Tigol

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Swadesh list for Tigol and the Tigolic languages

Tigol/Lexicon

Tigol (TEE-gol, in Tioccál from Thensarian Tincatlom; Eevo: Tygol; Anbirese: Tigol) is a Talmic language which arose from northern dialects of Thensarian. Its aesthetics is based on Old Irish orthography. Tigol is the language of many manuscripts. Its extreme grammatical complexity caused it to diverge rapidly into the modern Tigolic languages.

Todo

  • Óc Eo

Primitive Eevo

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ŋ /ŋ/
Plosive voiceless t /t/ k /k/
voiced b /b/ d /d/ g /g/
Fricative voiceless s /s/ h /h/
voiced [z]
Trill r /r/
Approximant w /ʋ/ l /l/ j /j/


Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i /i/ ī /iː/ u /u/ ū /uː/
Mid e /ɛ/ o /ɔ/
Open a /a/ ā /aː/

The diphthongs are ai au ei eu iu oi ui.

Todo

  • Agcaoili - a name
  • ull = place name morpheme (eul- in Anbirese)
  • Sian dom Ceamb can be a person's name
    • Eulsjeondamkjeom in Anbir
  • ghdhbh is allowed: aeġḋḃithir, luġḋḃae, sóiġḋḃaṁ
  • dobanis > dobh = to be like
  • change ħ to ŋ
  • immer < *φimmirae < φinae mirae = now
  • Verb prefixes:
    • ar-: on, at
    • (deut.) as-: telic
    • (prot.) de-, (deut.) do-: in, at
    • é-: with, co-
    • fin-/sin- = well, thoroughly
    • for-: causative, through
    • (prot.) ful-, (deut.) fol-: around, back
    • imm-: immediately
    • (prot.) gel-, (deut.) gol-: up, out
    • ro-: down
    • sol-: a causative
    • (prot.) su-, (deut.) so-: towards
    • (prot.) sur-, (deut.) sor-: back
    • (prot.) u(cc)-, (deut.) oc-: from
  • Derivational affixes:
    • -ach = verbal noun
    • -aitt = adjectivizer
    • -all = verbal noun, also abstract noun?
    • an-/é- = intensive; 'very'
  • -óid = origin suffix
  • A nDessachthar = name of a museum (lit. "that you may see inside her [the Second Mover]")
  • *nt *nk > unlenited /d g/ (normally written t c). Note that PCelt *ant,*ent > *ent > /eːd/ but *int *ont *unt > /idd odd udd/ like *nk: cét /kʲeːd/ "hundred" < PCelt *kantom (cf. Welsh cant) < PIE *kṃtóm; sét /sʲeːd/ "way" < *sentu- (vs. Breton hent); ro·icc, ric(c)/r(o)-iɡɡ/ "he reaches" < *ro-ink- (vs. Bret rankout "must, owe"); tocad /toɡað/ "luck" (vs. Bret tonkad "fate").[25]*ns > unlenited s with compensatory lengthening of a preceding vowel; *ans > *ens > és similarly to *ant *ank: géis "swan" < PCelt *gansi- < PIE *ǵʰh₂ens- (vs. Dutch gans "goose").
  1. i-affection: Short *e and *o are raised to i and u when the following syllable contains a high vowel (*i, *ī, *u, *ū). It does not happen when the vowels are separated by certain consonant groups.
  2. a-affection: Short *i and *u are lowered to e and o when the following syllable contains a non-high back vowel (*a, *ā, *o, *ō).
  3. u-affection: Short *a, *e, *i are broken to short diphthongs au, eu, iu when the following syllable contains a *u or *ū that was later lost. It is assumed that at the point the change operated, u-vowels that were later lost were short *u while those that remain were long *ū. The change operates after i-affection so original *e may end up as iu.

Orthography

Talmic script; borrow h from Windermere script

Phonology

Consonants

  • b c d f g l m n ŋ p r s t /p kʰ t f k l m n ŋ pʰ r s tʰ/
  • "Lenition": ḃ ch ḋ fh ġ h ṁ ph sh th /b gʰ d fʰ g h mʰ bʰ sʰ dʰ/
  • "Eclipsis": mb ŋc nd ŋg mf mp ns nt /ᵐb ᵑkʰ ⁿd ᵑg ᵐf ᵐpʰ ⁿs ⁿtʰ/
  • Geminates: cc ll mm nn ŋŋ pp rr ss tt /kː lː mː nː ŋː pː rː sː tː/

Vowels

  • a e i o u /a e i o u/
  • á é í ó ú /aː eː iː oː uː/
  • ai ei io oi ui
  • ae ao ái éi eó éu ia ío íu iú ói oí ua úi uí /ae ao ai ei eo: ø: ia i:o y: iu: o:i oi: ua u:i ui:/

All five short vowels a e i o u could occur in a word-final unstressed syllable.

Morphology

Main article: Tigol/Morphology

Syntax

Poetry

Tigol poetry uses the Welsh cynghanedd system (agreement between some sequences of sounds) but does not use rhyme or meter.