Calémere ([kaˈreːmere] in Cerian, [kaˈleːmere] in Íscégon; Kalêmer [kaˈlemɛr] in Nordulaki; Kalìmeri [kaˈlimeri] in modern Nivarese; Liloejāṃrya [ɴ̆iɴ̆ɔə̯ɟ͡ʑãːʀja] in Chlouvānem, Rjalniszetes [c͡çæ͡ɑɮnisɛtɛʃ] in Skyrdagor, C'yuweƛiłp'eɂ [ts'juwetɬ'iɬˈp'ɛʔ] in Spocian) is an earthlike planet orbiting the star known with names such as Rénon (Cerian) or Hånna (Chlouvānem). The demonym used in all related articles is Calémerian (natively Calémeron in Cerian, Liloejāṃrei in Chlouvānem).
- 1 Star system
- 2 Planetary data
- 3 Continents
- 4 Humans and other sentient species
- 5 Calendar
- 6 Time
- 7 World politics
- 8 External History
- 9 References
Calémere is the fourth planet orbiting the star known as Rénon, Hånna, or other names, to its people. That star system (šen cátenáren Rénóné in Cerian, hånnų elāṭummaišpūs in Chlouvānem) is composed of seven planets (Cer.: aléquanta, Chl.: elāṭumai), the first four terrestrial and the other three gas giants:
Ózedeni is the largest planet in the system, while Fégaránon is the smallest.
Tropics: 24° 14′ 38.4″ (24.244°)
Polar circles: 65° 45′ 21.6″ (65.756°)
- Human population: close to 10 billion
- (Márusúturon: 29% (the Inquisition: ~19%), Védren: 26%, Púríton: 14%, Fárásen: 12%, Evandor: 11%, Ceránento: ~5%, Ovítioná: ~3%, Queáten: >0.1%)
- Orcish population: ~30 million
- (Gurdugal: 70%, Púríton: 16%, Fárásen: ~8%, Ovítioná: ~5%, rest of Márusúturon/Evandor: ~1% Ceránento: >0.1%, none natively in Védren and Queáten)
- Lizardmen population: 4~5 million
- (Ovítioná: 55%, Queáten: 32%, Márusúturon: 7%, mid-oceanic islands: 4%, Púríton: 2%, Fárásen: >0.01%, Ceránento: >0.01%, none natively in Védren and Evandor)
- Harpy population: less than 2 million
- (Védren: 88%, mid-oceanic islands: 7%, Fárásen: 3%, Ceránento: 2%, occasionally reaching Púríton, but no stable colonies. None natively in Márusúturon, Evandor, Queáten, and Ovítioná)
- Dragon population: probably ~20.000
- kaṃšaus only in Márusúturon;
- common dragons: Púríton: 60%, Márusúturon: 30%, Evandor: 10%, none natively elsewhere;
- dry dragons: Fárásen: 55%, Védren: 45%, none natively elsewhere
- Forboxor: about 200.000, only in Ceránento.
Calémere has two satellites: the greater of the two moons is known amongst other names as Ašeira (Cer.) / Axéras (Ísc.) / Hulyā (Chl.) / Eszjel (Sky.), while the lesser is known as Dógato (Cer.) / Dalgato (Ísc.) / Tuva (Chl.) / Othjol (Sky.).
Calémere has, depending on definition, five to seven continental masses, which do not coincide with the culturally defined continents (from a Western Calemerian (Evandorian) prospective; other languages as e.g. Chlouvānem do not express the concept of "continent", even though they have adopted names for the same lands as the Evandorians.). Most Calemerians, thus, recognize seven or nine different continents:
- Evandor (Cer. Evandó [ɛvanˈdoː]) is the cradle continent of Western Calemerian civilizations. From a geographical point of view, it is only a part of a greater landmass together with Márusúturon [maːruˈsuːturon] and Védren (Cer. Véduren [ˈveːduren]; Chl. Rālmānas). While Védren has a single pretty large connection with the other parts and the border is only undecided in where in this large area should be put (the isthmus of Tabal is considered the geographical border, but many countries to the east of it, while geographically in Márusúturon, are often grouped with Védren for cultural, historical, political, and economical reasons), for Evandor and Márusúturon there is no real divide, as even Evandorian countries have their own definition. A large part lying between the two major mediterranean seas of the Evandor-Márusúturon-Védren landmass is considered completely as part of Evandor by a few Evandorian nations such as Nivaren, Kalo, or Gathuráni, while for others, such as Ceria or Nordulik, the geographical border of the Síluren Mountains, which splits the area roughly in half, is the eastern limit of Evandor; with this definition, Evandor is the second-smallest of the seven continents.
The Chlouvānem Inquisition, which occupies (according to the broader definition of Evandor) most of Márusúturon, recognizes Evandor and Márusúturon as a single continent called Mārṣūtram (an adaptation of the Cerian name); the part that Evandorians call "Márusúturon", however, is in Chlouvānem usage divided in many smaller areas (i.e. the Southern Rainforests; the Skyrdegan area; the Toyubeshian area...) all considered areas of primary importance just as other "continents" (the internationally defined ones) are.
- Púríton [puːˈriːton] (Chl. Dhorāluka) and lies in the western hemisphere, mostly in the northern hemisphere but stretching up to about 18ºS; it and Márusúturon are the only continents which have all major biomes and climates (though Púríton has only marginal areas of tundra and, unlike Márusúturon, has no polar ice cap).
- Ceránento [kɛˈraːnento] (Chl.: Vṛtāyas) is a continent in the western hemisphere, the smallest of the seven commonly accepted continents, completely in the southern hemisphere and mostly temperate.
- Fárásen [faːˈraːsen] (Chl.: Kūdrivas) is almost a twin continent of Ceránento, about 20º east of it and some 10 degrees of latitude south of southwestern Védren. It stretches more to the south and is larger than Ceránento (and the Cerian definition of Evandor), and it is also the southernmost continental landmass, reaching about 74ºS.
- Ovítioná [oviːtjoˈnaː] (Chl.: Pašīrgamis), completely in the southern hemisphere, is the third-largest continent (Márusúturon and Védren are larger in any definition), with a distinctive elongated shape extending mostly longitudinally. Its climate is roughly divided by a mountain chain running all its width in a temperate north side and a more subpolar taiga on the south side. Some islands south of its main continental landmass are the southernmost continent-bound islands on Calémere, nearing 78ºS.
There are, furthermore, two "special" continents:
- Queáten [kweˈaːten] (Chl.: naleiyutei lanāye "Eastern Islands") lies mostly in the northern hemisphere, between Púríton and Márusúturon, but it is not a single continental landmass, being a large island with lots of smaller ones around it.
- Gurdugal (Cer. Gúrodogáro [guːrodoˈgaːro]; Chl. Gudarghāla) lies mostly on the same continental plate as Evandor/Márusúturon, from which it is divided by skerry-filled straits, but it is usually considered a different continent first of all for its sheer size - even if more than half of it is tundra or, most commonly, ice cap - and also because it is the only "continent" which is not mainly populated by humans (apart from really small settlements on some coasts) but by orcs. Its northern coast is also the northernmost land on the planet, reaching over 84ºN.
Brief continental outlines
Evandor is the continent where Western Calemerian civilization developed; its eastern border with Márusúturon does not have a commonly accepted definition, but the historically Evandorian cultural space is the area west of the Síluren mountains - Evandor's definition according to countries such as Ceria, Nordulik, and Holenagika. Its population is mostly concentrated in the northern temperate zone, where most of the continent lies (the whole of Gathurani and Hyxyn, as well as most of Holenagika are north enough to be considered subpolar and not temperate - though especially Gathurani and Hyxyn are considerably warmer than other subpolar areas at the same latitudes. Evandor is divided in about 50 countries, the majority being fairly small (two of them, Helinetian-speaking Vuntálica and Cerian-speaking Noméde Ínéma, are small enough to be considered city states), with the notable exceptions of Ceria, Nordulik (two of the superpowers of the Western bloc), Kalo, and the two countries of Gathurani and Holenagika, which, however, are mostly uninhabited tundra, taiga, or high mountains. Holenagika is also by far Calémere's largest island.
As a consequence of the colonization era, Evandorian cultures spread throughout the planet and political and economical structures in most of Calémere have been developed following Evandorian models. Cerian, and in some contexts also Nordûlaki (their roles have reversed in the last 150 years), are the two main working languages in most of Calémere.
Márusúturon and Gurdugal
Márusúturon is the common name for the part of the largest Calemerian continental landmass which is not defined as either Evandor or Védren. It is, according to climate and biomes, the most varied continent, containing every single major biome type. At the present day, Evandorian anthropologists define it as being mostly divided in four large cultural spaces: the Chlouvānem one - whose Inquisition covers a third or even half of the continent depending on definition, Greater Skyrdagor, the cultural Nâdja-lands (in the part of Márusúturon that is considered to be part of Evandor by countries such as Nivaren or Kalo), and the Dabuke cultural area straddling the geographical border with Védren. The steppe countries (AKA the Kenengyry steppe and nearby areas, e.g. the high mountains of Kŭyŭgwažtov) between the two inland seas are sometimes considered to be a distinct area, which, however, has historically had major influences first by the Nâdja, then by the Skyrdegans, and finally by the Chlouvānem; this classification also excludes New Égélonía in the far northeastern taiga, a former Cerian colony which is the only country in Márusúturon where the majority of the population is of Evandorian descent.
The area between the Skyrdegan Sea and Evandor (the Síluren mountains) is known locally as Wírdaryȁngdé ("the vast expanse") in Nâdja, and, in the form Vīṭadælteh, this toponym is in use also among the Chlouvānem (who, however, extend it as far south as the actual isthmus, which is Chlouvānem territory). Skyrdegan people call it Mog Yszegnuk (the Western Place), in ancient sources only applied to the coast but later extended all the way to Evandor (which, around a century ago, was also considered a part of Mog Yszegnuk). The eastern part of this area, mostly steppes, includes the area known as Zahyshyla (mostly in present-day southern Soenyŏ-tave, marginally in far northern Yalasmořea), the inland delta of the Silküd and Tülajzane rivers, which was the first cradle of civilization on Calémere, where agriculture was first developed.
In terms of geography and climate, is an 'extreme' continent, as shown e.g. by its extent including many different areas, from the rainforest of the southern Inquisition (the largest on Calémere) and some areas in the Inquisitorial Near East which are Calémere's rainiest to the deserts in the southwest (by the southern shore of the Carpan Sea), which are the driest areas of the planet.
Márusúturon is the continent that has been impacted the least by Evandorian colonization, with only a few areas that have been actual colonies (many, however, have been protectorates, in the late modern era).
Gurdugal, on the other hand, is still today relatively untouched by humans; its main civilization is orcish. Human settlements are only found on the coasts closest to Evandor or Márusúturon.
Védren is a large continent, south of Evandor and west of Márusúturon, by which it is divided by the (mostly mountainous) isthmus of Tabal. It is mostly situated between the two tropics, and includes large tracts of deserts (in the northeast - the Atoráro (Spc.: Aƛał, the largest Calemerian desert), rainforests (in the southeast), and savannah. Its largest and most important country today is Spocius in the north, which has historically been the largest Védrenian civilization; the Spocianosphere is a commonly recognized cultural area that includes most of northern Védren.
Modern Védren has had more Evandorian influence than Márusúturon, but not to the extent that for example Africa has suffered European colonization. Actual Evandorian control of Védrenian lands has been more limited to coastal lands and not in the whole continent, and Evandorian innovations like in most of the rest of Calémere have been later adopted by local rulers. This has contributed to form the current Védrenian political map, which is divided into more than a hundred countries, most of which quite small and - in many cases - densely populated.
Púríton lies west of Védren and Evandor, but geographically isolated enough from them and latitudinally-extended enough to have prevented the development of civilizations as advanced as the Evandorian/Védrenian/Márusúturonian ones. The historical significance of this is that Púríton was the first continent to be colonized by Evandorian countries, especially in its temperate areas. It extends from roughly 18ºS and barely touches the northern polar circle at its northern end.
Púríton's countries are culturally mostly Evandorian, even though there are some countries which are more creolized between native Púrítonians and (descendents of) Evandorian colonizers. Unlike the example of North America on Earth, modern day Púríton does not have a single superpower the way the US are - instead we find a few important countries such as the Cerian-speaking Résunten Federation or Nérentíno, the Auralian-speaking Republic of Zeure, and Nordûlaki-speaking Lleħar, none of them more influential culturally or politically than the others, or than their ancestral motherlands across the ocean.
Queáten may be described as a (smaller) Calemerian sister to Oceania, though its ancestral inhabitants mostly came from Púríton to the east, with much more limited settlement from Márusúturon to the west. Ecáréton, Calémere's second-largest island, is Queáten's largest landmass and where most of its population and countries lie. Located on the far side of Púríton from an Evandorian prospective, it was colonized more recently and despite the still important Evandorian influence, unlike most of Púríton its cultures are still more markedly native, as well as native Queátenian languages being more dominant in domestic contexts than Cerian or Nordûlaki.
Ceránento is the smallest Calémerian continent and, despite the later colonization, its history and current status is not that different from Púríton. The temperate northern area of the continent, divided into various countries of different languages (but mostly Evandorian ones) is today a growing economic center and this area may overtake Evandor in cultural and economic importance in the coming hundred years. The city of Uny Gurmoit [uɲ gurˈmɔtʃ], capital of the former Nordulik colony of Þerxá, is the largest city of the Western bloc and the fifth-largest worldwide.
The remaining two thirds of Ceránento still see more influences of native cultures and more creolized societies, with native cultures and environments having seen less exploitment the farther south one goes. The "Lower North" and the center see more grasslands and (in the east) steppes; south of the 45th parallel, southern Ceránento is mostly covered by taiga, with tundra in the far southeast.
Fárásen, Ceránento's eastern almost-twin, has had a quite different history, with stronger native civilizations and delayed colonization. It is currently the Calémerian continent with the poorest economy as many parts of it - with the most striking exception being the chain of the Ísenuóte islands in the northeast - have largely preindustrial economies.
Despite the use of Cerian, Nordûlaki, and to lesser extents Auralian and Besagren as international languages, Fárásenian rural societies are still largely devoid of major Evandorian influences. Fárásenian countries are somewhat larger than the average Védrenian or Evandorian ones, but have more arbitrary borders, relics of colonization times, despite them being societies with different characteristics than Ceránento or Púríton that also have this kind of borders.
As for climate zones, Fárásen is similar to Ceránento: a temperate north, grasslands in the central band and taiga and then tundra to the south. Except for the northern part, Fárásenian geography is characterized by a series of endorheic plateaus that are mostly cold deserts.
Ovítioná, at least on the northern side of the continent, historically had some civilizations developed to a much greater level than on Ceránento, Fárásen, and Púríton, but still less than on Evandor or Márusúturon because of the greater fragmentation of the land. Climates of biomes of the continent are fairly equally divided by the mountains that divide it into a northern, temperate side, and a southern, subpolar one. It is the least populous major continent of Calémere.
Modern day Ovítioná is not unlike Ceránento or Púríton, with many fairly developed countries with a strong colonial past; however, there is a much larger influence of local customs and languages. Auralian is the main lingua franca in the eastern part of the continent and in many subpolar whaling communities; the western side has had more varied colonizers. Parts of modern-day Ésínenda and various other communities in the area were in colonies of various Chlouvānem countries, the only actual ones outside of Márusúturon (excluding the minor settlements in Holenagika as well as the current Inquisition-held stations, which were all mostly on uninhabited land, often remote non-continental islands).
Among native languages, the most spoken ones are Spimbrionic languages, native to the western part of the continent. The two most notable ones are Hālʾọgbi and Boitembẹn.
Major oceans and seas
The major oceans and seas of Calémere are:
- Nadrenic Ocean (Cer.: sotéa Nadoréneo; Nor. xotá Nadrênt; Spc.: č'łup' e t'weyƛ "Northern Sea"; Chl.: våšidælti mairān "Spocian Ocean"; Western name from Nadren, the Goddess of the Seas in Nivarese mythology), lying between Védren to the south, Púríton to the west, and Evandor/Márusúturon to the east. Its northern limit is usually defined as a straight line between the northernmost point of Evandor (on Holenagika) at 71ºN and the northernmost point of Púríton at 67ºN; its southernmost limit between Védren and Púriton is considered to be between Cape Sóroten on Púríton (5ºN) and the westernmost point of Cáren Island off Védren (8ºN).
- Evandorian (Inner) Sea (Cer.: čésion Évandorion; Nor. kix Êvandurin; Chl.: hålinaici jaryā "Sea of Holenagika"), the inner sea of Evandor, officially a part of the Nadrenic Ocean, delimited by the main landmass to the south (whose shores are mainly divided between Ceria and Nordúlik) and Holenagika to the north. Its western end, the Holenagic Strait, connects to the main Nadrenic Ocean, while the northern end, the Gathura Straits (whose narrowest part is just north of the Polar Circle), connects to the Northern Polar Ocean.
- Carpan Sea, Najian Sea, or Eastern Sea (Cer.: čésion Cáropo; Nor. kix Naig; Chl.: vīṭadælti jaryā "Sea of Wírdaryȁngdé"), the inner sea which is the easternmost part of the Nadrenic Ocean, enclosed insider Márusúturon and Védren except for a small passage at its western end - the Ránon Strait - at the westernmost point of Márusúturon.
- Védrenian Ocean (Cer.: sotéa Védurenon; Nor. xotá Vêdrenin; Chl.: šortumi mairān "Ocean of Harpies"), the ocean lying between Védren (NE), Fárásen (SE), Ceránento (SW), and Púríton (NW). The northern limit is the southern limite of the Nadrenic Ocean; the western limit is a line from Cape Ħaig, the northwesternmost tip of Ceránento, to Bérin Point, the southernmost point of Púríton; while the eastern limit is a line from Cape Tunar, the southernmost point of Védren, to Cape Áburon, the northernmost point of Fárásen. There is no internationally agreed limit to the south between Ceránento and Fárásen, nor internationally agreed definitions for that area of the world ocean.
- Rondian Ocean (Cer.: sotéa Róndenon; Nor. xotá Rûdanys (from Róndan, an area in northwestern Védren); Chl.: (partially) maichleyuñci camimairān "Great Southern Ocean"; (partially) naleiyuñci kūdrivi mairān "East Fárásenian Ocean"), the large ocean between Védren, western Márusúturon, Ovítioná, and reaching to the northeastern shores of Fárásen. Its eastern limit is not clearly defined, as it is a line from Cape Dhūrandēvi - the southernmost point of Márusúturon and of the core area of the Chlouvānem Inquisition - to one of five different points on the central part of the northern coast of Ovítioná depending on the source. Chlouvānem sources have a completely different definition as they consider the waters from Fárásen to a line from the southernmost point of the Keros Peninsula in Védren - also the southernmost point of the Védrenian mainland - to the westernmost point of Ovítioná (a line very close, in its southern part, to the Cerian Prime Meridian) to be a different ocean, the East Fárásenian Ocean (naleiyuñci kūdrivi mairān), and the core Rondian Ocean is not distinguished from the Antipodal Ocean to the east, forming a larger ocean called the Great Southern Ocean (maichleyuñci camimairān), as it lies south of most of the Chlouvānem Inquisition.
- Térasen Sea (Cer.: čésion Térasen; Nor. kix Terasen; Central Dabuke koiné: Terasi tambazi; Chl.: dabūki camivṝṭheya "Great Dabuke Bay"), the northernmost inlet of the Rondian Ocean, reaching the shores of the isthmus of Tabal, usually considered the border between Védren and Márusúturon.
- Antipodal Ocean (Cer.: sotéa táserótodon; Nor. xotá taseroitiħ; Chl.: (partially) maichleyuñci camimairān "Great Southern Ocean", (partially) lanāyumi mairān "Ocean of Islands), so called because it lies on the opposite side of the planet to Evandor (even if not all Evandorian areas are actually antipodal to it), lying between eastern Márusúturon, Ovítioná, southern Púríton and northwestern Ceránento, including most of Queáten inside its waters; its northeasternmost limit - between Márusúturon and Púríton - is usually considered to be the Equator, which cuts across Ecáréton, the main landmass of Queáten. Chlouvānem sources consider most of it to be part of the Great Southern Ocean, but the eastern third of the Evandorian definition (east of a line starting from the southernmost point of Tanomaliē island at the southeastern end of Márusúturon, cutting through the Nukahucē atoll chain, and reaching the northeasternmost point of Ovítioná) is known as a separate ocean, the Ocean of Islands (lanāyumi mairān), so called because of its large number of high oceanic islands.
- Jahībušanī Sea (Cer.: čésion Jaíbošaní; Nor. kix Gjaħibuxaní; Chl. jahībušanī ga jaryā), a large sea inside the Antipodal Ocean which is surrounded on three sides by territories of the Chlouvānem Inquisition, including some of its most densely populated parts such as the Jade Coast or the eastern part of the Lāmiejāya-Lāmberah-Lirāh plain.
- Doron Ocean (Cer.: sotéa Doron; Nor. xotá Dôron (from a mythological figure of Western Púrítonen natives); Chl. kaitajašu ga mairān (from Kāitazashu, "East Water" in the Toyubeshi language)), lying between Márusúturon, Púríton, and the northern shores of Queáten. Its northern border is internationally agreed as the northern Polar Circle between the continental islands associated to the two continents.
- Northern Polar Ocean (Cer.: sotéa púrodon časúnnon; Nor. xotá pureħ kjosîħ; Chl.: lalla kehamyuñci mairān "High Northern Ocean"), the ocean lying north of all continental landmasses up to the North Pole. Due to the continents' position, the geographical "Polar Ocean" actually extends as far south as 27°N in central Márusúturon.
- Orcish Straits (Cer.: cárotósio orógiodon; Nor. kartoig euriħ; Chl.: etekleṃrān šimbroe), a series of skerry-filled straits lying between northwestern Márusúturon (and far northeastern Evandor) and the "orcish continent" of Gurdugal.
- Skyrdegan Inner Sea (Cer.: čésion terósi Sucirodágoron; Nor. kix prait Xkirdaigiħ; Sky.: skyrdegan szavyk; Chl.: ṣkurdauri jaryā "Sea of Skyrdagor"), a sea inside Márusúturon named after the Skyrdegan islands that are the most prominent geographical feature inside it. It is, practically, a closed sea for about half of the year, as the only possible connection to the other seas is by the Orcish Straits (both of whose ends are above the Polar Circle, and usually freeze during the winter), as circumnavigating either Gurdugal or eastern Márusúturon would mean reaching latitudes of over 84°N, well into the permanent sea ice area.
- Southern Polar Ocean (Cer.: sotéa púrodon quéšonion; Nor. xotá pureħ hexuniħ; Chl.: lalla maichleyuñci mairān "High Southern Ocean"), the ocean lying south of all continental landmasses up to the South Pole; its northern limits are the southern coasts of the three southern hemisphere continents.
Humans and other sentient species
Calemerian societies are not only human, even if they're by far the largest and most advanced civilization: there are some other sentient species that live in certain areas of the planet and often do not really like contact with humans. These include:
- Orcs (Cer.: orógio; Chl.: eteklen), living mostly in subpolar areas - all of Gurdugal and northern Púríton in the northern hemisphere, and a good part of central-southern Fárásen and the southern reaches of Ovítioná in the southern; orcs of the two hemispheres are still of a single species, but there are three radically different races. They're the largest non-human civilization.
- Lizardmen (Cer.: féronébosa; Chl.: mevišlas), living in wetlands and swamps by some coastlines; like orcs, there is a southern hemisphere race, living mostly in eastern Ovítioná, and a northern hemisphere one on the islands between Márusúturon and Quéaten (even if, geographically, some of these are actually south of the Equator).
- Harpies (Cer.: čúero; Chl.: šortas), dwelling on the semiarid islands off the southwestern coast of Védren and on those in the ocean between Védren, Ceránento, and Fárásen. They are the most hostile to humans.
- Dragons (Cer.: cépota; Chl.: kaṃšūs) — there are actually three species of dragons (belonging to two different genera), none of which exactly similar to our prototypical dragons. All of them are sentient, but to different extents.
- The kaṃšaus (plural of kaṃšūs, Chlouvānem for "dragon"; in Cerian véduréoni cépota "Védren dragon" or éronoténosi cépota "Jungle dragon") are the least sentient dragon species, mostly living in equatorial and tropical wet areas — never farther than 20º from the Equator, and never in dry places — in central and eastern Védren (they have been largely driven away from the coast by humans) and in the southern part of Márusúturon, particularly in the unspoiled areas of the southern part of the Inquisition; they are also known to be able to immerse and breathe underwater, so that they may be spotted also flying above the ocean. Kaṃšaus, to Earthly eyes, mostly look like gigantic moths, with six large wings (giving them an almost flower-like appearance when they fly), and a large torso, covered with wool-like hair in older dragons. They have two stings that can be extended with arm-like appendages, but have no actual hands; they are still known to manufacture and use rudimental tools. They're substantially larger than humans, but only slightly taller. They're also harmless except when attacked.
- The common dragons (Cerian: cólifuni cépota; Chl.: ñarikaṃšūs "mountain dragon") are closer to our prototypical dragons, but far smaller; they look like big lizards with wings, but they're roughly as tall as humans and are actually smaller than kaṃšaus. They, however, have arms and hands (but not the extendable arms of kaṃšaus), something which makes them capable of building better tools. Like the kaṃšaus, they are also able to breathe underwater. They inhabit the higher latitudes (above 45ºN) in the northern hemisphere, between Evandor and Púríton; their dens are very common across the hills and mountains in the arctic wilderness (taiga and tundra) of Holenagika and northern Púríton; human civilization has made them much rarer farther south. They are also found in high altitude areas in mountains across Evandor and Márusúturon, as far south and east as the Camipāṇḍa range.
- The dry dragons (Cerian: émérósin cépota or nušučuácu (from the Spocian name); Chl.: chlebakaṃšūs "sand dragon"; Spocian: nułč'waqv') are the biggest dragon species, inhabiting the dry steppes and deserts of northern and central Védren as well as northern-central Fárásen. They are almost like giant worms, about 9 meters long, usually brown or dark gray, and with a scaled body. They have humanlike arms and mostly live in underground caves; while not loving human contact, there are populations around the areas where dry dragons live that have contact with them, and there are as such some humans that can speak the language of dry dragons: they are also highly praised in Spocian folklore and are important characters in many local fairytales.
- The forboxor (from Nordulaki forbox; Cer.: foruboše; Chl.: porbaṣas) are short but fat humanoids with pig-like faces (like Earthly pigs, not Calemerian ones, which look more like tapirs!) and live in the steppes of northern Ceránento, and were known among local populations before modernity as great in the art of iron working and as good traders. forbox is an adaptation of one name given them by local people; early Western explorers called them "desert orcs", a name which is still used for them in Nivarese (ogeróti knetsína, sg. ogeró knetsína)
Largest (top 5) cities proper per continent
- Temiṣneḥrt (Auralia), 7.123.819 ab.
- Mánébodin (Ceria), 5.108.181 ab.
- Haudait (Nordûlik), 3.841.236 ab.
- Guðtınıştı (Kierışpa), 3.517.901 ab.
- Saḥūr (Nivaren), 2.986.815 ab.
- Līlasuṃghāṇa (the Inquisition), 29.698.169 ab.
- Ilēnimarta (the Inquisition), 16.484.913 ab.
- Līṭhalyinām (the Inquisition), 13.148.337 ab.
- Līlta (the Inquisition), 11.792.845 ab.
- Cami (the Inquisition), 11.452.121 ab.
Note that these five cities of the Inquisition are traditionally grouped as cities but are, in fact, a particular kind of division. If they are not considered cities proper, then the largest city on Márusúturon is Vals Karynakylcs (10.039.884 ab.), capital of the Greater Skyrdegan country of Karynaktja.
- Mangarhazy (Nuhengorj), 12.867.315 ab.
- P'ucƛatq'ał (Spocius), 8.393.123 ab.
- Yaƛac' (Spocius), 7.349.919 ab.
- Raessungŏs (Wŏngabaet), 5.122.615 ab.
- Syanggang (Wŏngabaet), 3.827.086 ab.
- Herinṣ (Ẓɣer), 10.284.311 ab.
- Soráloton (Nérentíno), 7.703.982 ab.
- Uny Gurmoit (Þerxá), 12.104.807 ab.
Most spoken human languages (L1+L2)
- Chlouvānem (Chlǣvānumi dældā)
- Cerian (Čérízon)
- Spocian (Spoc'yuƛwa)
- Nordulaki (Nordûlaki)
- Auralian (ahAwralyir)
Of the five most spoken languages, Cerian, Nordulaki, and Auralian are pluricentric with mildly divergent standards in the countries they're official in; Spocian is a koiné language, Dachsprache of a number of widely divergent dialects or even related different languages; Chlouvānem is an ancient language that maintains its role as lingua franca.
Largest language families
All of the largest language families of Calémere are native to the "Old World" (Evandor/Márusúturon plus Védren). The largest language family from the rest of the world is likely the Spimbrionic one, native of western Ovítioná.
- Yombu-Raina languages (incl. the Dabuke sub-family, and most of the languages of eastern Védren) (largest by native speaker count and total number of recognized languages)
- Lahob languages (mainly Chlouvānem and descendants (99.98% of speakers), plus a few scattered languages from the polar regions)
- Evandorian languages (likely largest by number of total speakers)
- Oƛ-Yeshan languages (Spocian and most languages of northern Védren)
- Bárrangyóng languages (Nâdjawārre and related ones)
The "New World" (all other continents) is nowadays often dominated (esp. Púríton and northern Céránento) by speakers of Evandorian languages introduced in the colonial era, but some areas where native languages survive have a very high diversity. Such clusters include southern Púríton, large parts of inland Fárásen, eastern Ovítioná, and inland Écáreton (Queáten's largest island). In the Old World, the areas with the widest language diversity are western and southwestern Védren and the southern rainforests of Márusúturon. In most of the landmass, however, successive migrations and invasions have led to only a few major groups to prevail. Scattered isolates (or members of other families, including e.g. Yombu-Raina languages in central-western Márusúturon or all non-Chlouvānem Lahob languages) still persist in some areas, especially more remote mountains, taiga, or other isolated areas.
Most commonly learned foreign languages
Eastern Bloc, excluding the Chlouvānem Inquisition:
- Skyrdagor ～ Nordulaki
- Spocian ～ Soenyŏk
In the Chlouvānem Inquisition (excl. other Chlouvānem vernaculars):
There are two main calendar systems in use today on Calémere: the Western and the Chlouvānem ones — the Western calendar has spread to most continents due to colonization, while the Chlouvānem calendar is in use in the Chlouvānem Inquisition and some fellow countries of the Eastern Bloc (except for Greater Skyrdagor, which uses the native Skyrdagor Calendar for cultural events and the Western one for business). Both main calendars are based on the 418-day long solar year, but are very different in their treatment of months (none of them link actual months to the moon): the Chlouvānem calendar has 14 months of mostly 30 days (four of them have 29 and two have 31; the last one normally has 30, but 31 in leap years), while the Western one has 29 periods of 14 days and a special one, halfway through the year, of 12 (13 in leap years). Neither calendar has a concept similar to our week — the Western calendar's months are short enough to serve also that purpose, while the Chlouvānem calendar uses a system of 17-day long lunar phases (originally linked to the natural moon cycles, today bureaucratically standardized).
A further difference between them is that in the Western calendar, days begin at midnight; in the Chlouvānem one, they begin at dawn.
The Chlouvānem calendar adds five leap days every per 39-year cycle: in the 7th year and then every eighth (therefore in the 15t, 23rd, 31st, and 39th years). The Western calendar, on the other hand, has a cycle twice that length, adding ten days every 78 years, adding them every six or twelve years (in the 6th, 12th, 24th, 30th, 36th, 42nd, 54th, 60th, 66th, and 72nd years of the cycle).
The Western year's first day is in the middle of the northern hemisphere winter; the Chlouvānem year's is the autumn equinox (the first day of the Western year is the 139th±2 of the Chlouvānem one).
The Western calendar's months (in Cerian) are:
- Tucéden Ramo (its second day is the northern hemisphere spring equinox)
- Tucéden Duro
- Čésion Ramo (its fifth day is the northern summer solstice)
- Čésion Duro
- Dérencórion (12 days, 13 in leap years)
- Ačádo Ramo
- Ačádo Duro
- Nétise (its third day is the northern autumn equinox)
- Ínedon Ramo
- Ínedon Duro
- Dérecótunšílenen (its eighth day is the northern winter solstice)
Calémerian countries have, today, two main official timekeeping systems in use: Western time (sóta renóču), used in most of the planet, and Chlouvānem time (sóta imúnigúronen) used in only four countries - the Chlouvānem Inquisition, Brono, Fathan, and Qualdomailor - together with about 20% of the planet's population. Other systems are in unofficial use in some areas, either for specific contexts (like liturgy in the Skyrdegan countries) or in remote, undeveloped areas following traditional cultures (especially in rural Fárásen and southern Védren).
The two main differences between them are that in Western time the calendar day begins at midnight, while in Chlouvānem time it begins in the early morning. Furthermore, they use two different time zone (and, prior to that, longitude) systems: Western time has its prime meridian passing through Mánébodin, the capital of Ceria, while the Chlouvānem prime meridian passes through Līlasuṃghāṇa, the Chlouvānem Inquisition's capital (143º35′11.6586″ E in the Western longitude system). Due to this difference, in overlapping time zones the Chlouvānem time is usually 18′08″ (in Calémerian time) behind the Western one; in the Western time zone system, for example, the time zone of Līlasuṃghāṇa is identified as CER+12:53′40″.
While every definition up to the day is calendar-dependent, hours and minutes are of standardized length throughout the whole world and are mainly based on duodecimal divisions. Here, base 10 notation is used; note however that the Chlouvānem language has a duodecimal number system and uses a base 12 notation. In the following explanations, the first term given is Cerian, the second is Chlouvānem.
A Calémerian hour (sémóra/garaṇa) is divided into 72 basic units (čóden/raila), each one of about 54.6805 seconds of Earth; one Calémerian hour is therefore roughly equivalent to 65′37″ on Earth. As one Calémerian day is made of 32 hours, its length in Earthly units is of about 35 hours, and the 418-days-long Calémerian year lasts about 609.6 days on Earth. The basic units (čódené/railai) are divided in 48 secondary units (neséno/namišoe), each one of about 1.8986 seconds of Earth. Their smaller divisions (not commonly used in daily life) are normal duodecimal ones (1/12, 1/144, 1/1728...).
Given Calémere's division in two very different "blocs" (even though there is a sizable Third Bloc of not quite aligned countries), the leaders of each bloc's respective most prominent countries may be said to be the most powerful people on the planet. Currently (2312/4E Ɛ1 (13310)), they are Pétéro Bafín, Prime Minister of Ceria, and Hæliyǣšāvi Dhṛṣṭāvāyah Lairė, Great Inquisitor of the Chlouvānem Inquisition.
Main political systems
Most Evandorian countries today have a political spectrum with three main actors, traditionally known as green, black, and blue parties - originally representing the rural world, the urban élite, and the working class; political realignment in most countries has seen "black" parties being mostly what we'd call center, "green" parties what we'd call right-wing, and "blue" parties the left wing - often far left, being blue the colour of Calémerian communism.
As an example of a typical scheme of the three major parties, here's the three main parties of Ceria:
- Cerian Party of Freedom (Socólio Čérízon re Bácífa, a black party), currently the majority - standing for free trade, globalization, economic liberalism; strong interventionism, favouring the Pan-Evandorian Economic Union; socially liberal, progressive, aiming at multiculturalism;
- Cerian National Union (Repotón Secéčoni Čérízon, a green party) - standing for free trade, economic liberalism; strong interventionism, strong opposition to the Chlouvānem-led Eastern Bloc; nationalist and conservative.
- Blue Ceria (Čéría Ríté, a blue party) - non-interventionist, pacifist, aiming at a market socialist economy with a high degree of state ownership, mostly protectionist and pro-autarky; progressive and socially liberal.
Cerian parties are among the most moderates in Evandor - greens and especially blue parties in other countries may be more extreme, as is the case in Nordûlik, with extremes such as the (third party, but not major) blue Auralian Communist Party, strongly pro-Chlouvānem and pro-Eastern Bloc, or the second-largest party of Helinetia, the green National Force, isolationist and socially strongly reactionary.
The Eastern Bloc
In a number of modern Calémerian countries, especially on Márusúturon, Communism (Cer.: orániontési; Chl.: yaivcārṇædani) is the official state ideology. Calémerian communist states are sometimes divided between those that follow "traditional Western communism" and those that follow "Yunyalīlti communism". The former are, by definition, atheist states that follow the theories of Western communist thinkers, while the latter follow a hybrid of Yunyalīlti religious interpretations applied to economics - while substantially similar in many aspects, there are various differences, especially on the social side; anyway, due to the fall of many Western-style communist states in the last two decades, Western-style communism and Yunyalīlti communism have come noticeably closer. It is also notable that most Yunyalīlti communist countries do not even have a sizable Yunyalīlti population, but Yunyalīlti communism does favour religious freedom rather than state atheism.
Yunyalīlti communism is widespread in the former Kaiṣamā: the countries of Fathan, Soenyŏ-tave, Kŭyŭgwažtov, Ebed-dowa, Enegen-toven, Nerekton, and Brydwezon-tavi are single-party states, but most countries of the area (including, amongst others, Qualdomailor, Brono, Leny-tḥewe, or Džemleštew) are multi-party democracies with strong Yunyalīlti communist influence throughout their society. Of all Yunyalīlti communist countries, only Brono, Fathan, and Qualdomailor have a majority Yunyalīlti population. The Chlouvānem Inquisition is not a Yunyalīlti communist state, being a theocratical Yunyalīlti state instead, even if many traits of Yunyalīlti communism are found in its society.
It is to be noted that not all communist states are part of the Eastern Bloc; in fact, some of the stricter remaining Western-style communist countries cite state atheism as a cardinal value and are therefore strongly opposed to the Inquisition.
This section may also be named "why Calémere has so many similarities with Earth". When I started my first attempts at proto-conworlding (which also slowly led me to conlanging), when I was 9 or 10, my early "conlands" were mainly areas on alternative Earths, or, increasingly commonly in the next years, just located on planets - not on coherent, unified conworlds, though - where apart from the one or few conlands I was focussing on there were many other, unspecified lands that were like Earth renamed. I never did any map for them nor did I sketch their languages; I just invented a few names and mapped almost 1:1 countries on Earth to these vaguely defined countries, so that if I had to name some characters I could just use names from the languages of the original countries. For example I remember having a large continent named "Puretàn" that was like America (sometimes I did even mention "Northern Puretàn" and "Southern Puretàn" as distinct entities, it's crystal clear its name survives in Púríton); I had nations like "Trinia" which was basically Spain, "Pulwaria" which was a renamed version of France, and so on.
When I, in 2014, started conlanging in a more serious way, I decided to join everything in a single conworld. While I did everything anew, I still kept more or less the same setting, with a main nation culturally and geographically opposite the "Western" sphere - basically the Chlouvānem Inquisition or whatever preceded it opposite Europe or renamed Europe in the previous settings, Evandor on Calémere.
This external history is basically why five continents of Calémere are geographically and often historically quite similar to others on Earth: Evandor to Europe, Márusúturon to Asia, Védren to Africa, Púríton to the Americas, and Queáten to Oceania. It is obviously not equal to Earth as there are spaces missing from them (like, where is South America gone? Or Central Asia? Siberia?) and their different dimensions as well as different "connecting spaces" have a huge impact on giving (or at least trying to give) Calémere that "it is familiar but it also isn't" atmosphere I personally try to aim at, but the West-East opposed relationships are just as alive as they were in my earlier proto-conworlding projects. As for Ceránento, Fárásen, and Ovítioná, honestly the real reason why I decided to add them was "I want/need land in the southern hemisphere", but I take the fact they exist as a stimulus to make me characterize them more; given that such a presence is not something that really has analogues on Earth, it's probably going to be the most difficult part of my conworlding... but I am surely not going just to take them away or leave them as uninteresting, only mentioned places: time will tell what I'll make of them.
- Conventional names are Íscégon, and the Cerian is given if they differ. Chlouvānem names are usually different as both cultures gave those lands the name of some of the first inhabitants they found, but they discovered different parts of the continents first (except for Ovítioná)
- After the Chlouvānem cities of Līlasuṃghāṇa, Ilėnimarta, and Līlta, and Mangarhazy in the eastern Védrenian country of Nuhengorj.
- The Skyrdegan countries themselves include most of this definition of the Eastern Bloc.