Tigol

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Swadesh list for Tigol and the Tigolic languages

Tigol/Lexicon

Tigol (TEE-gol, in nTiccál from Pre-Tigol *φinom Tinkatlom 'the note, the gloss; the explanation'; Eevo: Tygol; Anbirese: Tigol) is a Talmic language which arose from northern dialects of Proto-Talmic. Its aesthetics is based on Old Irish orthography, but its choice of postvocalic mutation is voicing, not spirantization. Its extreme grammatical complexity caused it to diverge rapidly into the modern Tigolic languages, Skellan, Anbirese and Ciètian.

Tigol is the language of the earliest texts of Mărotłist religion. (What should the equivalent of Tiberian Hebrew be like? What should the Modern Windermere reading be like?)

Orthography

Talmic script; borrow h from Windermere script

Todo

  • should be an Old Irish relex
  • Agcaoili - a name
  • ull = place name morpheme (eul- in Anbirese)
  • Sian dom Ceamb can be a person's name
    • Eulsjeondamkjeom in Anbir
  • ghdhbh is allowed: aeġḋḃithir, luġḋḃae, sóiġḋḃaṁ
  • dobanis > dobh = to be like
  • change ħ to ŋ
  • immer < *φimmirae < φinae mirae = now
  • Verb prefixes:
    • ar-: on, at
    • (deut.) as-: telic
    • (prot.) de-, (deut.) do-: in, at
    • é-: with, co-
    • fin-/sin- = well, thoroughly
    • for-: causative, through
    • (prot.) ful-, (deut.) fol-: around, back
    • imm-: immediately
    • (prot.) gel-, (deut.) gol-: up, out
    • ro-: down
    • sol-: a causative
    • (prot.) su-, (deut.) so-: towards
    • (prot.) sur-, (deut.) sor-: back
    • (prot.) u(cc)-, (deut.) oc-: from
  • Derivational affixes:
    • -ach = verbal noun
    • -aitt = adjectivizer
    • -all = verbal noun, also abstract noun?
    • an-/é- = intensive; 'very'
  • -óid = origin suffix
  • A nDessachthar = name of a museum (lit. "that you may see inside her [the Second Mover]")
  • *nt *nk > unlenited /d g/ (normally written t c). Note that PCelt *ant,*ent > *ent > /eːd/ but *int *ont *unt > /idd odd udd/ like *nk: cét /kʲeːd/ "hundred" < PCelt *kantom (cf. Welsh cant) < PIE *kṃtóm; sét /sʲeːd/ "way" < *sentu- (vs. Breton hent); ro·icc, ric(c)/r(o)-iɡɡ/ "he reaches" < *ro-ink- (vs. Bret rankout "must, owe"); tocad /toɡað/ "luck" (vs. Bret tonkad "fate").[25]*ns > unlenited s with compensatory lengthening of a preceding vowel; *ans > *ens > és similarly to *ant *ank: géis "swan" < PCelt *gansi- < PIE *ǵʰh₂ens- (vs. Dutch gans "goose").
  1. i-affection: Short *e and *o are raised to i and u when the following syllable contains a high vowel (*i, *ī, *u, *ū). It does not happen when the vowels are separated by certain consonant groups.
  2. a-affection: Short *i and *u are lowered to e and o when the following syllable contains a non-high back vowel (*a, *ā, *o, *ō).
  3. u-affection: Short *a, *e, *i are broken to short diphthongs au, eu, iu when the following syllable contains a *u or *ū that was later lost. It is assumed that at the point the change operated, u-vowels that were later lost were short *u while those that remain were long *ū. The change operates after i-affection so original *e may end up as iu.

Phonology

Consonants

The following consonants come in broad/slender pairs:

  • b c d f g l m n p r s t /p~pʲ kʰ~kʲʰ t~tʲ f~fʲ k~kʲ l~lʲ m̆~m̆ʲ n~nʲ pʰ~p r s tʰ/
  • Geminates are phonemic: cc ll mm nn ŋŋ pp rr ss tt /kː(ʲ) lː(ʲ) mː(ʲ) nː(ʲ) ŋː pː(ʲ) rː(ʲ) sː(ʲ) tː(ʲ)/

ŋ /ŋ~ɴ/ cannot be slender, and comes from PTal *ʀ *ʀʷ. Proto-Talmic *k *kʷ *q *qʷ all become Tigol c, except *sq sqʷ which becomes .

  • voicing mutation ("+V"): ḃ ch ḋ fh ġ ph ṡ th /b(ʲ) g(ʲ)ʱ d(ʲ) v(ʲ)ʱ g(ʲ) b(ʲ)ʱ ɦ d(ʲ)ʱ/
  • prenasalization ("+N"): mb ŋc nd ŋg mf mp ns nt /ᵐb(ʲ) ᵑk(ʲ)ʰ ⁿd(ʲ) ᵑg(ʲ) ᵐf(ʲ) ᵐp(ʲ)ʰ ⁿs(ʲ) ⁿt(ʲ)ʰ/
  • Posttonic *nk nt mp ns become nongeminate c t p s /k(ʲ) t(ʲ) p(ʲ) s(ʲ)/
  • h-prothesis ("+H"): lenited final s before a null initial becomes h- /ɦ/

Vowels

  • Short vowels: a e i o u /a e i o u/
  • Long vowels: á é í ó ú éu íu /aː eː iː oː uː øː yː/
  • Short diphthongs: au eu iu /aw ew~ø iw~y/
  • Long diphthongs: aí oí uí aú eó~eú iú /a:j o:j u:j a:w e:w i:w/

Five of the short vowels a e i o u could occur in a word-final unstressed syllable.

Morphology

Main article: Tigol/Morphology

Syntax

Poetry

Tigol poetry from the time when Tigol was living uses the Welsh cynghanedd system.

  • Int Amroctaí Óc Eo = The Chronicles of Óc Eo