBJ ROOT-ē-MID.IPFV ROOT-iā-MID.IPFV ROOT-eā-MID.IPFV ROOT-ē-MID.IPFV
DES ROOT-s-MID.IPFV ROOT-ār-MID.IPFV ROOT-s-MID.IPFV ROOT-er/īr-MID.IPFV ROOT-s-MID.IPFV ROOT-er/īr-MID.IPFV ROOT-s-MID.IPFV ROOT-er-MID.IPFV
POT ROOT-tā-MID.IPFV ROOT-ātā-MID.IPFV ROOT-tā-MID.IPFV ROOT-itā/ītā-MID.IPFV ROOT-tā-MID.IPFV ROOT-itā/ītā-MID.IPFV ROOT-tā-MID.IPFV ROOT-itā-MID.IPFV
PAS IND ROOT-ā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-ī-PAS.IPFV ROOT-ē-PAS.IPFV ROOT-PAS.IPFV
SUBJ ROOT-ē-PAS.IPFV ROOT-iā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-eā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-ā-PAS.IPFV
DES ROOT-s-PAS.IPFV ROOT-ār-PAS.IPFV ROOT-s-PAS.IPFV ROOT-er/īr-PAS.IPFV ROOT-s-PAS.IPFV ROOT-er/īr-PAS.IPFV ROOT-s-PAS.IPFV ROOT-er-PAS.IPFV
POT ROOT-tā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-ātā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-tā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-itā/ītā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-tā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-itā/ītā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-tā-PAS.IPFV ROOT-itā-PAS.IPFV
CAUS IND ROOT-tī-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ātī-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tī-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itī/ītī-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tī-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itī/ītī-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tī-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itī-ACT.IPFV
SUBJ ROOT-tiā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ātiā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tiā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itiā/ītiā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tiā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itiā/itiā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tiā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itiā-ACT.IPFV
DES ROOT-tier-ACT.IPFV ROOT-ātier-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tier-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itier/ītier-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tier-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itier/ītier-ACT.IPFV ROOT-tier-ACT.IPFV ROOT-itier-ACT.IPFV
POT ROOT-sītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-āsītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-sītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-issītā/īsītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-sītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-issītā/īsītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-sītā-ACT.IPFV ROOT-issītā-ACT.IPFV
PFV A-grade I-grade E-grade Null-grade
strong weak strong weak strong weak strong weak
ACT IND ROOT-ACT.PFV ROOT-u/āv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ACT.PFV ROOT-u/īv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ACT.PFV ROOT-u/ēv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ACT.PFV ROOT-u-ACT.PFV
SUBJ ROOT-ē-ACT.PFV ROOT-uē/ēv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ē-ACT.IPFV ROOT-uē/iāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ē-ACT.PFV ROOT-uē/eāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ē-ACT.PFV ROOT-uē-ACT.PFV
DES ROOT-su-ACT.PFV ROOT-āru-ACT.PFV ROOT-su-ACT.PFV ROOT-eru/īru-ACT.PFV ROOT-s-ACT.PFV ROOT-eru/īru-ACT.PFV ROOT-su-ACT.PFV ROOT-eru-ACT.PFV
POT ROOT-tāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ātāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itāv/ītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itāv/ītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itāv-ACT.PFV
MID IND ROOT-MID.PFV ROOT-u/āv-MID.PFV ROOT-MID.PFV ROOT-u/īv-MID.PFV ROOT-MID.PFV ROOT-u/ēv-MID.PFV ROOT-MID.PFV ROOT-u-MID.PFV
SUBJ ROOT-ē-MID.PFV ROOT-uē/ēv-MID.PFV ROOT-ē-MID.PFV ROOT-uē/iā-MID.PFV ROOT-ē-MID.PFV ROOT-uē/eā-MID.PFV ROOT-ē-MID.PFV ROOT-uē-MID.PFV
DES ROOT-su-MID.PFV ROOT-āru-MID.PFV ROOT-su-MID.PFV ROOT-eru/īru-MID.PFV ROOT-su-MID.PFV ROOT-eru/īru-MID.PFV ROOT-su-MID.PFV ROOT-eru-MID.PFV
POT ROOT-tāv-MID.PFV ROOT-ātāv-MID.PFV ROOT-tāv-MID.PFV ROOT-itāv/ītāv-MID.PFV ROOT-tāv-MID.PFV ROOT-itāv/ītāv-MID.PFV ROOT-tāv-MID.PFV ROOT-itāv-MID.PFV
PAS IND ROOT-PAS.PFV ROOT-u/āv-PAS.PFV ROOT-PAS.PFV ROOT-u/īv-PAS.PFV ROOT-PAS.PFV ROOT-u/ēv-PAS.PFV ROOT-PAS.PFV ROOT-u-PAS.PFV
SUBJ ROOT-PAS.PFV ROOT-uē/ēv-PAS.PFV ROOT-PAS.PFV ROOT-uē/iāv-PAS.PFV ROOT-PAS.PFV ROOT-uē/eā-PAS.PFV ROOT-PAS.PFV ROOT-uē-PAS.PFV
DES ROOT-su-PAS.PFV ROOT-āru-PAS.PFV ROOT-su-PAS.PFV ROOT-eru/īru-PAS.PFV ROOT-su-PAS.PFV ROOT-eru/īru-PAS.PFV ROOT-su-PAS.PFV ROOT-eru-PAS.PFV
POT ROOT-tāv-PAS.PFV ROOT-ātāv-PAS.PFV ROOT-tāv-PAS.PFV ROOT-itāv/ītāv-PAS.PFV ROOT-tāv-PAS.PFV ROOT-itāv/ītāv-PAS.PFV ROOT-tāv-PAS.PFV ROOT-itāv-PAS.PFV
CAUS IND ROOT-tīv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ātīv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tīv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itīv/ītīv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tīv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itīv/ītīv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tīv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itīv-ACT.PFV
SUBJ ROOT-tiāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-ātiāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tiāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itiāv/ītiāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tiāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itiāv/itiāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-tiāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-itiāv-ACT.PFV
DES ROOT-tieru-ACT.PFV ROOT-ātieru-ACT.PFV ROOT-tieru-ACT.PFV ROOT-itieru/ītieru-ACT.PFV ROOT-tieru-ACT.PFV ROOT-itieru/ītieru-ACT.PFV ROOT-tieru-ACT.PFV ROOT-itieru-ACT.PFV
POT ROOT-sītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-āsītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-sītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-issītāv/īsītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-sītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-issītāv/īsītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-sītāv-ACT.PFV ROOT-issītāv-ACT.PFV

Principle Parts

The verb in Aeranir is primarily made of three parts: root, theme, and ending, with an optional forth category, the suffix, for forming the perfective. The root and theme combine to form the stem. The root carries the semantic content of the word, and can also be conjugated to carry modal imformation. The theme describes how the stem interacts with the ending, and can also be changed, along with the stem and endings, to express a variety of different grammatical meanings. Endings indicate the voice, aspect, person, number, and gender of the most oblique argument in the DGA scheme.

Basic verb endings
Active Middle Passive
Imperfective Perfective Imperfective Perfective Imperfective Perfective
Singular 1st Person -itz/-it -or/-ō -ēlō -ēlō
2nd Person -in -in -istī -iste -ēlāstī -ēlāste
3rd Person temporary -is -is -erur -ere -ēlārur -ēlāre
cyclical -a -a -erra -ēlārra
eternal -e -erur -ēlārur
Plural 1st Person -imus -ime -imur -imur -ēlāmur -ēlāme
2nd Person -itis -ite -itur -itur -ēlātur -ēlāte
3rd Person -intz/-int -int -intur -intur -ēlantur -ēlante

The way in which a verb will conjugate can be determined from how it forms the following five constructions:

  1. the active idicative imperfective first person singular
  2. the active imperfective accusative infinitive
  3. the active perfective participle
  4. the active desiderative imperfective first person singular
  5. the active indicative perfective first person singular

These five forms are refered to as a verb's reference forms. They are often shortend to first person singular (1p.sg), accusative infinitive (acc.inf), perfective participle (pfv.ptcp), desiderative first person singular (des.1p.sg), and perfective first person singular (pfv.1p.sg) respectively.

The first two of these reference forms determines a verb's base theme vowel, or what vowel is used in its indicative imperfective forms. There are four main thematic classes; one weak or null class, wherein the ending is applied directly to the stem, and three strong classes, wherein a thematic vowel is inserted between the stem and the ending.

Consonant stem changes
t-stem s-stem
-m- -mpt- -s-*
-n- -nt-
-ñ- -ñct-
-p- -pt- -ps-
-t- -ss-
-s-**
-ss-
-s-**
-tl-
-tz-
-c- -ct- -x-
-cu-
-q- -qt- -qs-
-qu-
-s- -st- -ss-
-s-**
-r- -st-
-s-**
-rt-††
-ss-
-s-**
-rr-††
-l- -s-**
-lt-††
-s-**
-ll-††
-v- -ut-
-ct-*††
-qt-*††
-ur-
-x-*††
-qs-*††
-i- -ct-*
-qt-*††
-x-*
-qs-*††
-h-
-V- -Vt- -Vr-
Theme-ending combination
Ending Theme
-ā- -ē- -ī-
-itz -atz -etz -itz
-is -ās -ēs -īs
-a -a -ea -ia
-ae
-imus -āmus -ēmus -īmus
-or -or -eor -ior
-ēlō -ālō -ēlō -iēlō

The second two determine a verb's t-stem and s-stem. These stem alterations are used for further conjugation, the t-stem forming the active and middle perfective participles, the causative voice, and the potential mood, and the s-stem forming the desiderative. The t- and s-forms often are identical, however meaning is useally further differentiated by thematic vowels, so completely identical forms are rare.

The final form determines how a verb with form the perfective aspect. Generally, there are three main strategies for this: the application of suffix -u- directly after the stem (e.g. oelitz ("I work") → oeluī ("I worked")), the appication of the suffix -v- after a theme vowel (e.g. aehatz ("they love me") → aehāvī ("they loved me")), or no suffix, with lengthening of the root vowel (e.g. lecitz ("I choose") → lēcī ("I chose")). It should be noted that the perfective is always followed by weak endings.

Occassionally, a thematic vowel, weak or strong, may be inserted before the t- or s-stem. This is most common in verbs with a base thematic -ā-, which often functions as a part of the stem (e.g. aehatzaehātus ("that loved") aehārit ("they want to love me") vs. mavatz ("I wander") → mautus ("that wandered") maurit ("I want to wander)). This may occur with other theme classes, although it should be noted that -ē- is never used, and is always replaced with -ī-.

Aspect

Aeranir verbs have two basic aspects, which express how the verb extends over time. Aspect differs from tense in that it deals with the completion or continuity of an action or state, rather than the absolute timeframe inwhich it took place.  Each aspect may be in any voice and/or mood. Aspect is expressed primarily through endings, and secondarily through the suffix, as discussed above.

Imperfective

The imperfective aspect describes a situation viewed with interior composition. It describes ongoing, habitual, or repeated situations, rather or not they occured in the past, present, or future. The imperfective aspect is considered the most basic, unmarked aspect of a verb. The stem is uninflected, and endings are attached directly to the verb's basic theme vowel.

Pefective

The perfective aspect in Aeranir describes situations viewed with exterior composition, which is to say actions which are completed and viewed as a unified whole, whether thet take place in the past present, or future, although this construction is very rarely used in for the future.

There are a variety of different strategies to form the perfective. Many of them involve the suffix, which takes the form of -v- between vowels and -u- after consonants. All of them take the perfective endings.

  • Attachment of the suffix directly to the stem.
mentitz ("they are healing me") → mentuī ("they healed me")
saepitz ("they are cutting me") → saepuī ("they cut me")
  • Attachment of the suffix after base thematic vowel.
sircuitz ("they are speaking me") → sircīvī ("they spoke me")
auhetz ("they are looking at me") → auhēvī ("they looked at me")
  • No suffix; perfective endings attached directly to the stem, with root vowel lengthening.
iuvatz ("they are writing me") → iūvī ("they wrote me")
vehitz ("they are carrying me") → vēhī ("they carried me")

Mood

Indicative

The indicative mood is the baseline grammatical mood in Aeranir. It is used in declarative statements, to express statements or facts, of what the speaker considers true or known. It is the least marked mood of a verb, taking endings directly to the base theme vowel, stem, or suffix.

Subjunctive

The subjunctive mood (subj) has numerous, but genreally speaking is used to express such nuances as 'would,' 'should,' or 'may.' It can be used to refer to information that the speaker is unsure about, such as hearsay, or for theoretical or hypotherical situations. It is often found in subordinate clauses, annd may be used for conditional statements (e.g. if..., when...).

Subjuntive theme changes
Type Change Example
Weak Verbs -ø--ē- mentitzmentet
-ē--ā- mentēlōmentālō
Strong
Verbs
a-stem -ā--ē- aehatzaehet
aehālōaehēlō
i-stem -ī--iā- saepitzsaepiat
-iē--iā- saepiēlōsaepiālō
e-stem -ē--eā- cōretzcōreat
cōrēlōcōreālō
Forming the subjunctive

The subjunctive is formed by shifting a verb's base theme vowel, as described by the table to the left. This shift happens after the stem, but may be either before or after the suffix, depending on whether or not there is a theme vowel before the suffix in the indicative. So the perfective of aehēs ("they should love it") is aehēvis (from indicative aehāvis) but saepiās ("they should cut it") is saepuēs (from indicative saepuis), not **aehāvēs or **saepēvis. Although these forms are occasionally found in non-standard writing, they are considered incorrect my grammaticians.

The imperfective subjunctive uses the 1st person sungular -it instead of -itz, and instead of -or: pacitz, pacior ("they take me, I take") become paciat, paciō ("they should take me, I should take").

The 1st person subjunctive perfective in verbs that have no theme vowel before the suffix and does not extend the root vowel is identical to the indicative, and the mood must be inferred through conext: saepuī may be either "they cut me" or "They should cut me." The 3rd person active cyclical singulars in verbs with base theme vowels -ī- and -ē- are also identical, e.g. both pacia ("they take it/they should take it"), auhea ("they see it/they should see it").

Uses of the subjunctive

The subjunctive has numerous uses, ranging from what potentially might be true to what the speaker wishes or commands should happen. It is often translated with 'should', 'could', 'would', 'may' and so on, but in certain contexts it is translated as if it were an ordinary indicative verb.

One use of the subjunctive is the speculative subjunction, used when the speaker imagines what potentially may, might, would, or could happen in the present or future or might have happened in the past. Negation for this type uses .

auheārur

see-MID.SUBJ.3SG.E

seun

this-E.NOM.SG

oeliun

job-NOM.SG

stērē

hard-ADV

auheārur seun oeliun stērē

see-MID.SUBJ.3SG.E this-E.NOM.SG job-NOM.SG hard-ADV

'This job seems difficult'

moeiea

please-SUBJ.3SG.C

Osculan

Little.Oscus-ACC.SG

tzānū

gift-ESS.SG

salva

book-NOM.SG

moeiea Osculan tzānū salva

please-SUBJ.3SG.C Little.Oscus-ACC.SG gift-ESS.SG book-NOM.SG

'Little Oscus may like a book as a gift'

The subjunctive may also be used as the optative subjunctive, expressing what the speaker wishes may happen, or wishes had happened. These expresses a weaker or more generalised desire, as opposed to the desiderative mood. Negation for this type uses .

ciāvis

come-PFV.SUBJ.3SG.T

NEG

seus

this-T.NOM.SG

incerī

capital-DAT.SG

pernus

storm-NOM.SG

ciāvis mū seus incerī pernus

come-PFV.SUBJ.3SG.T NEG this-T.NOM.SG capital-DAT.SG storm-NOM.SG

'If only this storm hadn't come to the capital!'

The jussive subjunctive can be used for commands or suggestions for what should happen. It is less direct and far more common than the imperative. Negation for this type uses mīm.

ven

go-SUBJ.2SG

hānō

temple-DAT.SG

ē

against

vecō

curse-DAT.SG

veniennō

win-GER-DAT

ven hānō ē vecō veniennō

go-SUBJ.2SG temple-DAT.SG against curse-DAT.SG win-GER-DAT

'You should go to the temple to prevail against the curse'

Perhaps the most common use of the subjunctive is the conditional subjunctive. When the subjunctive is used in a subordinate clause (with the verb moving to the final position), it may carry the meaning 'if, when, should, etc..' This can be used both in finite verb forms, and with participles, the former being more popular in Old inscriptions and the later in Classical ones. Negation for this type uses mīm.

Desiderative

The desiderative is used primarily to express wants or desires. While the subjunctive may be used for this as well (see optative subjunctive), the desiderative is considered less abstract or wishful, signalling concrete and actionable wants. It is formed from the s-stem of a verb, with no theme vowel between it and the ending, and using the secondary first person singular and third person plural markers (e.g. -it and -end vs. primary -itz and -entz). Verbs generally follow three patterns to form the s-stem;

  • -s- is appended to the root, causing no other alteration to the root.
requitz ("they return me") → reqsit ("they want to return me")
saepitz ("they are cutting me") → saepsit ("they want to cut me")
  • -s- is appended after a theme vowel, causing -s- to become -r-.
sircuitz ("they are speaking me") → sircuerit ("they want to speak me")
auhetz ("they are looking at me") → auherit ("they want to look at me")
  • -s- is appended to the root, causing some alteration to the root, and perhaps the -s- augment as well.
iuvatz ("they are writing me") → iūrit ("they want to write me")
mentitz ("they are healing me") → mēnsit ("they want to heal me")

Potential

The potential mood indicates that, in the opinion of the speaker, one has the ability or capability to do something. It should not be confused with the subjunctive mood, which may be used to express that something is likely or possible to occur. The potential always deals with ability. It may be formed from the t-stem of a verb, plus the thematic vowel -a- (as opposed to the causative voice, which is formed with the t-stem plus the thematic vowel -i-). Like the desiderative, there are three main paradigms by which the t-stem of a verb is formed;

  • -t- is appended to the root, causing no other alteration to the root.
requitz ("they return me") → reqtatz ("they can return me")
saepitz ("they are cutting me") → saebtatz ("they can cut me")
  • -t- is appended after a theme vowel.
sircuitz ("they are speaking me") → sircuitatz ("they can speak me")
auhetz ("they are looking at me") → auhitatz ("they can look at me")
  • -t- is appended to the root, causing some alteration to the root, and perhaps the -t- augment as well.
iuvatz ("they are writing me") → iūtatz ("they can write me")
mentitz ("they are healing me") → mēnsatz ("they can heal me")

It should be noted that in the causative voice of the potential mood, the first -t- augment often dissimilates to -s/ss-;

  • auhititz ("they let me look at it") → **auhitītatzauhissītatz ("they can let me look at it")
  • reqtitz ("they let me return it") → **reqtītatzreqsītatz ("they can let me return it")

Voice

Active

Middle

The middle voice (also called the mediopassive voice) is in the middle between the active and the passive voices, as the subject often cannot be categorised as either agent or patient but may have elements of both. The middle voice is usually inherently intransitive, and transitive or ditransitive verbs conjugated into the middle voice usually become intransitive themselves. It is formed by attaching the middle verb endings to the root of a verb.

The meaning of a verb in the middle voice often depends on the context of the sentence and the lexical properties of the word itself. In its most basic sense, it may be used simply as a valancy decreasing operation. As transitive verbs require an object in the active voice (because transitive verbs must agree with the object), the middle voice may be used merely to omit an object, to highlight the subject or some other part of the sentence, or to simply make a blanket statement.

  • aehatz 'they love me' (active) → aehor 'I love' (middle)
  • lecis 'theyi choose themj' (active) → lecerur 'theyj choose' (middle)

Animacy can play a major role in the meaning of a verb in the middle voice. Verbs with more animate subjects, such as people, animals, gods, etc., may be interpreted as more towards an active meaning, whilst less animate subjects, like inanimate objects or possessions, may be interpreted as more passive in meaning.

auhērur

see-MID.3SG.T

seus

this-T.NOM.SG

ars

wumbo-NOM.SG

(more animate)

 

auhērur seus ars

see-MID.3SG.T this-T.NOM.SG wumbo-NOM.SG

'That wumbo sees'

auhērra

see-MID.3SG.C

sea

this-C.NOM.SG

salva

book-NOM.SG

(less animate)

 

auhērra sea salva

see-MID.3SG.C this-C.NOM.SG book-NOM.SG

'That book is seen'

Sometimes, it may have a reflexive meaning, or the sense of doing something for ones own benefit.

vascit

wash-ACT.1SG

vominīs

river-LOC.SG

(active voice)

 

vascit vominīs

wash-ACT.1SG river-LOC.SG

'They wash me in a river'

vascor

wash-MID.1SG

vominīs

river-LOC.SG

(middle voice)

 

vascor vominīs

wash-MID.1SG river-LOC.SG

'I washed (myself) in a river'

hastās

sacrifice-ACT.3SG.T

Oscus

Oscus-NOM.SG

aprun

fish-ACC.SG

(active voice)

 

hastās Oscus aprun

sacrifice-ACT.3SG.T Oscus-NOM.SG fish-ACC.SG

'Oscus sacrificed a fish'

hastārur

sacrifice-MID.3SG.T

Oscus

Oscus-NOM.SG

aprōrun

fish-INSTR.SG

(middle voice)

 

hastārur Oscus aprōrun

sacrifice-MID.3SG.T Oscus-NOM.SG fish-INSTR.SG

'Oscus sacrificed a fish (for their benefit)'

Another important use of the middle voice is the experiential middle voice. When used with sensory verbs the middle voice may be used to differentiate experiential, nonvolitional sensation (see, hear, smell, feel, know, etc.), as opposed to active, volitional sensation (look, listen, sniff, touch, understand, etc.) Often times, the object of the sensory verb will be expressed using an oblique case, usually the ablative.

ītēs

hear/listen-ACT.3SG.T

te

=1SG.NOM

ponun

voice-ACC.SG

carīnī

friend-GEN.SG

hellē

happily

(active voice)

 

ītēs te ponun carīnī hellē

hear/listen-ACT.3SG.T =1SG.NOM voice-ACC.SG friend-GEN.SG happily

'I like to listen to (my) friend's voice'

īteor

hear/listen-MID.1SG

ponā

voice-ABL.SG

carīnī

friend-GEN.SG

hellē

happily

(middle voice)

 

īteor ponā carīnī hellē

hear/listen-MID.1SG voice-ABL.SG friend-GEN.SG happily

'I like to hear (my) friend's voice'

The middle voice may also be used with a variety of verbal compliments—usually adverbs—which describe the quality of the subject, or the result of the action. Often times such constructions may be expressed in English as adjective to verb, e.g. 'easy to love'.

qurrerra

read-MID.3SG.C

salva

book-NOM.SG

hēs

matters-NOM.SG

collēcta

gather-PFV.PTCP-C.NOM.SG

aplīdiāna

of_Avrid-C.NOM.SG

iūs

well

qurrerra salva hēs collēcta aplīdiāna iūs

read-MID.3SG.C book-NOM.SG matters-NOM.SG gather-PFV.PTCP-C.NOM.SG of_Avrid-C.NOM.SG well

'The book "Collected Matters of Avrid" is a good read' (lit. '~reads well')

tetuere

drink-PFV.MID.3SG.E

tīn

tea-NOM.SG

īvīs

1PL.PRO-DAT

lȳrīs

time-LOC.SG

saltīs

pass-PFV.PTCP-T.LOC.SG

ne

2SG=

fictun

make-PFV.PTCP-E.NOM.SG

satun

pour-PFV.PTCP-E.NOM.SG

iūs

well

tetuere tīn īvīs lȳrīs saltīs ne fictun satun iūs

drink-PFV.MID.3SG.E tea-NOM.SG 1PL.PRO-DAT time-LOC.SG pass-PFV.PTCP-T.LOC.SG 2SG= make-PFV.PTCP-E.NOM.SG pour-PFV.PTCP-E.NOM.SG well

'The tea you made us last time was delicious' (lit. '~drank well')

Passive

The passive voice in Aeranir shares many traits with the middle voice, and often times the distinction between the two can be subtle, nuanced, or obscure. The passive was rare in Old Aeranir and even in the Classical period remained unusual, with the middle voice still preferred for passive clauses. It only began to rise in popularity in Late Aeranir. In its most basic form, the grammatical subject (nominative argument) expresses the theme or patient of the main verb – that is, the person or thing that undergoes the action or has its state changed. This is opposed to the active voice, where the nominative argument expresses the agent of a transitive clause or subject of an intransitive one, and the middle voice, which has traits of both.

Uses of the passive

Unlike the middle voice, the passive is not used for verbal complements, and it cannot take the agent of a verb as its subject. It is never used in verbal complements.

teterur

drink-MID.3SG.E

seun

this-E.NOM.SG

tīn

tea-NOM.SG

iūs

well

teterur seun tīn iūs

drink-MID.3SG.E this-E.NOM.SG tea-NOM.SG well

'This tea tastes good' (lit. 'it drinks well')

tetēlārur

drink-PAS.3SG.E

seun

this-E.NOM.SG

tīn

tea-NOM.SG

iūs

well

tetēlārur seun tīn iūs

drink-PAS.3SG.E this-E.NOM.SG tea-NOM.SG well

'This tea is drunk often'

While the agent may be dropped in a passive clause, it may also be included, using the ablative case.

praestrōcuēlāre

rebuild-PFV.PAS.3SG.E

ūlun

yonder-E.NOM.SG

Cavā

Cava-ABL.SG

Īliānā

Ilianus-C.ABL.SG

hānun

temple-NOM.SG

praestrōcuēlāre ūlun Cavā Īliānā hānun

rebuild-PFV.PAS.3SG.E yonder-E.NOM.SG Cava-ABL.SG Ilianus-C.ABL.SG temple-NOM.SG

'This temple was rebuilt by Cava Iliana'

The passive can also be especially with intransitive verbs to form denote an unspecified/generic subject. This structure may is used to make general statements or observations. Negation for this type uses .

miquientur

die-MID.3PL.T

miquientur

die-MID.3PL.T

'They are dead/dying.'

miquiēlantur

die-PAS.3PL.T

miquiēlantur

die-PAS.3PL.T

'There are people dead/dying'

mūherra

not.enough-MID.3SG.C

(sea)

(this-C.NOM.SG)

artina

wumbo-DAT.PL

inceris

capital-GEN.SG

alta

water-NOM.SG

mūherra (sea) artina inceris alta

not.enough-MID.3SG.C (this-C.NOM.SG) wumbo-DAT.PL capital-GEN.SG water-NOM.SG

'This is not enough water for the people of the capital'

mūhēlārra

not.enough-PAS.3SG.C

artina

wumbo-DAT.PL

inceris

capital-GEN.SG

alta

water-NOM.SG

mūhēlārra artina inceris alta

not.enough-PAS.3SG.C wumbo-DAT.PL capital-GEN.SG water-NOM.SG

'There is not enough water for the people of the capital'

Similarly, the passive can be used to form the aversive passive, denoting an undesirable even or outcome.

cōmerī

home-DAT

requintus

return-IPFV.PTCP-T.NOM.SG

furuēlō

fall-PFV.PAS.1SG

sopere

snow-ABL.SG

cōmerī requintus furuēlō sopere

home-DAT return-IPFV.PTCP-T.NOM.SG fall-PFV.PAS.1SG snow-ABL.SG

'Walking home I got snowed on'

Causative

Non-finite forms

The infinitive

Aeranir infinitives
Imperfective Perfective
accusative oblique meaning accusative oblique meaning
Active aehāhan
-han
aehāre
-re
to love
(someone)
aehāhī
-hī
aehārī
-rī
to have loved
(someone)
Middle aehāsse
-sse
aehāiēs
-iēs
to love aehāssī
-ssī
aehāiērī
-iērī
to have loved
Passive aehātus sinhan
PFV.PTCP + sinhan
aehātus fiēs
PFV.PTCP + fiēs
to be loved aehātus fūhī
PFV.PTCP + fūhī
aehātus fiērī
PFV.PTCP + fiērī
to have been
loved
Causative aehātīhan
-tīhan
aehātīre
-tīre
to make (someone)
love (someone)
aehātīhī
-tīhī
aehātīrī
-tīrī
to have made
(someone) love
(someone)
Uses of the infinitive

The infinitive in Aeranir can be used to report indirect speech, hearsay, speculation, or sensation.

pēra

pass-PFV.3SG.C

tihī

1SG.PRO-DAT

incerī

capital-DAT.SG

ne

2SG=

cīhī

come-PFV.INF

pēra tihī incerī ne cīhī

pass-PFV.3SG.C 1SG.PRO-DAT capital-DAT.SG 2SG= come-PFV.INF

'They told me that you'd come to the capital'

ītēva

hear-PFV.3SG.C

te

=1SG

Mussā

Mussa-ABL.SG

Limī

Limius-GEN.SG

carīnōvus

friend-GEN.PL

quo

=and

neme

newly

cōmus

home-ACC.SG

strōcēhan

build-INF

ītēva te Mussā Limī carīnōvus quo neme cōmus strōcēhan

hear-PFV.3SG.C =1SG Mussa-ABL.SG Limius-GEN.SG friend-GEN.PL =and newly home-ACC.SG build-INF

'I heard from Mussa that Limius and their friends are building a new house'

The gerund

The gerund in Aeranir is a infinite verb form which displays characteristics of both a noun and a verb. It declines for a limited scope of cases (although not for gender nor number), but can take object and adjunct arguments like a verb. It usually has an adverbial/adjectival meaning, and never agrees with the main verb.

Forming the gerund
  • Null-grade verbs: ROOT-innū; e.g. tetihan ('to drink') → tetinnū ('whilst drinking').
  • A-grade verbs: ROOT-annū; e.g. iuvāhan ('to write') → iuvannū ('whilst writing').
  • I-grade verbs: ROOT-iennū; e.g. cītīhan ('to cut') → cītiennū ('whilst cutting').
  • E-grade verbs: ROOT-ennū; e.g. aquēhan ('to be open') → aquennū ('whilst open').
Uses of the gerund

The meaning of the gerund changes depending on its case.

Semantics

Possession

There are a number of different strategies in Aeranir to signify possession. Aeranir lacks a possession verb analogous to English 'to have,' and instead usually signifies possession through different types of existential clauses. For example, the sentence 'I have a friend' can be expressed by the sentence ēs carīnus tihī, which literally means 'there is a friend to me.'

The case of the possessor changes depending its relationship with the possessed:

  • Locative case: used for personal possessions that are currently on the person;

ēs

COP-T.3SG

iarius

spear-NOM.SG

taurātīs

soldier-LOC.SG

 

lit. 'at the soldier is a spear'

ēs iarius taurātīs

COP-T.3SG spear-NOM.SG soldier-LOC.SG

'The soldier has a spear (on them)'

  • Dative case: used for personal possessions that are not currently on the person, or for affiliation with persons or people;

sintz

COP-T.3PL

iariur

spear-NOM.PL

vulhur

many-T.NOM.PL

taurātiō

soldier-DAT.SG

 

lit. 'to the soldier are many spears'

sintz iariur vulhur taurātiō

COP-T.3PL spear-NOM.PL many-T.NOM.PL soldier-DAT.SG

'The soldier has many spears (at home)'

sintz

COP-T.3PL

menterur

sibling-NOM.PL

tihī

1SG-DAT

octzin

six

 

lit. 'to me are six siblings'

sintz menterur tihī octzin

COP-T.3PL sibling-NOM.PL 1SG-DAT six

'I have six siblings'

  • Ablative case: used for parts of a whole, or body parts;

COP-E.3SG

incus

head-NOM.SG

iūrun

good-E.NOM.SG

nēnē

1SG-ABL

 

lit. 'from you is a good head'

sī incus iūrun nēnē

COP-E.3SG head-NOM.SG good-E.NOM.SG 1SG-ABL

'You have a good head (i.e. are smart)'

For metaphorical possession or possession of abstract concepts, such as leadership, power, knowledge, etc., any of these three may be used, for different rhetorical purposes. For example, using the locative implies an immediacy to the possession; that it is in hand, ready to be used. Using the dative implies that the possession is not immediate, but rather something that can be drawn upon, perhaps too vast to 'carry' on one person. This can be more humble or polite than the locative. Using the locative implies that the trait is a fundamental, inalienable, and inherent part of the possessor, rather than something gained or worked for.

Late Aeranir inovations

Applicative voices

Whilst Classical Aeranir was more permissive of adding additional arguments to a clause, so long as the verb's core transitivity were met. Late Aeranir, however, tended to be more restrictive, and required valency increasing operations to express benefactive, comitative, and locative meanings. These applicative morphemes take the form of verbal prefixes.

Lexicon

Aeranir Lexicon.

Footnotes