Qazhrian

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Qazhrian/Lexicon

Qazhrian
Qazhrem, kje Lazhrem
Pronunciation[/ˈqaʒɾem/, /ce ˈʟaʒɾem/]
Created byUser:IlL
SettingVerse:Tricin
Native speakers100 million L1 speakers (300 million L2 speakers) (fT 1670dd (2676))
Quihum
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Qazhrian (/kɑːʒriən/ KAHZH-ree-uhn; natively: Qazhrem /ˈqaʒɾem/ or kje Lazhrem /ce ˈʟaʒɾem/) is a Talmic language spoken in Qazhra (from Thensarian Ȝaktrasei), a Talman country. It is the second-largest Talmic language in terms of number of speakers after Anbirese, because most Qazhrian speakers reside in Cualuav.

Qazhrian is descended from central and southern dialects of Thensarian.

External history

This language was originally called Benocian and was Romance- and Ashkenazi Hebrew-inspired, and it had a strong Portuguese flavor - almost a Portuguese gib. So I found it dissatisfying and decided to rework it, basing the aesthetic more on Albanian and Breton. The name "Qazhrian" is the name of one of Praimhín's old sketches.

Ideas

  • Breton-ish but not too gibby. Get more palatal consonants.
  • /ts, dz/ from Thensarian /θ ð/
    • d and dz both lenite to z
  • /q/ lenites intervocallically to /ʟ/; conversely, /ʟ/ > /q/ initially.
  • /m/ does NOT lenite.
  • Qe! = a greeting
  • sC- clusters are retained except sl-, sr- > ħ-, fr-
  • Ayin-intrusion occurs sometime in the history of the language

Diachronics

  • i ī u ū e o ē ō a ā e ae ao ei eo iu oe ui > i e ou u ë o ō ē a ō ai au e ou u e

Phonology

The following describes the prestige dialect spoken in Ħurien.

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ nj /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/
Plosive voiceless p /p/ t /t/, c /ts/ kj /c/ k /k/ q /q/
voiced b /b/ d /d/, x /dz/ gj /ɟ/ g /g/
Fricative voiceless f /f/ s /s/ sh /ʃ/ c'h /x/ ħ /χ/ h /h/
voiced v /v/ z /z/ zh /ʒ/ gh /ɣ/
Liquid r /ɾ/, rr /r/ l /ɴ̆~ʟ/
Approximant w /w/ y /j/

p is found in loanwords (e.g. from Windermere).

Auslautverhärtung operates for plosives and is reflected in the orthography: aqet /ˈaqet/ 'to jump; jump!' vs. aqedëv /aˈqedəv/ '[X] jumps'.

Vowels

Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i /i/ u /y/ ou /u/
Close-mid e /e/ ë /ə/ o /o/
Open-mid ē /ɛ/ ō /ɔ/
Open a /a/

Diphthongs: ai au /əi əu/; ië uë ouë /iə yə uə/ from loans

Stress

Stress is penultimate in native words, but always ultimate in loans.

Morphology

Mutations

Qazhrian has three types of mutations: soft, nasal, and hard.

Radical p f t c s sh kj k q ħ b d x z gj g
Soft b f d x s sh gj g l ħ v zh z z y gh
Nasal p f t c s sh kj k l ħ m n x z nj ng
Hard p f sh s c sh kj c'h ħ ħ p t c s kj k
Radical m n nj w rr y 0
Soft m n nj w r y l
Nasal m n nj w rr y n
Hard m n nj gw gr gj h

Examples:

  • The definite article kje-S triggers soft mutation.
  • The relativizer re-N triggers nasal mutation.
  • The complementizer yemm-H triggers hard mutation.

Nouns

Qazhrian lost grammatical gender and all nominal inflections except number and construct state.

There is no indefinite article. The definite article is kje (< φinom), and it triggers the soft mutation:

  • tëzh /təʒ/ 'a child'; kje dëzh /ce dəʒ/ 'the child'
  • rronn /ron/ 'a man'; kje ronn /ce ɾon/ 'the man'
  • kamër /ˈkaməɾ/ 'a woman'; kje gamër /ce ˈgamər/ 'the woman'
  • qe 'peace' > aun kje le 'make peace'

Construct state is usually formed with (+ hard mutation) in the singular and -ëv in the plural:

  • tëzhë kje ronn /ˈtəʒə ce ɾon/ 'the man's child'

Plurals are always formed with -nj for nouns ending in vowels and -i for nouns ending in consonants.

Adjectives

Attributive adjectives lenite after definite nouns:

  • rronn garv 'a heavy man'; kje ronn gharv 'the heavy man'
  • kadër kjun xelem (flower blue beautiful) 'a beautiful blue flower', kje gadër gjun zelem 'the beautiful blue flower'

Verbs

There are finite verbs, but auxiliaries are also important. Most verbs have two principal parts at most.

Aqedë kje nous mrēsh lel krok kje sauv zrōmëran.
/aˈqedə ce nus mɾɛʃ ʟeʟ kɾok ce səuv zɾɔˈməɾan/
jump-3P.NARR the fox brown quick over the dog lazy
The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog.
Rë stiëvi bēs qōtsav de nec kjouganēr.
/ɾə ˈstiəvi bɛs ˈqɔtsav de nets cuˈganɛɾ/
AUX-3P.PRES idea-PL green color-without at sleep.VN furious-ADV
Colorless green ideas are sleeping furiously.

Conjugation of aqet, aqedëv 'jump':

Infinitive; imperative: aqet

1st singular 2nd singular 3rd singular 1st plural exc. 1st plural inc. 2nd plural 3rd plural
Narrative aqedan aqeder aqedë aqedem aqedent aqedëg aqedëv
Past aqedezj aqedëw aqedo aqedemër aqedentër aqedëgër aqedo
Future aqedōn aqedōr aqedō aqedōm aqedōnt aqedōg aqedō

Syntax