Chlouvānem/Swadesh list

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No. English Chlouvānem
1 I lili
2 you (singular) sāmi (informal)
nami (formal superior)
tami (formal equal)
ravi (formal inferior)[1]
3 he no 3rd person pronouns for animate beings. (A combination of) titles, given names, and honorifics are used instead.
4 we mųmā
5 you (plural) nami (informal, sometimes also formal for undefined groups)
yavyāta (formal, undefined groups)
yakaliyātam (formal, defined groups)
6 they (for inanimate beings only:) ānane (proximal), ānanu (medial), ānnā (distal)
7 this nenē (sg.), eṣāne (dual), ānane (pl.)
8 that medial: nunū, eṣanū, ānanu
distal: nanā, eṣanā, ānnā
9 here ejulā
10 there āñjulā (medial: uñjulā)
11 who yavita?
12 what yananū?
13 where yajulā?
14 when yamiya?
15 how yalīce?
16 not gu(n) … ša[2]
17 all yaiva
18 many taili
19 some sora
20 few ṣūbha
21 other viṣam
22 one emibe, emi
23 two dani
24 three pāmvi
25 four nęlte
26 five šulka
27 big sūrṣake (sūrṣ-, 1)
28 long mųrmake (mųrm-, 1)
29 wide švadhake (švadh-, 1)
30 thick ḍirake (2: ḍerire - ḍirirek - iḍirirā)
31 heavy ūṭṇake (ūṭṇ-, 1)
32 small ñikake (2: ñekire - ñikirek - iñikirā)
33 short chītake (2: chētire - chītirek - ichītirā)
34 narrow šumbrake (2: šimbrire - šumbrirek - ušumbrirā)
35 thin ṭaɂake (ṭaɂ-, 1)
36 woman hulin
37 man (adult male) dralkam
38 man (human being) lila
39 child samin
40 wife laleichim, honorific: ħaitlañši
41 husband rūdakis, honorific: šulañšoe
42 mother meinā, honorific: nāḍima
43 father bunā, honorific: tāmvāram
44 animal švas
45 fish daltah
46 bird gūṇa
47 dog thudam
48 louse ṭaḍhūh
49 snake māruḍa
50 worm tūlum
51 tree jñūm
52 forest nanai
53 stick daṇḍa
54 fruit hælveh
55 seed dūdha
56 leaf nūlya
57 root lǣca
58 bark (of a tree) ṇīṭah
59 flower junyā
60 grass humai
61 rope pąnna
62 skin ṇīṭah
63 meat mædhram
64 blood ūvṛṣam
65 bone ḍulṭhīh
66 fat (noun) ḍåtvam
67 egg pomai
68 horn ṭaiɂa
69 tail laiṭa
70 feather ṭuvilam
71 hair pārās (pl)
72 head lāṇṭam
73 ear minnūlya; literary: mindṛṣūs
74 eye mešīn; literary: mešīlgis, nāhim
75 nose nālkum
76 mouth dehām
77 tooth aṣṭras
78 tongue (organ) jeltā
79 fingernail kaipē; literary: damītah, parṣūs
80 foot junai
81 leg pājya; literary: peithṛṣūs
82 knee dækṣuh
83 hand dhāna
84 wing bhugrā
85 belly pilēnas
86 guts kāraṇḍhai (pl)
87 neck avṛcah
88 back joraṇa
89 breast maula
90 heart taugikā; togīn
91 liver ṭarkas
92 to drink mulke (2: molē - mulek - umula)
93 to eat yųlake (2: yąlē - yųlek - uyųla)
94 to bite švinake (2: švenē - švinek - išvina)
95 to suck mukke (2: mokkē - mukkek - umukka)
96 to spit ette (et-, 1)
97 to vomit gåtnake (gåtn-, 1)
98 to blow heimake (6: heimē - hamek - ahima)
99 to breathe dīvake (12abl: dēvah - dīvek - idīva)
100 to laugh huppake (2: hoppē - huppek - uhuppa)
101 to see mišake (2: mešē - mišek - imiša)
102 to hear milge (√mind-, 11a: mendah - mindek - iminda)
103 to know tṛlake (2: tarlirē - tṛlirek - atṛlirā)
104 to think nilyake (11abl: nelyęre - nilyirek - inilyirā)
105 to smell ṣurgake (2: ṣirgē - ṣurgek - uṣurga)
106 to fear tvorgake (tvorg-, 1, interior only)
107 to sleep pudbhe (2: podbhē - pudbhek - upudbha)
108 to live lilke (11: lilah - lilek - ilila)
109 to die ḍūkke (11: ḍūkęre - ḍūkirek - uḍūkirā)
110 to kill kaudṛke (irr: kaudarē - kaudṛk - kaudadrā) or causative forms of ḍūkke
111 to fight huṃħake (2: hiṃħē - huṃħek - uhuṃħa)
112 to hunt pudhake (2: podhē - pudhek - upudha)
113 to hit tulge (2: togē - tugek - utuga)
114 to cut guṃsake (2: goṃsē - guṃsek - uguṃsa)
115 to split mirɂake (2: merɂē - mirɂek - imirɂa)
116 to stab ikhlake (2: ekhlē - ikhlek - īkhla)
117 to scratch prubake (3: praubē - prubek - upruba)
118 to dig lauṣpe (lauṣp-, 1, redupl. ħ)
119 to swim MONO: lįke (2irr[3]: lehē - lihek - iliha); MULTI: lærṣake (lærṣ-, 1)
120 to fly MONO: mugdhe (2: modhē - mudhek - umudha); MULTI: mordhake (mordh-, 1)
121 to walk MONO: lulke (irr, redupl. ħ: liven[4] - dāmek - elīsa); MULTI: peithake (peith-, 1[5])
122 to come ū(b)- "to X closer" prefix before any motion verb (e.g. ūlulke, ūpeithake, ūlįke, ūlærṣake…)
ta- "to arrive" prefix before any motion verb (e.g. talulke, tapeithake, talįke, talærṣake)
123 to lie (as in a bed) tokte (ta-√ut-, 2: tautē, totek, toɂuta)
root -ut- plus any positional prefix.
124 to sit tamirte (ta-√mirt-, 2: tamertē, tamirtek, temirta)
root -mirt- plus any positional prefix.
125 to stand tatyāke (ta-√tyā-, 2 irr: tatimē, tatyāk, taɂatyā)
root -tyā- plus any positional prefix.
126 to turn (intransitive) næljake (8: næljē, noljek, enilja); exterior forms are transitive, interior ones intransitive.
127 to fall sturake (irr: starē, stārau (3SG: stāṭ), ustura)
128 to give męlike (męly-, 1)
129 to hold nædhake (11: nædhē, nyaudhek, unudha)
130 to squeeze curake (2: corē, curek, ucura)
131 to rub lišvake (2: lešvē, lišvek, ilišva)
132 to wash mutake (2: mitē, mutek, umuta)
133 to wipe bislišvake (2: bislešvē, bislišvek, bisilišva)
134 to pull MONO: khulike (2: kholyē, khulik, ukhulya); MULTI: kharlyake (kharly-, 1)
135 to push norake (9: norē, neirek, anāra)
136 to throw kunake (2: konē, kunek, ukuna)
137 to tie chladyake (chlady-, 1)
138 to sew kællake (10: kællē, kyallek, ekīlla)
139 to count smoḍake (smoḍ-, 1)
140 to say kulke (2: kilē - kulek - ukula)
141 to sing lijake (2: lejē - lijek - ilija)
142 to play ħulde (2: ħildē - ħuldek - uħulda)[6]
143 to float in the air: MONO: yåjyake (5: yåjyē - ejyek - ayåjya); MULTI: ējrake (ējr-, 1);
on water: MONO: uṭake (2: oṭē - uṭek - uɂuṭa); MULTI: arṭake (arṭ-, 1)
144 to flow buñjñake (2: boñjñē - buñjñek - ubuñjña)
145 to freeze tæḍoljalle (irr: tæḍolvi - tæḍolē - tæḍolri)
146 to swell åbdvake (åbdv-, 1)
147 sun hånna
148 moon hulyā (the greater of the two Calémerian moons, cf. Cerian Ašeira)
tuva (the lesser of the two moons, cf. Cerian Dógato)
149 star ñaiṭa
150 water maila
151 rain daša
152 river maita
153 lake gūltis
154 sea jaryā
155 salt nanūkah
156 stone tāmira
157 sand chlebam
158 dust paɂeh
159 earth babhrām
160 cloud vælvah
161 fog yāmyah
162 sky lairē
163 wind prātas
164 snow kaiṭas
165 ice ḍolam
166 smoke raikas
167 fire javyāh (good); kūrokas (bad)
168 ash narmis (singular only)
169 to burn jervyaike </small>(jervyai-, 1)</small>
170 road ūnima
līlta (especially unpaved)
171 mountain ñaryāh
172 red ūnika (noun), ūnikake (ūnik-, 1) (verb)
173 green rādhās (noun); rādhake (rādh-, 1) (verb)
174 yellow pale yellow: yulta (noun); yultake (yult-, 1) (verb)
golden yellow: chlirāma (noun); chlirāke (chlirā-, 1) (verb)
175 white pāṇḍa (noun); pāṇḍake (pāṇḍ-, 1) (verb)
176 black murka (noun); murkake (murk-, 1) (verb)
177 night lalyā
178 day pārṇam
179 year heirah
180 warm ambient warmth: nīlāh (n); nīlake (3: nailire - nīlirek - inīlirā);
contact warmth: ūṣṇyah (n); ūṣṇike (2: oṣṇyire - ūṣṇyirek - uɂūṣṇyirā)
181 cold ambient cold: jålkhah (n); jålkhe (jålkh-, 1);
contact cold: švyāntas (n); švyānte (švyānt-, 1)
182 full smurake (2: smorire - smurirek - usmurirā, interior only)
183 new lališake (lališ-, 1, interior only)
184 old gęṇṭake (gęṇṭ-, 1) (animate, i.e. old = not young);
brūmake (brūm-, 1) (inanimate, i.e. old = not new);
sārvake (sāru-, 1) (ancient, things from very old times)
185 good hulābdān
186 bad garpake (garp-, 1)
187 rotten volgrake (volgr-, 1)
188 dirty sījhake (2: sējhire - sījhirek - isījhirā)
189 straight svātrake (svātr-, 1)
190 round ñęrcake (ñęrc-, 1)
191 sharp (as a knife) lūjlausake (lūjl·aus-, 1)
192 dull (as a knife) kuṇḍhake (2: koṇḍhire - kuṇḍhirek - ukuṇḍhirā)
193 smooth ninnake (2: nennire - ninnirek - ininnirā)
194 wet tarike (tary-, 1)
195 dry būṃṣake (būṃṣ-, 1)
196 correct svātārṣake (svātārṣ-, 1)
197 near ū(b)- (verbal prefix)
198 far bis- (verbal prefix)
199 right māha- (verbal prefix)
200 left vyā- (verbal prefix)
201 at ta-, ū(b)- (verbal prefixes)
202 in plain locative case; na(ñ)-, gin- (verbal prefixes)
203 with (+ essive) (comitative); instrumental case (instrumental)
204 and no (complete list; also between related sentences), las (incomplete list) sama (between sentences only)
205 if
206 because ; menni; consequential secondary moods
207 name haloe

Notes

  1. ^ Given names with the appropriate titles are often used instead of these pronouns.
  2. ^ -n before vowels. The ša part of the circumfix is omitted if the verb is used attributively or if the interrogative particle dam is present.
  3. ^ Behaves as lis- before consonants.
  4. ^ Irregular present tense: lå, lin, liven then regular class 2 forms.
  5. ^ Contracted past 3SG: pat.
  6. ^ "To play" for musical instruments is translated differently depending on the instrument: tulge for percussions, ghūmake for aerophones, prṣake for stringed instruments not played with a bow and keyboards, and lišvake for stringed instruments played with a bow. "To play a melody" is sumorake.