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|Native to||Telrhamir, Iscaria, Aeranid Empire|
Official language in
Aeranir, also known as coeñar aerānir (language of the Aerans), or coeñar inceris (language of the capital), is an Iscaric language in the Maro-Ephenian language group. It was originally spoken by the Aerans, developed in the deserts of Northern Iscaria in the city of Telrhamir, and spread with the expanse of the Aeranid Empire throughout Ephenia, as well as parts of Eubora and Syra. It later developed into the Aeranid languages, such as Dalot, Ilesse, Iscariano, Îredese, S'entigneis, and Tevrés. It is still used throughout Ephenia as a language of theology, science, medicine, literature, and law.
Aeranir had been standardised into Classical Aeranir by the time of the Early Empire, around the second millennia BNIA by the writer and educator Limius. The period before that is generally referred to as Old Aeranir. The language spoken between the 15th and 12th centuries BNIA is generally referred to Late Aeranir. This shift is marked by several grammatical and phonetic shifts. After that period, Aeranir began to splinter off into the various Aeranid languages. A form of Classical Aeranir called New Aeranir or Medieval Aeranir remained in use in official writings even after this period.
The Aeranir language is descended from Proto-Iscaric, a theoretical reconstruction, which is in turn descended from Proto-Maro-Ephenian. This makes Aeranir a member of the Maro-Ephenian language family, along with Talothic, Fyrdan, and Marian. Because neither of these two proto-languages are attested in writing, it can be difficult to say when they were spoken, and when one transitioned into the other, but scholars generally agree that there was something that could be called Proto-Iscaric around the end of the 4th millennium BCA.
Proto-Iscaric was spoken by numerous Maro-Ephenian tribes which settled in Iscaria at the end of the 4th millennium. This evolved into numerous attested Iscaric languages, of which the language of the Aerans, who settled the region known as Aes, was but one. The oldest evidence of their language is found dating well after the founding of their most famous city, Telhramir, around 2500 BCA. This phase of the language, from around then to the later years of the Aeranid Kingdom, is known as Old Aeranir (called coeñar accuiha aerānir or aerānir accuiha by Classical and Golden Age sources).
The following is a table of phonemes in Aeranir. This analysis is based on Classical Aeranir, as it was used during the hight of the Aeranid Empire. The phonology, especially the number of vowel phonemes, varied greatly time, but this is seen as the standard version of the language.
Notes on consonants
- The clusters /rh/, /nh/, and /lh/ vary greatly between dialects; [rɦ nɦ ɫɦ ~ rg ŋg ɫg ~ ʀː ŋː ʟː].
- The sequence /ks/ is written in the romanisation as x.
- The nasal consonant /n/ assimilates to the place of articulation of the following stop, so that /nk/ or /nqʷ/ for example become /ŋk/ and /ɴʷqʷ/. Before fricatives, /n/ is deleted, and the proceeding vowel is lengthened and nasalised. These processes apply between word boundries as well. Word final /n/ as part of case and personal markers is elided before a word starting with a vowel, fricative, approximate, or before a pausa. It often served as a shibboleth for discerning one's origins or social circles.
- The velar, labio-velar, and labio-uvular consonants /k/, /kʷ/, /q/, and /qʷ/ are palatalised before front vowels and /j/ to [k̟], [kᶣ], [k̠] and [k̠ᶣ] respectively. Futhermore, dental consonants /n/ and /t/ are palatalised before /j/ to [ɲ̟], and [tʲ]. The glottal fricative /h/ is also palatalised to [ç] before high front vowels and /j/. Some dialects also palatalise the postalveolar consonants /s/ and /ts/ to [ɕ] and [tɕ] before front vowels and /j/.
- The labialised consonants /kʷ/, and /qʷ/ are pronounced as truly labialised, rather than a sequence of two consonants, i.e. /kw/, /qw/. The voiced labiovelar stop only occurs after a nasal consonant.
- All consonants, with the exception of /ʋ/, can be geminated between vowels. This is denoted orthographically by doubling of the first letter of the phoneme, i.e. ⟨cc⟩, ⟨ff⟩, ⟨hh⟩, etc. The palatal approximate /j/ is always geminated to [jː] between vowels, but is written with a simple ⟨i⟩. Fricative /hː/ is usually realised as [çː]. In dialects that palatalise /s/ and /ts/, [çː] often becomes [ɕː], merging in some environments with /sː/.
- The lateral approximate /l/ has two allophones in Classical Aeranir; [l] before close front vowels, /j/, and when geminated, and [ɫ] elsewhere.
- The fricative /s/ is often pronounced further back in the mouth, closer to [s̠].
- The phoneme /h/ has two distinct allophones following the nasal /n/. When this cluster occurs natively within a word, /h/ is voiced and velarised to [g]. Nasal /n/ is likewise velarised to [ŋ]. Dialectically, the cluster /ŋg/ may be fortified to [gː] or lenited to [ŋː]. Before front vowels and /j/, these may appear as [ɲʝ], [ŋ˖g˖], [g˖ː], or [ŋ˖ː]. When the cluster /nh/ occurs where /h/ was once word initial, as result of a prefix, the nasal is deleted and the preceding vowel nasalised and lengthened, as with fricatives /s/ and /f/.
Vowels in Aeranir underwent the greatest amount of change throughout time. Although the standard is considered to me Classical Aeranir as it was spoken in the 17th and 16th centuries bnia, this should not be seen in the context of a sliding historical spectrum. Below are listed three somewhat representative samples that provide a broad overview of general changes.
Notes on vowels
- The short high rounded vowel /ʏ/ is mostly a loan from Dalitian, and is not found in many native words, or words dating back to Old Aeranir. It is usually realised as [ɪ], and is only rounded in educated speech.
|*u[r₂, r₃, h]i||→ ui /ui̯/||→ y /yː/||→ i /i/|
|*i[r₂, r₃, h]u||→ iu /iu̯̯/|
|*ey, *ehi, *ēy, *hey||→ ei /ei̯/||→ ī /iː/|
|*i[r₂, r₃, h]||→ ī /iː/|
|*i||→ i /i/||→ i /ɪ/||→ e /e/|
|*oy, *o[r₂, r₃, h]i, *er₃i,
*ōy, *[r₂, r₃, h]oy, *r₃ey
|→ oi /oi̯/||→ oe /øː/|
|*eh, *ē||→ e /eː/||→ e /eː/|
|*e||→ e /e/||→ e /ɛ/||→ è /ɛ/|
|*er₂i, *r₂ey||→ ai /ai̯/||→ ae /ɛː/|
|*ow, *o[r₂, r₃, h]u, *ōw,
*[r₂, r₃, h]ow, *r₃ew, *ew,
*ehu, *ēw, *hew
|→ ou /ou̯̯/||→ ū /uː/||→ u /u/|
|*u[r₂, r₃, h]||→ ū /uː/|
|*u||→ u /u/||→ u /ʊ/||→ o /o/|
|*o[r₂, r₃, h], *ō, *r₃e[r₂, r₃, h],
|→ o /oː/||→ o /oː/|
|*o, *r₃e||→ o /o/||→ o /ɔ/||→ ò /ɔ/|
|*er₂u, *r₂ew||→ au /au̯̯/||→ au /ɔː/|
|*er₂, *r₂ē||→ ā /aː/||→ ā /aː/||→ a /a/|
|*[r̥₂, r̥₃, h̥]||→ a /a/||→ a /a/|
- Most non-intial short vowels in Proto-Iscairc were reduced to /i/ by the time of Old Aeranir. Many of these were then further reduced in Classical Aeranir (as discussed above), to the vowels represented by diaeresis. These merged in Late Aeranir to a schwa, but this schwa was deleted in many environments.
- Old Aeranir diphthongs /ei̯/ and /ou̯̯/ may have been realised as hightened pure vowels [eː~e̝ː] and [oː~o̝ː]. Before other vowels, /ei̯/ becomes simple [e] in Classical Aeranir. Likewise, Classical /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ rise to [e] and [o] before another vowel. These were then simplified into glides [j] and [w] in Late Aeranir.
- There are two realisations of high short vowels /ɪ/ and /ʊ/ before another vowel, depending on whether the proceeding syllable it light or heavy. Following a light syllable, the become glides [j] and [w]. Follwing a heavy syllable, an anaptyctic vowel is inserted, becoming [ɪj] and [ʊw]. These vowels are not represented in the orthography.
- Some peripheral dialects of Late Aeranir retained rounded front vowels /y/ and /ø/, while in most, including the speech of Telrhamir, they merged with their plain counterparts /i/ and /e/ respectively.
Syllable stress in Old Aeranir fell uniformly on the first syllable of a word. However, by the time of Classical Aeranir, stress had shifted to a more complex paradigm, generally falling on the penult (the second to last syllable) or the antipenult (the third to last syllable). Which one was determined by the weight of the penult.
Syllables are divided into one of two categories, or weights. These are light syllables and heavy syllables. A light syllable contains a maximum of one short vowel, alone or proceeded by a consonant or consonant cluster, while a heavy syllable may contain a long vowel, a coda consonant, or both. If the penult of a word is heavy, it is stressed. If not, the antipenult is stressed.
- Pēcilia Cūvae
- The pēcilia cūvae ('Cuvan swing') refers to the particular musical quality of the Aeranir spoken in the Aes city of Cuva (cūva) during the classical and golden age of Aeranid civilisation. It was likened in the earliest records to the pēcilia traecōvus ('talothic swing'), and occasionally referred to as the pōnus traeceus ('talothic voice'). However, by the golden age, Talothic had lost its distinct melodious accent, and the these terms fell out of use. This is believed to be the reason that citizens of Cuva were called traeceolar ('little taloths'), and is the origin of the name of the city Triggiolari, founded as Traeceolar.
- Rather than the stress-accent of standard capitoline Aeranir, the speech of Cuva is marked by a distinctive pitch accent. Pitch in Cuva begins low, and then rises until a kernel mora, after which it immediately falls. Placement of the kernel mora generally falls on the third to last mora. However, the way morae are counted is somewhat complex. A short vowel, either proceeded by a consonant or consonant cluster, or bare, counts as one mora, and a long vowel of (spurious) diphthong counts as two. On top of that, coda consonants, rather singletons or clusters, also count as a mora. So, for example, each syllable of the word āctās is three morea; a-a-c.ta-a-s
- Pitch accent manifests differently depending on where the kernel falls. Then the kernel falls on a vowel, there is a downstep before it; e.g. āctās: a-a-c.ta-a-s /àák.tààs/ [ǎːk.tàːs].
Aeranir is generally verb-initial in independent clauses, and verb-final in dependant clauses, including non-finite clauses using the infinitive, participle, gerund, etc.. These rules may be violated in poetry, however it is much more common to violate the former than the later.
Nominal clitics attach to the end of verbs in independent clauses, and the beginning of verbs in dependant clauses.
Word order is much more free for nouns and noun phrases. Adjectives and genitives may either proceed or follow a noun (e.g. formun cōmus or cōmus formun, both 'the warm house;' umae menter or menter umae, both 'my mother's sibling'), although they adjectives generally follow, whilst genitives generally proceed. Prepositions always proceed their noun, whilst postpositions, which are far less common, always follow.
Due to agreement in gender, case, and number between nouns and adjectives, additional nouns may be inserted between a noun and its adjective without changing the meaning, in what is called hyperbaton:
Aeranir nouns are divided into three genders, all of which are directly inherited from late Proto-Maro-Ephenian. These known as the temporary (t), cyclical (c), and eternal (e) genders. The gender of a noun effects the adjectives and verbs that refer to it.
The gender of most nouns can be easily inferred from its ending. Furthermore, there is often overlap between meaning and gender. Animate living beings and small, breakable objects are often temporary, while abstract concepts, natural processes, or seasonal plants are usually cyclical, and large, durable, inanimate objects are most likely eternal. However, some nouns have no relation to their gender. Personal names are either temporary or cyclical; eternal names are reserved for gods.
Nouns in Aeranir have a series of different forms, called cases of the noun, which have different functions or meanings. For example, the word for 'king' is rēs when subject of a verb, but rēnin when it is the object:
- auhēs rēs 'the king sees (someone)' (nominative case)
- auhēs rēnin '(someone) sees the king' (accusative case)
There are a total of nine cases for most nouns in Aeranir. Outside of the nominative and accusative, they are as the following:
- Vocative: rēne iō!: 'o king!'
- Essive: seū rēnū: 'as this king'
- Instrumental: seōrun rēnerun: 'using this king'
- Genitive: sī rēnis: 'of this king'
- Dative: seō rēnī: 'to/for this king'
- Ablative: seā rēni: 'from/by this king'
- Locative: sīs rēnīs: 'at/with the king'
Sometimes the same endings, e.g. -ī and -ēs, are used for more than one case. Since the function of a word in Aeranir is shown by ending rather than word order, in theory requor rēnī could mean either 'I return to the king' or 'I return from the king.' In practice, however, such ambiguities are rare.
Uses of the cases
The use of the genitive case in subordinate clauses has changed throughout the history of Aeranir, and even within the span of time referred to as 'Golden Age Aeranir,' usage was shifting. In Classical and Golden Age Aeranir the genitive could be used with the active voice to mark the subject of the verb, whilst in the middle voice it marked the object. The later is similar to the use of the genitive as a partitive object in Talothic. Some believe this similarity to be the inherited from Proto-Maro-Ephenian, whilst others claim that it is a case of parallel evolution or mutual influence.
The use of genitive objects dwindled in later Golden Age and Late Aeranir, being replaced by the accusative case with the active voice, or the ablative case with the middle voice, as in independent clauses. However, it remained used to mark the subject of dependent clauses, and in Late Aeranir even began to replace the nominative case in independent ones.
- Ablative of motion implies movement away from or out of an object:
- Agentive ablative marks the agent by whom the action of a passive verb in performed:
c. book, tome
t. storm, chaos
e. shell, carapace
|First person||Second person||Reflexive|
Third person pronouns
Demonstratives underwent a great deal of change during the latest stages of Classical Aeranir, and much of the older forms were preserved in Golden Age Aeranir alongside their newer counterparts. The Classical Aeranir distal and medial demonstratives were formed from the third person pronoun us, va, un plus a suffix. This produced a variety of irregular forms, which were regularised in early Golden Age Aeranir. However, which stem was taken to become the new regular form varied between times, locations, and speakers. Generally, two stems were predominant for each demonstrative; with the medial varying between ust- and unt- and the distal between ūl- and ull-. Eventually, the former of the two became more common, although the latter remained in marginal use, even into the Aeranid languages.
|seus, sea, seun
this, this one (proximal)
|ustus, usta, untun
that of yours (medial)
|ūlus, ūla, ūllun|
that, that one (distal)
Even after the new regular demonstratives had been widely adopted, the old ones continued to be used for stylistic purposes, and where considered more proper for official writing, speech, and communication.
In Classical Aeranir, demonstratives could stand for a person or thing, but also a place—there was no distinction between 'this' and 'here.' However, in Golden Age Aeranir, another one of the old stems was generalised to create dedicated locative pronouns vistus, vista, vistun 'there (near you),' and vīlus, vīla, vīlun 'there (far away).' By analogy, the proximal locative demonstrative viseus, visea, viseun 'here' was also created. These were used along side the regular demonstratives to express location.
Possessive pronouns in Aeranir distinguish between many more different types of possession than ordinary nouns, which use only the genitive to mark possession, ownership, association, etc. Pronouns distinguish both alienable and inalienable possession.
|1st person||2nd person||3rd person||reflexive|
Objects of inalienable possession are marked with the genitive of a personal or demonstrative pronoun. These include body parts, kinship and familiarity terms, personal attributes, emotions, or thoughts. These pronouns generally proceed the possessee, although that is not always the case, especially in poety. Singular pronouns tī, nī, cī, sī, ustī, and ūlī may be appear as tei, nei, cei, sei, usti, ūli before words starting with a vowel, and te, ne, ce, se, ust, ūl before words starting with i.
Alienable possession, including essentially all other categories, is marked via possessive adjectives. These adjective may appear either before or after the possessee, but usually come afterwards. Oftentimes, the different use of alienable/inalienable pronouns may hint at a difference in meaning. The word indus, for example, may mean 'head,' but also 'capital' or 'leader.' With inalienable pronouns, however, it always means 'head,' versus with alienable pronouns, it means 'capital,' or 'leader' because while a head is inalienable, a capital or leader is not. However, this might not always be the case, depending on the possessor and context.
Adverbs in Aeranir are used to modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs indicating time, manner, or place. Most adjectives are formed from nouns or adjectives, although they can be derived from some verbs, especially stative verbs. There are a variety of different formulation strategies, depending on the class of the noun/adjective/verb.
- formus ("warm" 1st-2nd declension adjective) → formē ("warmly")
- aerās ("an Aeran" 3rd declension noun) → aerāne ("like an Aeran")
- raelis ("a child" 3rd declension i-stem noun) → raeliter ("like a child")
- vȳlēs ("three days from now" 4th declension noun) → vȳlē ("every three days")
- sacus ("a pin" 5th declension noun) → saciter ("sharply, like a pin")
One of the most notable uses of the adverbial form is with verbs like ficitz ("it makes me"), fitz ("I become"), and caitz ("I change into"). Adverbs can be used to denote the result of a change of state in such a clause.
Verbs in Aeranir are conjugated to agree with the number, the person, and in the third person singular, the gender of the most oblique argument given a word's valency, as defined by the DGA pyramid. Here, S represents the subject of an intransitive verb, such as 'the person' in 'the person laughed.' A represents the agent of a transitive verb (also occasually called the subject), or the person or thing that does the action of the verb, such as 'the child' in 'the child reads the book.' D marks the donor, a special type of agent, who gives something or does a the action of a verb for the benefit of another, such as ‘the senator’ in ‘the senator gave the cat some milk.’ These are collectively called the nominative argument, and are expressed usually with the nominative case, but also occasionally with the genitive case in dependant clauses.
P represents the patient of a transitive verb, or the person or thing towhich the verb is done, also called the direct object, such as ‘the book’ in ‘the child reads the book.’ T represents the theme, or the object that is given to someone or something, such as ‘the milk’ in ‘the senator gave the cat some milk.’ These two roles make up the accusative argument, which is marked with the accusative case. Finally, R represents the recipient, or the person who recieves the theme from the donor, or benefits from the donor's action, with a ditransitive verb, also commonly called the indirect object, such as 'the cat' in 'the senator gave the cate some milk.'
Aeranir verbs conjugate their endings to agree with the most oblique argument in a clause. That means the subject of an intransitive verb (e.g. clautitz; 'I laugh'), the patient of a transitive verb (e.g. auhente; 'I look at you'), or the recipient of a ditransitive verb (e.g. tzavī'r salvae; 'you all gave me the books').
It should be noted that a verb in the active voice must always have the maximum number of arguments according to its inherent transitivity. This means, for example, that one can never say 'John eats.' Because 'to eat' is transitive, there must be a patient, or direct object, e.g. 'John eats food.' However, there are a number of valancy dropping operations available in Aeranir to allow various arguments to be dropped, which are discussed in the section on voice.
Additional arguments can be expressed with pronominal clitics attached to the end of a verb in independant clauses and to the beginning in dependant ones (e.g.auhente; 'I look at you,' tzāvī'r salvae; 'you all gave me the books'), however these are not considered part of a verbs conjugation, and are optional, especially if the information can be assumed or is known between speakers.
Number of Conjugations
They love me
They should love me
They want to love me
They can love me
They loved me
They should have loved me
They wanted to love me
They could have loved me
I should love
I want to love
I can love
I should have loved
I wanted to love
I could have loved
I am loved
I should be loved
I want to be loved
I can be loved
I was loved
I should have been loved
I wanted to be loved
I could have been loved
They let me love them
They should let me love them
They want to let me love them
They can let me love them
They have let me love them
They should have let me love them
They wanted to let me love them
They could have let me love them
The verb in Aeranir is primarily made of three parts: root, theme, and ending, with an optional forth category, the suffix, for forming the perfective. The root and theme combine to form the stem. The root carries the semantic content of the word, and can also be conjugated to carry modal imformation. The theme describes how the stem interacts with the ending, and can also be changed, along with the stem and endings, to express a variety of different grammatical meanings. Endings indicate the voice, aspect, person, number, and gender of the most oblique argument in the DGA scheme.
The way in which a verb will conjugate can be determined from how it forms the following five constructions:
- the active idicative imperfective first person singular
- the active imperfective accusative infinitive
- the active perfective participle
- the active desiderative imperfective first person singular
- the active indicative perfective first person singular
These five forms are refered to as a verb's reference forms. They are often shortend to first person singular (1p.sg), accusative infinitive (acc.inf), perfective participle (pfv.ptcp), desiderative first person singular (des.1p.sg), and perfective first person singular (pfv.1p.sg) respectively.
The first two of these reference forms determines a verb's base theme vowel, or what vowel is used in its indicative imperfective forms. There are four main thematic classes; one weak or null class, wherein the ending is applied directly to the stem, and three strong classes, wherein a thematic vowel is inserted between the stem and the ending.
|-m-||→ -mpt-||→ -s-*|
|-p-||→ -pt-||→ -ps-|
|-c-||→ -ct-||→ -x-|
|-q-||→ -qt-||→ -qs-|
|-s-||→ -st-||→ -ss-|
|-V-||→ -Vt-||→ -Vr-|
|-itz||→ -atz||→ -etz||→ -itz|
|-is||→ -ās||→ -ēs||→ -īs|
|-a||→ -a||→ -ea||→ -ia|
|-ī||→ -ae||→ -ī||→ -ī|
|-imus||→ -āmus||→ -ēmus||→ -īmus|
|-or||→ -or||→ -eor||→ -ior|
|-ēlō||→ -ālō||→ -ēlō||→ -iēlō|
The second two determine a verb's t-stem and s-stem. These stem alterations are used for further conjugation, the t-stem forming the active and middle perfective participles, the causative voice, and the potential mood, and the s-stem forming the desiderative. The t- and s-forms often are identical, however meaning is useally further differentiated by thematic vowels, so completely identical forms are rare.
The final form determines how a verb with form the perfective aspect. Generally, there are three main strategies for this: the application of suffix -u- directly after the stem (e.g. oelitz ("I work") → oeluī ("I worked")), the appication of the suffix -v- after a theme vowel (e.g. aehatz ("they love me") → aehāvī ("they loved me")), or no suffix, with lengthening of the root vowel (e.g. lecitz ("I choose") → lēcī ("I chose")). It should be noted that the perfective is always followed by weak endings.
Occassionally, a thematic vowel, weak or strong, may be inserted before the t- or s-stem. This is most common in verbs with a base thematic -ā-, which often functions as a part of the stem (e.g. aehatz → aehātus ("that loved") aehārit ("they want to love me") vs. mavatz ("I wander") → mautus ("that wandered") maurit ("I want to wander)). This may occur with other theme classes, although it should be noted that -ē- is never used, and is always replaced with -ī-.
Aeranir verbs have two basic aspects, which express how the verb extends over time. Aspect differs from tense in that it deals with the completion or continuity of an action or state, rather than the absolute timeframe inwhich it took place. Each aspect may be in any voice and/or mood. Aspect is expressed primarily through endings, and secondarily through the suffix, as discussed above.
The imperfective aspect describes a situation viewed with interior composition. It describes ongoing, habitual, or repeated situations, rather or not they occured in the past, present, or future. The imperfective aspect is considered the most basic, unmarked aspect of a verb. The stem is uninflected, and endings are attached directly to the verb's basic theme vowel.
The perfective aspect in Aeranir describes situations viewed with exterior composition, which is to say actions which are completed and viewed as a unified whole, whether thet take place in the past present, or future, although this construction is very rarely used in for the future.
There are a variety of different strategies to form the perfective. Many of them involve the suffix, which takes the form of -v- between vowels and -u- after consonants. All of them take the perfective endings.
- Attachment of the suffix directly to the stem.
- Attachment of the suffix after base thematic vowel.
- No suffix; perfective endings attached directly to the stem, with root vowel lengthening.
The indicative mood is the baseline grammatical mood in Aeranir. It is used in declarative statements, to express statements or facts, of what the speaker considers true or known. It is the least marked mood of a verb, taking endings directly to the base theme vowel, stem, or suffix.
The subjunctive mood (subj) has numerous, but genreally speaking is used to express such nuances as 'would,' 'should,' or 'may.' It can be used to refer to information that the speaker is unsure about, such as hearsay, or for theoretical or hypotherical situations. It is often found in subordinate clauses, annd may be used for conditional statements (e.g. if..., when...).
|Weak Verbs||-ø- → -ē-||meñitz → meñet|
|-ē- → -ā-||meñēlō → meñālō|
|a-stem||-ā- → -ē-||aehatz → aehet|
aehālō → aehēlō
|i-stem||-ī- → -iā-||sēpitz → sēpiat|
|-iē- → -iā-||sēpiēlō → sēpiālō|
|e-stem||-ē- → -eā-||cōretz → cōreat|
cōrēlō → cōreālō
Forming the subjunctive
The subjunctive is formed by shifting a verb's base theme vowel, as described by the table to the left. This shift happens after the stem, but may be either before or after the suffix, depending on whether or not there is a theme vowel before the suffix in the indicative. So the perfective of aehēs ("they should love it") is aehēvis (from indicative aehāvis) but sēpiās ("they should cut it") is sēpuēs (from indicative sēpuis), not **aehāvēs or **sēpēvis. Although these forms are occasionally found in non-standard writing, they are considered incorrect my grammaticians.
The imperfective subjunctive uses the 1st person sungular -it instead of -itz, and -ō instead of -or: pacitz, pacior ("they take me, I take") become paciat, paciō ("they should take me, I should take").
The 1st person subjunctive perfective in verbs that have no theme vowel before the suffix and does not extend the root vowel is identical to the indicative, and the mood must be inferred through conext: saepuī may be either "they cut me" or "They should cut me." The 3rd person active cyclical singulars in verbs with base theme vowels -ī- and -ē- are also identical, e.g. both pacia ("they take it/they should take it"), auhea ("they see it/they should see it").
Uses of the subjunctive
The subjunctive has numerous uses, ranging from what potentially might be true to what the speaker wishes or commands should happen. It is often translated with 'should', 'could', 'would', 'may' and so on, but in certain contexts it is translated as if it were an ordinary indicative verb.
One use of the subjunctive is the speculative subjunction, used when the speaker imagines what potentially may, might, would, or could happen in the present or future or might have happened in the past. Negation for this type uses mū.
The subjunctive may also be used as the optative subjunctive, expressing what the speaker wishes may happen, or wishes had happened. These expresses a weaker or more generalised desire, as opposed to the desiderative mood. Negation for this type uses mū.
The jussive subjunctive can be used for commands or suggestions for what should happen. It is less direct and far more common than the imperative. Negation for this type uses mīm.
Perhaps the most common use of the subjunctive is the conditional subjunctive. When the subjunctive is used in a subordinate clause (with the verb moving to the final position), it may carry the meaning 'if, when, should, etc..' This can be used both in finite verb forms, and with participles, the former being more popular in Old inscriptions and the later in Classical ones. Negation for this type uses mīm.
The desiderative is used primarily to express wants or desires. While the subjunctive may be used for this as well (see optative subjunctive), the desiderative is considered less abstract or wishful, signalling concrete and actionable wants. It is formed from the s-stem of a verb, with no theme vowel between it and the ending, and using the secondary first person singular and third person plural markers (e.g. -it and -end vs. primary -itz and -entz). Verbs generally follow three patterns to form the s-stem;
- -s- is appended to the root, causing no other alteration to the root.
- -s- is appended after a theme vowel, causing -s- to become -r-.
- -s- is appended to the root, causing some alteration to the root, and perhaps the -s- augment as well.
The potential mood indicates that, in the opinion of the speaker, one has the ability or capability to do something. It should not be confused with the subjunctive mood, which may be used to express that something is likely or possible to occur. The potential always deals with ability. It may be formed from the t-stem of a verb, plus the thematic vowel -a- (as opposed to the causative voice, which is formed with the t-stem plus the thematic vowel -i-). Like the desiderative, there are three main paradigms by which the t-stem of a verb is formed;
- -t- is appended to the root, causing no other alteration to the root.
- -t- is appended after a theme vowel.
- -t- is appended to the root, causing some alteration to the root, and perhaps the -t- augment as well.
It should be noted that in the causative voice of the potential mood, the first -t- augment often dissimilates to -s/ss-;
- auhititz ("they let me look at it") → **auhitītatz → auhissītatz ("they can let me look at it")
- reqtitz ("they let me return it") → **reqtītatz → reqsītatz ("they can let me return it")
The middle voice (also called the mediopassive voice) is in the middle between the active and the passive voices, as the subject often cannot be categorised as either agent or patient but may have elements of both. The middle voice is usually inherently intransitive, and transitive or ditransitive verbs conjugated into the middle voice usually become intransitive themselves. It is formed by attaching the middle verb endings to the root of a verb.
The meaning of a verb in the middle voice often depends on the context of the sentence and the lexical properties of the word itself. In its most basic sense, it may be used simply as a valancy decreasing operation. As transitive verbs require an object in the active voice (because transitive verbs must agree with the object), the middle voice may be used merely to omit an object, to highlight the subject or some other part of the sentence, or to simply make a blanket statement.
- aehatz 'they love me' (active) → aehor 'I love' (middle)
- lecis 'theyi choose themj' (active) → lecerur 'theyj choose' (middle)
Animacy can play a major role in the meaning of a verb in the middle voice. Verbs with more animate subjects, such as people, animals, gods, etc., may be interpreted as more towards an active meaning, whilst less animate subjects, like inanimate objects or possessions, may be interpreted as more passive in meaning.
Sometimes, it may have a reflexive meaning, or the sense of doing something for ones own benefit.
Another important use of the middle voice is the experiential middle voice. When used with sensory verbs the middle voice may be used to differentiate experiential, nonvolitional sensation (see, hear, smell, feel, know, etc.), as opposed to active, volitional sensation (look, listen, sniff, touch, understand, etc.) Often times, the object of the sensory verb will be expressed using an oblique case, usually the ablative.
The middle voice may also be used with a variety of verbal compliments—usually adverbs—which describe the quality of the subject, or the result of the action. Often times such constructions may be expressed in English as adjective to verb, e.g. 'easy to love'.
The passive voice in Aeranir shares many traits with the middle voice, and often times the distinction between the two can be subtle, nuanced, or obscure. The passive was rare in Old Aeranir and even in the Classical period remained unusual, with the middle voice still preferred for passive clauses. It only began to rise in popularity in Late Aeranir. In its most basic form, the grammatical subject (nominative argument) expresses the theme or patient of the main verb – that is, the person or thing that undergoes the action or has its state changed. This is opposed to the active voice, where the nominative argument expresses the agent of a transitive clause or subject of an intransitive one, and the middle voice, which has traits of both.
Uses of the passive
Unlike the middle voice, the passive is not used for verbal complements, and it cannot take the agent of a verb as its subject. It is never used in verbal complements.
While the agent may be dropped in a passive clause, it may also be included, using the ablative case.
The passive can also be especially with intransitive verbs to form denote an unspecified/generic subject. This structure may is used to make general statements or observations. Negation for this type uses mū.
Similarly, the passive can be used to form the aversive passive, denoting an undesirable event or outcome. The affecting action may happen directly to the subject, or to another person or thing.
In some uses of the aversive passive, the subject of the sentence may be difficult to ascertain. For example, the sentence furuī pālā 'I fell from the tree' can be expressed in using the aversive passive, because the action is undesirable. However, the straight aversive passive, furuēlō pālā, is ambiguous; it could mean either 'I fell from the tree' (using the ablative of motion) or 'The tree fell on me' (using the agentive ablative).
In the first interpretation, the first person argument is the semantic subject of the clause, whilst in the second it is the tree. In order to emphasise that the semantic subject and syntactic arguments are the same (i.e. it is I who fell from the tree), the reflexive pronoun cē may be used; e.g. furuī pālā ('I fell from the tree') → furuēlō cē pālā ('I fell from the tree, and it negatively affected me' lit. 'I fell myself from the tree').
|to have loved|
|to have loved|
PFV.PTCP + sinhā
PFV.PTCP + fiēs
|to be loved||aehātus fūhī
PFV.PTCP + fūhī
PFV.PTCP + fiērī
|to have been|
|to make (someone)
|to have made|
The infinitive in Aeranir is a special verbal form used to form complement clauses.
Uses of the infinitive
The infinitive in Aeranir can be used to report indirect speech, hearsay, speculation, or sensation.
The gerund in Aeranir is a infinite verb form which displays characteristics of both a noun and a verb. It declines for a limited scope of cases (although not for gender nor number), but can take object and adjunct arguments like a verb. It usually has an adverbial/adjectival meaning, and never agrees with the main verb.
Forming the gerund
- Null-grade verbs: ROOT-innū; e.g. taetihan ('to drink') → taetinnū ('whilst drinking').
- A-grade verbs: ROOT-annū; e.g. iuvāhan ('to write') → iuvannū ('whilst writing').
- I-grade verbs: ROOT-iennū; e.g. cītīhan ('to cut') → cītiennū ('whilst cutting').
- E-grade verbs: ROOT-ennū; e.g. aquēhan ('to be open') → aquennū ('whilst open').
Uses of the gerund
The meaning of the gerund changes depending on its case. The essive and locative can be used to indicate temporal action in relation to the main action of a sentence. The essive indicates simultaneous action, i.e. two actions that cooccur. This may be relayed in English via the conjunction 'whilst.'
This overlaps with certain uses of the imperfective participle (see § uses of the participle), e.g. murran travantur pērintur pāliō mater is synonymous with the above example. In contrast, the locative gerund is used to show actions beginning at the same time. This may be relayed with English 'when' or 'as.'
This differs from usage of the perfective participle, which signals the main action starting at the end of the dependant one, i.e. pāsillan cīsus auhēva sartī tūī cōrēssī 'having cut the firewood I saw that my knife was broken.'
In addition, the essive gerund may be used with the verb rēhan ('to do') in order to express an attempt, goal, or aim. In the perfective aspect, this is usually interpreted as a failed attempt.
The genitive and dative cases of the gerund are used to express aim, goal, or purpose. The genitive gerund marks the purpose or use of a noun, whilst the dative gerund marks the purpose of a verb or action.
Furthermore, the dative gerund may be used with the middle voice of the verb rēhan ('to do') in a similar way to the essive, however in this case denoting intent, plans, will, or conjecture.
The ablative and instrumental cases of the gerund can be used to express cause, i.e. 'by doing x,' or 'because x.' The ablative generally marks unintentional or natural causes, whilst the instrumental marks intentional cause.
The ancient Aerans divided the day from noon to noon into one hundred lammar (sg. lamma) of equal length, roughly 14.4 minutes long. The daytime was divided into sixteen lȳrar (sg. lȳra), and night into four or five volar (sg. vola) depending on the season. Time was kept on a device called a lammāriun, a type of clock. Early lammāriunt only measured lammar, and one had to consult an almanac (lȳrāriun) to determine the length and starting time of each lȳra or vola on a given day.
The verb spurhan ('to hang (trans.)') is used to denote spending or taking time;
To denote the amount of time spent on an action, without regard for whether or not the activity was completed or reached its end goal (i.e. atelic action) the essive case is used. To signify the amount of time spent or necessary to spend to complete an activity (i.e. telic action) the instrumental case is used.
There are a number of different strategies in Aeranir to signify possession. Aeranir lacks a possession verb analogous to English 'to have,' and instead usually signifies possession through different types of existential clauses. For example, the sentence 'I have a friend' can be expressed by the sentence ēs carīnus tihī, which literally means 'there is a friend to me.'
The case of the possessor changes depending its relationship with the possessed:
- Locative case: used for personal possessions that are currently on the person;
- Dative case: used for personal possessions that are not currently on the person, or for affiliation with persons or people;
- Ablative case: used for parts of a whole, or body parts;
For metaphorical possession or possession of abstract concepts, such as leadership, power, knowledge, etc., any of these three may be used, for different rhetorical purposes. For example, using the locative implies an immediacy to the possession; that it is in hand, ready to be used. Using the dative implies that the possession is not immediate, but rather something that can be drawn upon, perhaps too vast to 'carry' on one person. This can be more humble or polite than the locative. Using the locative implies that the trait is a fundamental, inalienable, and inherent part of the possessor, rather than something gained or worked for.
Aeranir has a number of ways of expressing conditional sentences, depending on the type of condition, as well as the register of speech. Colloquial or spontaneous speech tends to favour the use of finite dependant clauses for the protasis (conditional clause, as opposed to the apodosis, or consequence), where as practiced or refined speech, or writing, tend to favour non-finite dependant clauses (this represents a general trend in writing to 'nominalise' all but the most central verb in a sentence, and sometimes the central verb too is made non-finite).
When a non-finite clause is used for a conditional, the verb of the protasis usually appears in the locative case (an expression of time-is-space metaphor), unless the two clauses share an argument (e.g. subject, object, etc.) in which case the protasis takes the same case marking as the shared argument.
Conditional sentences in Aeranir are formed purely through juxtaposition—that is, the placing of two clauses side by side, the verb of the protasis moved to clause-final position or put into a non-finite form to mark it as dependant. No conjunctive particles like 'if' or 'when' are required. The protasis takes the subjunctive mood, whilst the mood of the apodosis indicates the certainty of the conclusion. Aspect, meanwhile, can be used to indicate the certainty of the condition. This distinction may be approximated in English by 'if' versus 'when'
|Protasis certain||Protasis uncertain|
|Apodosis certain||if [perfective aspect] then [indicative mood]
e.g. intlae furītīs mollintz tahrer—'when it rains, the shingles will leak'
|if [imperfective aspect] then [indicative mood]|
e.g. intlae furentīs mollintz tahrer—'if it rains, the shingles will leak'
|Apodosis uncertain||if [perfective aspect] then [subjunctive mood]
e.g. intlae furītīs mollent tahrer—'when it rains, the shingles might leak'
|if [imperfective aspect] then [subjunctive mood]|
e.g. intlae furentīs mollent tahrer—'if it rains, the shingles might leak'
|1||īmus||prīstus||temper||11||īnhīntur||īnhīnsus||īnhīntin||21||calhier īmus||calhitus prīstus||calhin temper||120||octzāculhier||octzāculhitus||octzāculhin|
|2||sēr||metzumnus||vēriēs||12||verhīntur||verhīnsus||verhīntin||22||calhier sēr||calhitus metzumnus||calhin vēriēs||140||nāculhier||nāculhitus||nāculhin|
|3||morier||moritus||moriēs||13||prōhīntur||prōhīnsus||prōhīntin||30||calhier qehentzier||calhitus qehēnsus||calhin qehen||160||nāquenculhier||nāquenculhitus||nāquenculhin|
|5||quiquier||quiqtus||quiquin||15||quihīntur||quihīnsus||quihīntin||50||verculhier qehentzier||verculhitus qehēnsus||verculhin qehen||200||tammīttler||tammīttus||tammīttziēs|
|6||octzuer||octzūmus||octzuin||16||octzāhīntur||octzāhīnsus||octzāhīntin||60||prōculhier||prōculhitus||prōculhin||220||tammīttler calhier||tammīttus calhitus||tammīttziēs calhin|
|7||nāier||nāntus||nāhin||17||nāhīntur||nāhīnsus||nāhīntin||70||prōculhier qehentzier||prōculhitus qehēnsus||prōculhin qehen||240||tammīttler verculhier||tammīttus verculhitus||tammīttziēs verculhin|
|8||nāquemur||nāquemmus||nāquemin||18||sērēsculhier||sērēsculhitus||sērēsculhin||80||quatlāculhier||quatlāculhitus||quatlāculhin||260||tammīttler prōculhier||tammīttus prōculhitus||tammīttziēs prōculhin|
|9||nātlittzier||nātlittzitus||nātlittzin||19||īmāculhier||īmāculhitus||īmāculhin||90||quatlāculhier qehentzier||quatlāculhitus qehēnsus||quatlāculhin qehen||280||tammīttler quatlāculhier||tammīttus quatlāculhitus||tammīttziēs quatlāculhin|
|800||vermīttler||vermīttus||vermīttziēs||16,000||verittuer||verittūtus||verittuin||320,000||verōtluar attuer||verōtluus attūtus||verōtlua attuin||6,400,000||verictzuōner||verictzuōnitus||verictzuō|
|1,200||prōmīttler||prōmīttus||prōmīttziēs||24,000||prōttuer||prōttūtus||prōttuin||480,000||prōtluar attuer||prōtluus attūtus||prōtlua attuin||9,600,000||prōctzuōner||prōctzuōnitus||prōctzuō|
|1,600||quatlāmīttler||quatlāmīttus||quatlāmīttziēs||32,000||quatlāttuer||quatlāttūtus||quatlāttuin||640,000||quatlōtluar attuer||quatlōtluus attūtus||quatlōtlua attuin||12,800,000||quatlictzuōner||quatlictzuōnitus||quatlictzuō|
|2,000||quimīttler||quimīttus||quimīttziēs||40,000||quiquittuer||quiquittūtus||quiquittuin||800,000||quiqōtluar attuer||quiqōtluus attūtus||quiqōtlua attuin||16,000,000||quictzuōner||quictzuōnitus||quictzuō|
|2,400||octzāmīttler||octzāmīttus||octzāmīttziēs||48,000||octzāttuer||octzāttūtus||octzāttuin||960,000||octzōtluar attuer||octzōtluus attūtus||octzōtlua attuin||19,200,000||vulhiāhur||vulhiātus||vulhiāhin|
|2,800||nāmīttler||nāmīttus||nāmīttziēs||56,000||nāttuer||nāttūtus||nāttuin||1,120,000||nōtluar attuer||nōtluus attūtus||nōtlua attuin||22,400,000||nōctzuōner||nōctzuōnitus||nōctzuō|
|3,200||nāquemīttler||nāquemīttus||nāquemīttziēs||64,000||nāquemittuer||nāquemittūtus||nāquemittuin||1,280,000||nāquemōtluar attuer||nāquemōtluus attūtus||nāquemōtlua attuin||25,600,000||nāquemictzuōner||nāquemictzuōnitus||nāquemictzuō|
|3,600||nātlimīttler||nātlimīttus||nātlimīttziēs||72,000||nātlittzittuer||nātlittzittūtus||nātlittzittuin||1,440,000||nātlittzōtluar attuer||nātlittzōtluus attūtus||nātlittzōtlua attuin||28,800,000||nātlictzuōner||nātlictzuōnitus||nātlictzuō|
|4,000||tamittuer||tamittūtus||tamittuin||80,000||tamōtluar attuer||tamōtluus attūtus||tamōtlua attuin||1,600,000||tamictzuōner||tamictzuōnitus||tamictzuō||32,000,000||tamōtluar octzuōner||tamōtluus octzuōnitus||tamōtlua octzuō|
|8,000||attuer||attūtus||attuin||160,000||ōtlua attuer||ōtlua attūtus||ōtlua attuin||3,200,000||octzuōner||octzuōnitus||octzuō||64,000,000||ōtlua octzuōner||ōtlua octzuōnitus||ōtlua octzuō|
Late Aeranir inovations
Whilst Classical Aeranir was more permissive of adding additional arguments to a clause, so long as the verb's core transitivity were met. Late Aeranir, however, tended to be more restrictive, and required valency increasing operations to express benefactive, comitative, and locative meanings. These applicative morphemes take the form of verbal prefixes.