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Jul soc'ul', "Soc'ul' language" in the Wacag script
Created byDillon Hartwig
Native toKnrawi Isles
Era-1700 to -700 MT
  • Soc'ul'
Early form
Official status
Official language in
Knrawi Empire
Language codes
Range map of Soc'ul' (green) and Knrawi (pink), c. -1200 MT
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Soc'ul' /ˈsoʊkʊl/ (Soc'ul': [so̞˧kʷʰu˩lˀ]) is a Wasc language spoken primarily by the Cuoñ'o people, with strong influence from Knrawi and other languages of the Knrawi Isles.


Soc'ul', the language's autonym, is inherited from the Pre-Soc'ul' autonym səkʰulːa, from Wascotl *(cek)-cek-sole-la "our tongue".


Soc'ul' is written with the Wacag logography. Its romanization is as follows.

Soc'ul' Romanization
A a Á á Ā ā B b B' b' C c C' c' Cñ cñ Cñ' cñ' D d D' d'
E e É é Ē ē H h I i Í í Ī ī Ï ï J j L l L' l'
M m M' m' N n N' n' Ñ ñ Ñ' ñ' O o Ó ó Ō ō P p Pf pf
Pm pm Pm' pm' R r R' r' S s T t Tn tn Tn' tn' Ts ts Tx tx T' t'
U u Ú ú Ū ū Ü ü V v V' v' X x Y y Ý ý Z z Z' z'

This romanization matches IPA except

  • ⟨c⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨h⟩, ⟨j⟩, ⟨ñ⟩, ⟨x⟩, and ⟨y⟩ represent /k/, /ə/, /ʔ/, /x/, /ŋ/, /ʃ/, and /ɰ/
  • ⟨pm⟩, ⟨tn⟩, ⟨cñ⟩, ⟨pf⟩, ⟨ts⟩, and ⟨tx⟩ represent /ᵖm/, /ᵗn/, /ᵏŋ/, /p͡f/, /t͡s/, and /t͡ʃ/
  • ⟨ü⟩ and ⟨ï⟩ represent /u/ and /i/ when ⟨u⟩ and ⟨i⟩ would cause ambiguity
  • ⟨o⟩ represents /ə/ when realized as [o̞] except between a labialized consonant (except allophones of /u(ː)/) and a plain velar consonant (except /ɰˀ/)
  • Apostrophes mark glottalization and aspiration.
  • Acutes and macrons mark long and overlong vowels respectively, except in ⟨ý⟩ in which it marks glottalization.
  • Labialization and palatalization are marked by surrounding vowel letters.



Alveolar Post-
Palatalized velar/
Velar Labialized velar Glottal
Nasal ᵖm m ᵖmˀ ᵗn n ᵗnˀ ᵏŋʲ ŋʲ ᵏŋʲˀ ŋʲˀ ᵏŋ ŋ ᵏŋˀ ŋˀ ᵏŋʷ ŋʷ ᵏŋʷˀ ŋʷˀ
Stop b t d kʲʰ k kʷʰ ʔ
Affricate p͡f t͡s t͡ʃ
Fricative v s z ʃ (ʝ) (ʝˀ) x (ɣ) (ɣˀ) (ɣʷ) (ɣʷˀ)
Approximant l (j) () ɰ ɰˀ (w) ()
Trill r
  • Glottalized consonants are realized with simultaneous creaky voicing for most speakers, but some speakers realize glottalized stops as implosive either in free variation or word-initially
  • Aspirated consonants have light to moderate aspiration
  • [j(ˀ)] and [w(ˀ)] are allophones of /i(ː)/ and /u(ː)/ adjacent to vowels
  • [j(ˀ)], /ɰ(ˀ)/, and [w(ˀ)] are realized as [ʝ(ˀ)], [ɣ(ˀ)], and [ɣʷ(ˀ)] adjacent to high vowels
  • Some speakers devoice voiced obstruents adjacent to voiceless consonants


Front Central Back
High i (y) u
Mid ə ()
Low a (ɒ)
  • All vowels can be long or overlong
  • [y], [o̞], and [ɒ] are allophones of /i/, /ə/, and /a/ adjacent to labialized consonants except allophones of /u(ː)/ (though some dialects don't make this exception)


Stress and pitch

There is no set stress position, but allophonic pitch based on vowels' surrounding consonants. For most speakers these pitches are not contrastive but are seen as proper and are required in recitations; marginal exceptions occur for speakers occur that assimilate voicing in clusters and for speakers that retain tone in loaned Knrawi or tonal substrate words.

Short vowels
/pre-stopped consonant
/voiced consonant
Word boundary
Glottalized consonant
/pre-stopped consonant
high mid high low
/voiced consonant
Word boundary
Glottalized consonant mid low
Long/overlong vowels
/pre-stopped consonant
/voiced consonant
Word boundary
Glottalized consonant
/pre-stopped consonant
high high falling sharp falling
/voiced consonant
high rising mid low falling
Word boundary
Glottalized consonant sharp rising low rising low

Whether glottalized pre-stopped nasals pattern as pre-stopped or glottalized varies by speaker and region.


Declarative sentences generally have a falling pitch throughout, but volume and pitch range can be used for emphasis.

In questions the particle xen and/or the proform xad may also be emphasized with a sharp falling pitch followed by higher pitch in the following word.


Syllables are generally mora-timed, with syllables containing long and overlong vowels having two and three morae; in recitations, continuant coda consonants or coda clusters with them may have their own mora, and overlong syllables may instead have four morae.


Syllables are at most (C(C₁))V((C₂)C), with C₁ being a non-lateral approximant and C₂ being C₁ or /ʔ/, but these maximal syllables are very rare. There are no restrictions on what clusters can occur.



Soc'ul' has split-S morphosyntactic alignment.

Nouns and pronouns

Nouns fall into five classes which are unmarked directly on the noun but trigger agreement in verbs and some particles. In informal speech class-2 marking is often used for class-1 nouns.

Nouns are marked for number, case, and possession by particles before the noun as follows.

Noun particles
1 a en ez' he
2 nej hej
CL1/CL2 nu
CL3 al nil ez'e hel
CL4 ax nux hex
CL5 ád nid' hed'
  • Case and number/definiteness marking are optional in non-formal speech, and on nouns with suppletive plural/indefinite forms or nouns modified by numerators plural/indefinite particles are only used as a plural indefinite marker.
  • Other particle groups above are optional in non-formal speech when verb agreement marking gives sufficient context.

As in Knrawi, plurality and indefiniteness are treated as one category, and many nouns mark plurality or indefiniteness with suppletion. This suppletion is most often from fossilized final-syllable reduplication in Wascotl.


Pronouns do not exist independently (except see Possession); the person and class of dropped nouns are instead only shown through verb agreement.

The demonstrative jál can also be used as a pronoun.


Possessive particles (alienable or inalienable) can also serve as possessive pronouns when verb agreement marking does not give sufficient context.

Inalienable possession is generally restricted to family members, body parts, inherent or permanent qualities (for example tumiad "sanctity"), and internal processes (for example c'uád "thought"). Words in the latter two categories are more flexible in which type of possession they take, varying by speaker and region.

Noun negation

Noun phrases are negated with xen', which can also function as a negative pronoun "nothing."

See also Aspect, mood, and negation



All verbs trigger either nominative-accusative or ergative-absolutive marking on nouns.

Aspect, mood, and negation

Verbs are marked for aspect and mood by particles preceding the verb.

Aspect-mood prefixes
en miu ji, laz uc' c'e c'ez
INCH r'uz miur' jir', lar' r'uc' c'er' r'ez
TERM coi miuc jiuc, lauc cuc' c'oc coz
NEG/Q xen miun jin, lan nuc' c'en nez
  • The perfective particle en is optional except in formal speech, and in non-formal speech can used to reset aspect-mood in embedded or sequential clauses or to contrast with other nearby markers.
  • The progressive and continuative particles are often used contrastively as imperfective nonpresent and imperfective present markers respectively.
  • Subjunctive mood is often also used for future marking.
  • The negation/question particle xen can be reduplicated after the verb to disambiguate it as a question particle.

These particles can cooccur, and are often combined for more specific or otherwise combined meanings, but in serial verbs are only used before the first verb. All but en can also be used as standalone verbs (see Copula), but do not need to take any agreement.

xen and xen' can be used together with the same meaning as the latter on its own, and in formal speech prohibitive sentences use jaj in place of xen.


Verbs agree with the person and class of their agent and patient as follows.

Verb agreement prefixes
>1 >2 >CL1 >CL2 >CL3/CL4 >CL5
1 sec- soc- seic- seh- setn- cu-
2 cor- coz- cor- coh- cox-
CL1 íús- íúy- aí- íúh- íún- íū-
CL2 har- hau- z'ai- ∅- han- hu-
CL3 in- nau- ixú- nal'- iy- nu-
CL4 an'- ñ'o- ñ'ai- ñ'ih- añ'- u-
CL5 us- úu- úi- ba- úx-
  • Intransitive verbs are marked with patient agreement of the agent's class, and impersonal verbs are unmarked.
  • Possessed nouns trigger agreement as their possessor unless a possessive particle is used.


The copula hazen inflects as follows.

>1 >2 >CL1 >CL2 >CL3/CL4 >CL5
1 syen suén syíún' sehan' setnayn sun'
2 coren cozen coríún' coban' coriyn cun'
CL1 íúsyen íúzen aíún' íúban' íúnen íún'
CL2 haryen huén hazíún' hazen harin' hun'
CL3 nasen nuén naíún' nahlan' nayn nun'
CL4 an'yen ñ'ón ñ'aíún' ñ'iban' ñ'in' un'
CL5 sén uén uaíún' ban' uinayn

If aspect-mood marking is used, the copula is optionally dropped.

Serial verbs

Verbs are often serialized in non-formal speech, in which the verbs' agreement marking may or may not match.

Aspect-mood marking and preceding particles are applied to the first verb in the serialization. Following particles are applied after either the first or last verb.

Serialization is especially common when the first verb is an intransitive or sensory verb.

Adjectives and adverbs

Adjectives are not their own class of words, but are derived from nouns or verbs. Most often they are derived by zero-marking before other nouns or verbs, or with suffixes or particles (see Part-of-speech modifiers).

Some of these derived adjectives and adverbs have meanings that don't directly correspond to the word they are derived from; in most cases this is due to homophony in ancestral Wascotl words after dropping of the adjective suffix *-(c)osc or regular merging with forms ending in *-(o)tl (*-osc and *-otl both becoming -ux), for example toc "knife" or "sharp" from Wascotl *tequ- and *tequ-osc respectively.

Comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs are formed by placing the second compared word after with the postposition je, but see also (see Reduplication).


Soc'ul' has a limited set of general postpositions: locative , lative je, proximal/comitative ne, ablative xenuz, and distal/ablative/abessive xen'e.

More specific adpositions, when needed, are formed with {location} ... {postposition} constructions (for example m'e ... eý "on" from m'e "top").


Soc'ul' uses base-12 numerals except in formal writing and very formal speech, which uses base-24 numerals with 13-24 derived from Knrawi.

1 2 3 4 5 6
jál ej ta am cui
7 8 9 10 11 12
zál éj ed em' eu xi
13 24 144 1,728 20,736 248,832
xi jál ej xi tsi xiyan tsiyan xi tsiyan
Formal numerals
13 14 15 16 17 18
tim' cuápm' txevum' xeñam cáum vutxem'
19 20 21 22 23 24
m'ixem c'eim' cetim' jutxem txeum' yetxam'
576 13,824 331,776
xuiñ' xuiñ'em' xuiñ'em' yetxam'

Nouns are not marked for number when using numerals.

Derivational morphology

Part-of-speech modifiers

The plural/indefinite particle ez'e is also used to nominalize words from other parts of speech. Agentive nouns can be derived either from ez' (the class-2 inflection of ez'e) or from dedicated agentive suffixes -uóc and -ih.

The suffix -z'i is

Inalienable pronouns can also be used as particles following adjectives to disambiguate them from possessor nouns; this disambiguation can also be done with the suffix -jí (which is also used to disambiguate adjectives from verbs, and to derive verbs adjectives).

The preceding particle hez'i disambiguates and derives adverbs from other parts of speech.


The causative suffix -ax can be used productively on any verb, as well as being used nonproductively on some verbs deriving verbs of new meanings.


Most words (other than nouns and conjunctions, but including some particles) can be fully reduplicated after the word for augmented or intensified meaning. In verbs this can also mark an iterative or contrastive meaning, and in adjectives and adverbs it can also mark a comparative or superlative meaning when the thing being compared to is absent in the sentence.

The reduplicated word comes after any particles that would otherwise be directly after the word. Reduplicated verbs only mark agreement on the first verb.

Triplication is also used by some speakers for further augmentation/intensification, but this is not considered standard.


Constituent order

All clauses are strictly VO, and subject and object order are flexible with sufficient marking or context, but VSO order is most common.

Noun and verb phrases

All modifiers follow their head noun or verb, except aspect-mood particles precede verbs and the demonstrative jál precedes nouns. Generally numerators follow adjectives and possessors follow all other modifiers, but otherwise modifier order is flexible.

Dependent clauses

Dependent clauses follow the head they modify after all other dependents, and are usually marked with a relativizer āh-.

Example texts

Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1

Habaiý co jutxux hez'i yanux jem'uj ne hez'i diuzi ez'e muzm'e. Sauciý xeu txisye uc' āhjí xec hez'i r'úiad ez'e céuxz'i.























Habai-(i)ý co jutxux hez'i yanux jem'uj ne hez'i diuzi ez'e muzm'e.

bear-PASS person all ADVZ freedom equality with ADVZ dignity NZ own





















Sauc-iý xeu txisye uc' āh-jí xec hez'i r'úiad ez'e céux-z'i.

grant-PASS reason conscience SUBJ REL-do RECP ADVZ way NZ brother-VBZ

Linguifex-hosted translations

Conlang Atlas of Language Structures-hosted translations

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