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Swadesh list for Tigol and the Tigolic languages


Tigol (TEE-gol, in Tioccál from Thensarian Tincatlom; Eevo: Tygol; Anbirese: Tigol) is a Talmic language which arose from northern dialects of Proto-Talmic. Its aesthetics is based on Old Irish orthography. Tigol is the language of many manuscripts. Its extreme grammatical complexity caused it to diverge rapidly into the modern Tigolic languages.


  • Óc Eo

Primitive Eevo

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ŋ /ŋ/
Plosive voiceless t /t/ k /k/
voiced b /b/ d /d/ g /g/
Fricative voiceless s /s/ h /h/
voiced [z]
Trill r /r/
Approximant w /ʋ/ l /l/ j /j/

Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ī /iː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ o /ɔ/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

The diphthongs are ai au ei eu iu oi ui.


  • Agcaoili - a name
  • ull = place name morpheme (eul- in Anbirese)
  • Sian dom Ceamb can be a person's name
    • Eulsjeondamkjeom in Anbir
  • ghdhbh is allowed: aeġḋḃithir, luġḋḃae, sóiġḋḃaṁ
  • dobanis > dobh = to be like
  • change ħ to ŋ
  • immer < *φimmirae < φinae mirae = now
  • Verb prefixes:
    • ar-: on, at
    • (deut.) as-: telic
    • (prot.) de-, (deut.) do-: in, at
    • é-: with, co-
    • fin-/sin- = well, thoroughly
    • for-: causative, through
    • (prot.) ful-, (deut.) fol-: around, back
    • imm-: immediately
    • (prot.) gel-, (deut.) gol-: up, out
    • ro-: down
    • sol-: a causative
    • (prot.) su-, (deut.) so-: towards
    • (prot.) sur-, (deut.) sor-: back
    • (prot.) u(cc)-, (deut.) oc-: from
  • Derivational affixes:
    • -ach = verbal noun
    • -aitt = adjectivizer
    • -all = verbal noun, also abstract noun?
    • an-/é- = intensive; 'very'
  • -óid = origin suffix
  • A nDessachthar = name of a museum (lit. "that you may see inside her [the Second Mover]")
  • *nt *nk > unlenited /d g/ (normally written t c). Note that PCelt *ant,*ent > *ent > /eːd/ but *int *ont *unt > /idd odd udd/ like *nk: cét /kʲeːd/ "hundred" < PCelt *kantom (cf. Welsh cant) < PIE *kṃtóm; sét /sʲeːd/ "way" < *sentu- (vs. Breton hent); ro·icc, ric(c)/r(o)-iɡɡ/ "he reaches" < *ro-ink- (vs. Bret rankout "must, owe"); tocad /toɡað/ "luck" (vs. Bret tonkad "fate").[25]*ns > unlenited s with compensatory lengthening of a preceding vowel; *ans > *ens > és similarly to *ant *ank: géis "swan" < PCelt *gansi- < PIE *ǵʰh₂ens- (vs. Dutch gans "goose").
  1. i-affection: Short *e and *o are raised to i and u when the following syllable contains a high vowel (*i, *ī, *u, *ū). It does not happen when the vowels are separated by certain consonant groups.
  2. a-affection: Short *i and *u are lowered to e and o when the following syllable contains a non-high back vowel (*a, *ā, *o, *ō).
  3. u-affection: Short *a, *e, *i are broken to short diphthongs au, eu, iu when the following syllable contains a *u or *ū that was later lost. It is assumed that at the point the change operated, u-vowels that were later lost were short *u while those that remain were long *ū. The change operates after i-affection so original *e may end up as iu.


Talmic script; borrow h from Windermere script



  • b c d f g l m n ŋ p r s t /p kʰ t f k l m n ŋ pʰ r s tʰ/
  • "Lenition": ḃ ch ḋ fh ġ h mh ph sh th /b gʰ d fʰ g h mʰ bʰ sʰ dʰ/
  • "Eclipsis": mb ŋc nd ŋg mf mp ns nt /ᵐb ᵑkʰ ⁿd ᵑg ᵐf ᵐpʰ ⁿs ⁿtʰ/
  • Geminates: cc ll mm nn ŋŋ pp rr ss tt /kː lː mː nː ŋː pː rː sː tː/


  • a e i o u /a e i o u/
  • á é í ó ú /aː eː iː oː uː/
  • ai ei io oi ui
  • ae ao ái éi eo éu ia ío íu iú ói oí ua úi uí /ae ao ai ei eo: ø: ia i:o y: iu: o:i oi: ua u:i ui:/

All five short vowels a e i o u could occur in a word-final unstressed syllable.


Main article: Tigol/Morphology



Tigol poetry from the time when Tigol was living uses the Welsh cynghanedd system.

  • Na hAmroctaíḃ Óc Eo = The Chronicles of Óc Eo