|lees ndoigh Komh|
Ko (English: /koʊ/, natively lees ndoigh Komh /li noi kɔ/ (TBA: tone)) is a language spoken in Bjeheond; as a Hlou-Shum language, it's related to Hlou. It is a monosyllabic tonal language inspired by Hmong, Irish, Manx, and English. Like Irish, Ko has initial consonant mutations.
Motivation: "Sinospheric Irish" or "Hmoob read by an Irish speaker"
- Explain: lexical mutation in Hlou, grammatical mutation in Ko
- Hlou lexical mutation could have arisen from a grammatical mutation system where the particles fell away
- dor = to be born ~ Hlou Ndol 'person'
- TODO: kl gl sk > q
- bach = small, meer = big
- hleubh = to love (hlub means "to love" in Hmong)
- kein = archaic negative word
- ein = emphasis/'rather'
- koobh = good
- cu = copper
Ko has fewer initials than Hlou, due to initial mutations.
C + V + tone
m n ņ l nl r y w = /m n ɲ l (dark l) r j w/
hm hn hņ hl hr hy hw = /ʰm ʰn ʰɲ ʰl ʰr ç (voiceless w)/
p t tç ts tx c k q b d j g = /h t ts (Basque ts) tʃ c k q b d ɟ g/
pl bl tl dl = /hl bl tl dl/
ph th tçh tsh txh ch kh qh bh dh jh gh = /f θ s (Basque s) ʃ ç x χ v ð j ɣ/
phl bhl thl dhl /fl vl ɬ ɮ/
np nt ntç nts ntx nc nk nq nb nd nj ng = /b d dz (voiced Basque ts) dʒ ɟ g ɢ m n ɲ ŋ/
npl nbl ntl ndl /bl ml dl nl/
f ç s x = /f s (Basque s) ʃ/
nf nç ns nx, also fh çh sh xh = /v z (voiced Basque s) ʒ/
a i ao u e o ee oo ai ei oi au eu ia ua = /a ɪ ɨ ʊ ɛ ɔ i u ai ei oi au eu iə uə/
- -Ø: mid level
- -ch: glottal stop final
- -s: low falling
- -r: low rising
- -gh: low breathy
- -mh: creaky
- -bh: mid rising
- -dh: high falling
- -n: high level
Ko is SVO and head-initial. Mutations often operate on a syntactic basis.
plural word: yoo-L (placed after classifier but before noun)
- xan = I
- çeedh = you
Classifiers were historically a very open class. They always eclipse the following noun.
lu, tzagh, hņoobh, lees, çua, yaus, ...
- lu = humans, gods
- faon = a man; lu nfaon = the man (classifier lu)
- tçagh = animals, demons
- plaidh = a dog; tçagh nplaidh = the dog (classifier tçagh)
- tçagh Nja Ber Woch = a demon in Ko mythology
- hņoobh = tall objects such as trees, buildings
- qo = a tree; hņoobh nqo the tree
- çua: infinitive
- dor = is born; çua ndor = to be born (inf.)
- lobh: food, edible plants
- zail: inedible plants
- lees = nominalization, way of X-ing
- doigh = 'to speak'; lees ndoigh 'language'
- In archaic language: fancy apparently ad-hoc classifiers for different animals and fruits (cf. English murder of crows except "murder" is a classifier)
ba = subjunctive marker
Ba fhaomh-saigh le çeedh = If you like it
Tower of Babel
- Pugh çedh yaus nqar ņiamh tso txuabh çhaor aon lees ndoigh kiabh aon lees ntlair.
- CONJ in CLF world whole PST give only one CLF language and one CLF speak
- And in the whole world there was one language and one way of speaking.
- Roomh lu yoo las jhugh dle [hyoch mhar], [ka nfemh] re txuabh tçhaoch ibh yaus [njo qiagh] Xi-Na, pugh re txuabh cheich hmoi nblaun.
- when CLF PL person travel eastward then
- As the people moved eastward...