User:Ceige/Madhyasthani

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Sound changes from Indo-Iranian / Sanskrit / IE to Classical Madhyasthani

Vowels

  • a, ā, i, ī, u, ū all stay the same
  • ay > ē, aw > ō, but āy and āw tend to stay intact (as āi, āu)

Consonants

  • aspirates tend to stay intact
  • (weak?) retroflex plosives rt, rd etc tend to merge with -r-, while the retroflex nasal tends to merge with n.
  • every second non-tonic plosive tends to lenite away unless the plosive before it is of a higher sonority in which case that one should lenite instead. Not a hard and fast rule.
  • š and s' merge
  • Some arbitrary contractions here and there

Sound changes from Classical to later Madhyasthani dialects

  • Dialect #1: umlauting occurs for /a/.
  • mádhya > maidh (> medh)
  • Dialect #2: palatalisation of t/d occurs
  • mádhya > majh, mejh (> maj(a), mej(a)) (mejhastani)
  • Dialect #1.5: lenition of intermedial voiced stops
  • Ƀ, ƀ _ Đ, đ - međastani

Example wordlist

  • mádhya > majh
  • saknā / saktā = can
  • hai = am, is, are
  • thā, (??) = was
  • -ho = plural
  • nāi = not (no?) (na = don't)
  • andar, 'dar, dar = in, into, within
  • bhāšǎ = language