Tossaq (Toqyaq) is an Indo-European language with aggressive assimilatory sound changes.
- Diphthongisation of e and o to ie and uo respectively
- Treatment of any vowel + h(1, 2, 3) as ʀǝ
- epenthetic vowels added before and after clusters, with:
- liquids L and R assimilating to the adjacent consonant's manner of articulation e.g. tr- -> ǝtr- -> ǝtt-
- nasals staying unassimilated.
- tewt-eh2 -> tjewt-ʀǝ
- drukós -> ǝdduk-uos
- ie, uo, ʀǝ become ja, wa, ʀa respectively
- metathesis of any second liquid sound to the end of the word, e.g. tjewt- -> tjatw-
- general loss of word final vowels and inflectional endings
- tjewt-3a -> tjatw(-ʀa)
- ǝdduk-uos -> ǝdduk(-was)
- consonants assimilate to the place of articulation of following liquids (or i/u):
- for plosives: Pw, Pj, Pʀ -> p, t, k (b, d, g, bh, dh, gh etc)
- for fricatives: Fw, Fj, Fʀ -> f, s, h
- for liquids: Lw, Lj, Lʀ -> w, y, ʀ
- for nasals: Nw, Nj, Nʀ -> m, n, ŋ
- front/back distinctions of vowels are lost, e.g. twa, tja, tʀa -> pa, ta, ka
- for open vowels: a
- for closed vowels: ɯ (ı, ǝ in writing)
- tjatw(-ʀa) -> tap(ʀa)
- ǝdduk(-was) -> ǝbbǝk(was)
- syllabe-final consonants colour the preceding vowel and merge together:
- labials add the ring diacritic, dentals add the trema, e.g. ǝbbǝk -> ǝ̊bbǝk
- in some dialects, velars add the macron, e.g. ǝ̊bbǝ̂k
- voiceless plosives become -q
- voiced plosives lengthen the preceding vowel
- fricatives become -h
- liquids still colour the final vowel, but leave no other direct trace
- nasals become -n
- in summary: -P, -V, -F, -L, -N -> -q, -:, -h, -ø, -n
- tap(ʀa) -> tåq(ʀa)
- ǝbbǝk(was) -> ǝ̊ǝ̊bǝ̂q(wäh)
- Vowel colouring results in a new vowel system:
- å ä â a -> o, e, a, æ (where a and æ are often merged)
- ǝ̊ ǝ̈ ǝ̂ ǝ -> u, i, ů, ǝ (where u and ů are often merged, and i and ǝ are also often merged)
- tåq(ʀa) -> toq(ʀa)
- ǝ̊ǝ̊bǝ̂q(wäh) -> uubůq(weh)
- Voiceless consonants preceded by -q become geminated
- In some dialects, long vowels before voiced consonants become -VN
- in other dialects, vowels followed by -q and a voiced consonant become long
- In some dialects, liquids preceded by both -q & -h become voiceless
- In other dialects, liquids and fricatives preceded by -q become plosives
- In some dialects, -qN- yields a geminate plosive, in others it just results in a prestopped consonant.
- Across most dialects, voiced ʀ becomes /l~r/
- toq-yaq -> toqẙak (toççaq, toccaq)
- toq-fan -> toqfan (toffan, toppan)
- toq(ʀa) -> toq, toqʀ̊a
- uubůq(weh) -> unbůq, unbůqẘa
- In some dialects, the following vowel mergers occur:
- u, ů
- i, ǝ
- a, æ
- In most dialects, ç -> sh, c -> ch
- In some dialects, hi, ʀ̊i and hu, ʀ̊u yield çi and fu, and these varying merge with other fricatives in behaviour here.
- -h is merged with -q in some dialects, and lengthens vowels in others
- In some dialects, -q disappears when it has nothing to interact with. Its assimilatory effects are still productive in those dialects.
- This sometimes leads to an accent system forming, with -Vq vowels becoming -v̀.
- This accent system then expands such that all closed syllables become low accents, and all open syllables become high accents.
- In some dialects, -qʀ- becomes -kk- ~ -qq-.
|P.Indo-European||Proto-Tossaq||Late-Middle Tossaq||Modern Tossaq||English|
|*déḱos, -es-||dyakyăsă||deq, deteh||dè, détèè||right, proper, honourable; honours|
|*nébhos, -es-||nyab̈yăsă||nee, nedeh||néé, nédèè||cloud; clouds|