Tigol/Morphology

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Tigol is a highly inflected, fusional language, unlike modern Eevo. Much of Proto-Talmic morphology survives in Tigol. However, Tigol is most notorious for its often unpredictable verbal allomorphy.

Nouns

Nouns fall into one of masculine, feminine and neuter genders and inflect for singular and plural numbers, inherited from the Thensarian singulative and plurative.

The definite article, inherited from the Thensarian demonstrative φinom, is in for singular nouns and na for plural nouns; they trigger mutations based on gender.

Nouns are also inflected for construct state and take possessive suffixes, inherited from Thensarian.

-0, -' (masculine)

már 'tree'
Singulative Collective Plurative
Absolute már máir
Construct márae - máraibh


Possessed forms of már - 'tree'
Numbern→
State↓
Singulative Plurative
1sg possessor mára máranna
2sg possessor márais márannais
3sg.m possessor máru márannu
3sg.f possessor máiri márannai
3sg.n possessor máradh márann
1exc possessor máram márannam
1inc possessor márfaí márannfaí
2pl possessor máracc márannacc
3pl possessor márur márannur

-0, -ae (masculine)

giaos 'goat'
Singulative Collective Plurative
Absolute nom. giaos giaosae
Construct giaosadh - giaosaibh

(feminine)

(neuter)

Adjectives

Pronouns

Verb prefixes

Preverb prefixes

Prefixes:

  • ar-: on, at
  • (deut.) as-: telic
  • (prot.) de-, (deut.) do-: in, at
  • é-: with, co-
  • fin-/sin- = well, thoroughly
  • for-: causative, through
  • (prot.) ful-, (deut.) fol-: around, back
  • (prot.) gel-, (deut.) gol-: up, out
  • ro-: down
  • sol-: a causative
  • (prot.) su-, (deut.) so-: towards
  • (prot.) sur-, (deut.) sor-: back
  • (prot.) u(cc)-, (deut.) oc-: from

Object prefixes

Object prefixes are inherited from Proto-Quihum and are placed in a slot between preverbs and the stem.

Verb TAMs

Tigol inherits many TAMs directly from Thensarian. In addition, Tigol displays extensive verb allomorphy. Verbs can be grouped in two ways: non-prefixed and prefixed, and non-ablauting and ablauting. The verb tables below will use the following example verbs:

  • Unprefixed, non-ablauting verbs: e.g. túsaiṁ /ˈtuːsai̯mʰ/ 'he prays', ia·tús /niːˈtuːs/ 'he does not pray' (modern tus)
  • Unprefixed, ablauting verbs: e.g. soṁaiṁ /somʰai̯mʰ/ 'he finds (intransitive)', ia·soṁa /niːˈsomʰa/ 'he does not find' (modern sov)
  • Prefixed, non-ablauting verbs: e.g. as·tóċ /asˈtoːkʰ/ 'he proves', ia·assaċ /niːˈasːakʰ/ 'he does not prove'
  • Prefixed ablauting verbs: e.g. de·arcoḃ /dorˈkobʰ/ 'he tolerates' (< de-ar-cobym 'at-on-bear'), ia·dérb /niːˈdeːrb/ 'he does not tolerate' (modern deerv)

In case where there is a preverb, the first syllable after the interpunct is stressed.

Present

Person túsain "pray, request"
(non-prefixed, non-ablauting)
soṁain '"find"
(non-prefixed, ablauting)
as·tóċan "prove"
(prefixed, non-ablauting)
dor·coḃ "tolerate"
(prefixed, ablauting)
1SG túsain < tússanis
ia·tús < nīs tússan
soṁain < somynis
ia·soṁ < nīs somyn
as·tóċan < astósācon
ia·assaċ < nīs ástosācon
dor·coḃ
ia·dérb
2SG túsair < tússaris
ia·túsar < nīs tússar
soṁair < somyris
ia·soṁar < nīs somyr
as·tóċar < astósācor
ia·assaċar < nīs ástosācor
dor·coḃar
ia·dérbar
3SG.M túsaiṁ < tússamis
ia·tús < nīs tússam
soṁaiṁ < somymis
ia·soṁ < nīs somym
as·tóċ < astósācom
ia·assaċ < nīs ástosācom
dor·coḃ
ia·dérb
3SG.F túsaé < tússasis
ia·túsaé < nīs tússasi
soṁaé < somysis
ia·soṁaé < nīs somysi
as·tóċaé < astósācosi
ia·assaċaé < nīs ástosācosi
dor·coḃaé
ia·dérbaé
3SG.N tús < tússas
ia·tús < nīs tússa
soiṁ < somis
ia·soṁ < nīs somy
as·tóċ < astósācos
ia·assaċ < nīs ástosāco
dor·coḃ
ia·dérb
1EX túsmae < tússamēs
ia·túsaiṁ < nīs tússamē
sommae < somymēs
ia·soṁaiṁ < nīs somymē
as·tóċaiṁ < astósācomē
ia·assaċaiṁ < nīs ástosācomē
dor·coḃaiṁ
ia·dérbaiṁ
1IN túsait < tússantis
ia·túsat < nīs tússant
soṁait < somyntis
ia·soṁat < nīs somynt
as·tóċat < astósācont
ia·assaċat < nīs ástosācont
dor·coḃat
ia·dérbat
2PL túsaisc < tússasces
ia·túsaisc < nīs tússasce
soṁaisc < somysces
ia·soṁasc < nīs somysce
as·tóċaisc < astósācosce
ia·assaċaisc < nīs ástosācosce
dor·coḃaisc
ia·dérbaisc
3PL túsaiḋ < tússatis
ia·túsaḋ < nīs tússat
soṁaiḋ < somytis
ia·soṁaḋ < nīs somyt
as·tóċaḋ < astósācot
ia·assaċaḋ < nīs ástosācot
dor·coḃaḋ
ia·dérbaḋ

Imperfect

The imperfect is its own principal part, from reduplication in Thensarian.

Person túsain "pray, request"
(non-prefixed, non-ablauting)
soṁain '"find"
(non-prefixed, ablauting)
as·tóċan "prove"
(prefixed, non-ablauting)
dor·coḃ "tolerate"
(prefixed, ablauting)
1SG téussain < tétussanis
ia·téuss < nīs tétussan
séṁain < sésomynis
ia·séṁ < nīs sésomyn
as·tecc
ia·astóċ
dor·coġḃ
ia·dercob
2SG téussair < tétussaris
ia·téussar < nīs tétussar
séṁair < somyris
ia·séṁar < nīs sésomyr
as·teccar
ia·astóċar
dor·coġḃar
ia·dercobar
3SG.M téussaiṁ < tétussamis
ia·téuss < nīs tétussam
séṁaiṁ < sésomymis
ia·séṁ < nīs sésomym
as·tecc
ia·astóċ
dor·coġḃ
ia·dercob
3SG.F téussaé < tétussasis
ia·téussaé < nīs tétussasi
séṁaé < sésomysis
ia·séṁaé < nīs sésomysi
as·teccaé
ia·astóċaé
dor·coġḃaé
ia·dercobaé
3SG.N téuss < tétussas
ia·téuss < nīs tétussa
séṁ < sésomis
ia·séṁ < nīs sésomy
as·tecc
ia·astóċ
dor·coġḃ
ia·dercob
1EX téussaiṁ < tétussamēs
ia·téussaiṁ < nīs tétussamē
sémmae < sésomymēs
ia·séṁaiṁ < nīs sésomymē
as·teccaiṁ
ia·astóċaiṁ
dor·coġḃaiṁ
ia·dercobaiṁ
1IN téussait < tétussantis
ia·téussat < nīs tétussant
séṁait < sésomyntis
ia·séṁat < nīs sésomynt
as·teccat
ia·astóċat
dor·coġḃat
ia·dercobat
2PL téussaisc < tétussasces
ia·téussaisc < nīs tétussasce
séṁaisc < sésomysces
ia·soṁasc < nīs sésomysce
as·teccaisc
ia·astóċaisc
dor·coġḃaisc
ia·dercobaisc
3PL téussaiḋ < tétussatis
ia·téussaḋ < nīs tétussat
séṁaiḋ < sésomytis
ia·séṁaḋ < nīs sésomyt
as·teccaḋ
ia·astóċaḋ
dor·coġḃaḋ
ia·dercobaḋ

Preterite

Person túsain "pray, request"
(non-prefixed, non-ablauting)
soṁain '"find"
(non-prefixed, ablauting)
as·tóċan "prove"
(prefixed, non-ablauting)
dor·coḃ "tolerate"
(prefixed, ablauting)
1SG túsaidh < tússadīs
ia·túsaidh < nīs tússadī
siṁidh < simidīs
ia·siṁidh < nīs simidī
as·tóċaidh < astósācādī
ia·assaċaidh < nīs ástosācādī
dor·ciḃid
ia·déirbid
2SG túsaí < tússavoes
ia·túsaí < nīs tússavoe
siṁí < simivoes
ia·siṁí < nīs simivoe
as·tóċaí < astósācovoe
ia·assaċaí < nīs ástosācovoe
dor·ciḃí
ia·déirbí
3SG.M túsaim < tússasmis
ia·túsaim < nīs tússasmi
siṁim < simismis
ia·siṁim < nīs simismi
as·tóċaim < astósācosmi
ia·assaċaim < nīs ástosācosmi
dor·ciḃim
ia·déirbim
3SG.F túsais < tússastis
ia·túsais < nīs tússasti
siṁis < simistis
ia·siṁis < nīs simisti
as·tóċais < astósācosti
ia·assaċais < nīs ástosācosti
dor·ciḃis
ia·déirbis
3SG.N túsá < tússasos
ia·túsá < nīs tússaso
siṁeo < simisos
ia·siṁeo < nīs simiso
as·tóċá < astósācoso
ia·assaċá < nīs ástosācoso
dor·ciḃeo
ia·déirbeo
1EX túsmair < tússameris
ia·túsmar < nīs tússamer
simmir < simimeris
ia·simmer < nīs simimeris
as·tóċmar < astósācomer
ia·assaċmar < nīs ástosācomer
dor·ciḃmer
ia·déirbmer
1IN túsdair < tússanteris
ia·túsdar < nīs tússanter
siṁdir < siminteris
ia·siṁder < nīs siminteris
as·tóċdar < astósāconter
ia·assaċdar < nīs ástosāconter
dor·ciḃder
ia·déirbder
2PL tússcair < tússasceris
ia·tússcar < nīs tússascer
siṁscir < simisceris
ia·siṁscer < nīs simisceris
as·tóċscar < astósācosceris
ia·assaċscar < nīs ástosācoscer
dor·ciḃscer
ia·déirbscer
3PL túsbair < tússabris
ia·túsbar < nīs tússaber
siṁbir < simiberis
ia·siṁber < nīs simiberis
as·tóċḃar < astósācober
ia·assaċḃar < nīs ástosācoter
dor·ciber
ia·déirber

Future

Person túsain "pray, request"
(non-prefixed, non-ablauting)
soṁain '"find"
(non-prefixed, ablauting)
as·tóċan "prove"
(prefixed, non-ablauting)
dor·coḃ "tolerate"
(prefixed, ablauting)
1SG túsṫain < tússatēnis
ia·túsaiḋ < nīs tússatēn
sóitin < sontēnis
ia·sóit < nīs sontēn
as·tóċtan
ia·assaċt
dor·coċtan
ia·derċtan
2SG túsṫair < tússatēris
ia·túsṫar < nīs tússatēr
sóitir < sontēris
ia·sóiter < nīs sontēr
as·tóċtar
ia·assaċtar
dor·coċtar
ia·derċtar
3SG.M túsṫaiṁ < tússatēmis
ia·túsaiḋ < nīs tússatēm
sóitiṁ < sontēmis
ia·sóit < nīs somym
as·tóċt
ia·assaċt
dor·coċt
ia·derċt
3SG.F túsṫaé < tússatēsis
ia·túsṫaé < nīs tússatēsi
sóité < sontēsis
ia·sóité < nīs somysi
as·tóċtaé
ia·assaċtaé
dor·coċtaé
ia·derċtaé
3SG.N túsaiḋ < tússatēs
ia·túsaiḋ < nīs tússatē
sóit < sontēs
ia·sóit < nīs sontē
as·tóċt
ia·assaċt
dor·coċt
ia·derċt
1EX túsṫaiṁ < tússatēmēs
túsṫaiṁ < nīs tússatēmē
sóitiṁ < sontēmēs
ia·sóiteṁ < nīs sontēm
as·tóċtaiṁ
ia·assaċtaiṁ
dor·coċtaiṁ
ia·derċtaiṁ
1IN túsṫait < tússatēntis
ia·túsṫat < nīs tússatēnt
sóitit < sontēntis
ia·sóitet < nīs sontēnt
as·tóċtat
ia·assaċtat
dor·coċtat
ia·derċtat
2PL túsṫaisc < tússatēsces
ia·túsṫaisc < nīs tússatēsce
sóitisc < sontēsces
ia·sóitisc < nīs sontēsce
as·tóċtaisc
ia·assaċtaisc
dor·coċtaisc
ia·derċtaisc
3PL túsṫaiḋ < tússatētis
ia·túsṫaḋ < nīs tússatēt
sóitiḋ < sontētis
ia·sóiteḋ < nīs sontēt
as·tóċtaḋ
ia·assaċtaḋ
dor·coċtaḋ
ia·derċtaḋ

Present subjunctive

Person túsain "pray, request"
(non-prefixed, non-ablauting)
soṁain '"find"
(non-prefixed, ablauting)
as·tóċan "prove"
(prefixed, non-ablauting)
dor·coḃ "tolerate"
(prefixed, ablauting)
1SG túsnae < tússānaes
dá·ṫúsnae < δā tússānae
soṁnae < somnaes
dá·shoṁnae < δā somnae
as·tóċnae
dá·assaċnae
dor·coċnae
dá·derċnae
2SG túsrae < tussāraes
dá·ṫúsṫar < δā tússārae
soṁrae < somraes
dá·shoṁrae < δā somrae
as·tóċrae
dá·assaċrae
dor·coċrae
dá·derċrae
3SG.M túsmair < tússamioris
dá·ṫúsmar < δā tússamior
soimmir < sommioris
dá·shoimmer < δā sommior
as·tóċmar
dá·assaċmar
dor·coċmar
dá·derċmar
3SG.F túsaéir < tússasioris
dá·ṫúsaér < δā tússasior
soimir < somsioris
dá·shoimer < δā somsior
as·tóċaér
dá·assaċaér
dor·coċaér
dá·derċaér
3SG.N túsair < tússaoris
dá·ṫúsar < δā tússaor
soiṁir < somioris
dá·shoiṁer < δā somior
as·tóċar
dá·assaċar
dor·coċar
dá·derċar
1EX túsṁae < tússāmaes
dá·ṫúsṁae < δā tússāmae
sommae < sommaes
dá·sommae < δā sommae
as·tóċmae
dá·assaċmae
dor·coċmae
dá·derċmae
1IN túsdae < tússāntaes
dá·ṫúsdae < δā tússāntae
soṁadae < somyntaes
dá·soṁadae < δā somyntae
as·tóċdae
ia·assaċdae
dor·coċdae
dá·derċdae
2PL túscae < tussāscaes
dá·ṫúscae < δā tussāscae
soṁascae < somyscaes
dá·soṁascae < δā somyscae
as·tóċscae
ia·assaċscae
dor·coċscae
dá·derċscae
3PL túsṫair < tussātioris
dá·ṫúsṫair < δā tussātior
soiṁṫir < somtioris
dá·soiṁṫer < δā somtior
as·tóċṫair
dá·assaċṫair
dor·coċtar
dá·derċtar

Past subjunctive

Gets mixed up with future in descendants.

Imperative

Verbal noun