Sound changes from Indo-Iranian / Sanskrit / IE to Classical Madhyasthani
- a, ā, i, ī, u, ū all stay the same
- ay > ē, aw > ō, but āy and āw tend to stay intact (as āi, āu)
- aspirates tend to stay intact
- (weak?) retroflex plosives rt, rd etc tend to merge with -r-, while the retroflex nasal tends to merge with n.
- every second non-tonic plosive tends to lenite away unless the plosive before it is of a higher sonority in which case that one should lenite instead. Not a hard and fast rule.
- š and s' merge
- Some arbitrary contractions here and there
Sound changes from Classical to later Madhyasthani dialects
- Dialect #1: umlauting occurs for /a/.
- mádhya > maidh (> medh)
- Dialect #2: palatalisation of t/d occurs
- mádhya > majh, mejh (> maj(a), mej(a)) (mejhastani)
- Dialect #1.5: lenition of intermedial voiced stops
- Ƀ, ƀ _ Đ, đ - međastani
- mádhya > majh
- saknā / saktā = can
- hai = am, is, are
- thā, (??) = was
- -ho = plural
- nāi = not (no?) (na = don't)
- andar, 'dar, dar = in, into, within
- bhāšǎ = language